This study evaluates the cytotoxic and mutagenic effect of synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (source: School of Material and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the bone marrow cells of mice. Mice are exposed to synthetic hydroxyapatite granules, the bone marrow cells are collected and observed for chromosome aberrations. No chromosome aberrations were noticed in the animals exposed to distilled water (negative control) and to the test substance, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules (treatment) groups. Chromosome aberrations were observed in the animals exposed to Mitomycin C (positive control group). There was no indication of cytotoxicity due to synthetic hydroxyapatite granules in the animals as revealed by the mitotic index. Hence, synthetic hydroxyapatite granules are considered non-mutagenic under the prevailing test conditions.
Biomaterials intended for end-use application as bone-graft substitutes have to undergo safety evaluation. In this study, we investigated the in vitro cytotoxic effects especially to determine the mode of death of two hydroxyapatite compounds (HA2, HA3) which were synthesized locally. The methods used for cytotoxicity was the standard MTT assay whereas AO/PI staining was performed to determine the mode of cell death in HA treated L929 fibroblasts. Our results demonstrated that both HA2 and HA3 were not significantly cytotoxic as more than 75% cells after 72 hours treatment were viable. Furthermore, we found that the major mode of cell death in HA treated cells was apoptosis. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that these hydroxyapatite compounds are not cytotoxic where the mode of death was primarily via apoptosis.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of biomaterials; Hydroxyapatite (HA), Natural coral (NC) and Polyhydroxybutarate (PHB). Three different materials used in this study; HA (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2), NC (CaCO3) and PHB (Polymer) were locally produced by the groups of researcher from Universiti Sains Malaysia. The materials were separately extracted in the complete culture medium (100mg/ml) for 72h and introduced to the osteoblast cells CRL-1543. The viability of osteoblast CRL-1543 cultivated with these extraction materials after 72h incubation period was compared to negative control with neutral red assay by using spectrophotometer at 540nm. The results showed the non-cytotoxicity of the materials. After 72h of incubation period, HA showed 123% viable cells, NC was 99.43% and PHB was 176.75%. In this study, cytotoxicity test dealt mainly with the substances that leached out from the biomaterial. The results obtained showed that the materials were not toxic and also promoted cells growth in the sense of biofunctionality.
Hydroxyapatite is the main component of the bone which is a potential biomaterial substance that can be applied in orthopaedics. In this study, the biocompatibility of this biomaterial was assessed using an in vitro technique. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effect of HA2 and HA3 against L929 fibroblast cell was evaluated using the MTT Assay and Alkaline Comet Assay respectively. Both HA2 and HA3 compound showed low cytotoxicity effect as determined using MTT Assay. Cells viability following 72 hours incubation at maximum concentration of both HA2 and HA3 (200 mg/ml) were 75.3 +/- 8.8% and 86.7 +/- 13.1% respectively. However, the cytotoxicity effect of ZnSO4.7H2O as a positive control showed an IC50 values of 46 mg/ml (160 microM). On the other hand, both HA2 and HA3 compound showed a slight genotoxicity effect as determined using the Alkaline Comet Assay following incubation at the concentration 200 mg/ml for 72 hours. This assay has been widely used in genetic toxicology to detect DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile site. The percentage of the cells with DNA damage for both substance was 27.7 +/- 1.3% and 15.6 +/- 1.0% for HA2 and HA3 respectively. Incubation of the cells for 24 hours with 38 microg/ml (IC25) of positive control showed an increase in percentage of cells with DNA damage (67.5 +/- 0.7%). In conclusion, our study indicated that both hydroxyapatite compounds showed a good biocompatibility in fibroblast cells.
The present study is aimed at finding the mutagenicity and cytotoxicity of dense form of synthetic hydroxyapatite (Source: School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia) in the blood of sheep. The biomaterial was implanted in the tibia of Malin, an indigenous sheep breed of Malaysia. Blood was collected from the sheep before implantation of the biomaterial, cultured and a karyological study was made. Six weeks after implantation, blood was collected from the same animal, cultured and screened for chromosome aberrations. The mitotic indices and karyological analysis indicated that the implantation of synthetic hydroxyapatite (dense form) did not produce any cytotoxicity or chromosome aberrations in the blood of sheep.
The present in vitro evaluation indicated that the value added hydroxyapatite (HA) was more toxic than pure HA but the toxicity of value added HA was slight compared to the positive control. In this testing, the conclusion can be made that value added HA is less biocompatible than commercialized pure HA. This toxicity may be caused by both the particle size and degradation (leaching). Further studies should be carried out to determine whether there is particle size effect or leaching effect when using powder as compared to the block materials. The in vivo evaluation should be done to assess the reaction to this value added HA as compared to the pure HA.
Mutagenicity of CORAGRAF (natural coral) and REKAGRAF (hydroxyapatite) was tested in Ames test with and without an external metabolic activation system (S9). The test revealed no mutagenic activity of both locally produced osseous substitutes.
Recently, a modified form of a three-dimension (3D) porous poly(caprolactone-trifumarate) (PCLTF) scaffold has been produced using a fabrication technique that involves gelatin microparticles porogen leaching. This poly(caprolactone trifumarate-gelatin microparticles) (PCLTF-GMPs) scaffold has been shown to be biocompatible, more flowable clinically, and has a shorter degradation time as compared to its existing predecessors. In this report, a detailed characterization of this new scaffold was performed by testing its cytocompatibility, analyzing the surface topography, and understanding its thermal, physical and mechanical properties. The result showed that the PCLTF-GMPs has no critical cytotoxic effect. To confirm improvement, the surface properties were compared against the older version of PCLTF fabricated using salt porogen leaching. This PCLTF-GMPs scaffold showed no significant difference (unpaired t-test; p>0.05) in mechanical properties before and after gelatin leaching. However, it is mechanically weaker when compared to its predecessors. It has a high biodegradability rate of 16weeks. The pore size produced ranges from 40 to 300μm, and the RMS roughness is 613.7±236.9nm. These characteristics are condusive for osteoblast in-growth, as observed by the extension of filopodia across the macropores. Overall, this newly produced material has good thermal, physical and mechanical properties that complements its biocompatibility and ease of use.
Essential oils play an important role in reducing the pain and inflammation caused by bone fracture.In this study, a scaffold was electrospun based on polyurethane (PU), grape seed oil, honey and propolis for bone tissue-engineering applications. The fiber diameter of the electrospun PU/grape seed oil scaffold and PU/grape seed oil/honey/propolis scaffold were observed to be reduced compared to the pristine PU control. FTIR analysis revealed the existence of grape seed oil, honey and propolis in PU identified by CH band peak shift and also hydrogen bond formation. The contact angle of PU/grape seed oil scaffold was found to increase owing to hydrophobic nature and the contact angle for the PU/grape seed/honey oil/propolis scaffold were decreased because of hydrophilic nature. Further, the prepared PU/grape seed oil and PU/grape seed oil/honey/propolis scaffold showed enhanced thermal stability and reduction in surface roughness than the control as revealed in thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis. Further, the developed nanocomposite scaffold displayed delayed blood clotting time than the pristine PU in the activated prothrombin time (APTT) and partial thromboplastin time (PT) assay. The hemolytic assay and cytocompatibility studies revealed that the electrospun PU/grape seed oil and PU/grape seed oil/honey/propolis scaffold possess non-toxic behaviour to red blood cells (RBC) and human fibroblast cells (HDF) cells indicating better blood compatibility and cell viability rates. Hence, the newly developed electrospun nanofibrous composite scaffold with desirable characteristics might be used as an alternative candidate for bone tissue engineering applications.