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  1. Bonfield W
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:1.
    PMID: 15468788
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/surgery*
  2. Noordin MY, Jiawkok N, Ndaruhadi PY, Kurniawan D
    Proc Inst Mech Eng H, 2015 Nov;229(11):761-8.
    PMID: 26399875 DOI: 10.1177/0954411915606169
    There are millions of orthopedic surgeries and dental implantation procedures performed every year globally. Most of them involve machining of bones and cartilage. However, theoretical and analytical study on bone machining is lagging behind its practice and implementation. This study views bone machining as a machining process with bovine bone as the workpiece material. Turning process which makes the basis of the actually used drilling process was experimented. The focus is on evaluating the effects of three machining parameters, that is, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut, to machining responses, that is, cutting forces and surface roughness resulted by the turning process. Response surface methodology was used to quantify the relation between the machining parameters and the machining responses. The turning process was done at various cutting speeds (29-156 m/min), depths of cut (0.03 -0.37 mm), and feeds (0.023-0.11 mm/rev). Empirical models of the resulted cutting force and surface roughness as the functions of cutting speed, depth of cut, and feed were developed. Observation using the developed empirical models found that within the range of machining parameters evaluated, the most influential machining parameter to the cutting force is depth of cut, followed by feed and cutting speed. The lowest cutting force was obtained at the lowest cutting speed, lowest depth of cut, and highest feed setting. For surface roughness, feed is the most significant machining condition, followed by cutting speed, and with depth of cut showed no effect. The finest surface finish was obtained at the lowest cutting speed and feed setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/surgery*
  3. Akhbar MFA, Sulong AW
    Ann Biomed Eng, 2021 Jan;49(1):29-56.
    PMID: 32860111 DOI: 10.1007/s10439-020-02600-2
    As drilling generates substantial bone thermomechanical damage due to inappropriate cutting tool selection, researchers have proposed various approaches to mitigate this problem. Among these, improving the drill bit design is one of the most feasible and economical solutions. The theory and applications in drill design have been progressing, and research has been published in various fields. However, pieces of information on drill design are dispersed, and no comprehensive review paper focusing on this topic. Systemizing this information is crucial and, therefore, the impetus of this review. Here, we review not only the state-of-the-art in drill bit designs-advances in surgical drill bit design-but also the influences of each drill bit geometries on bone damage. Also, this work provides future directions for this topic and guidelines for designing an improved surgical drill bit. The information in this paper would be useful as a one-stop document for clinicians, engineers, and researchers who require information related to the tool design in bone drilling surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/surgery*
  4. Singh VA, Nagalingam J, Saad M, Pailoor J
    Biomed Eng Online, 2010;9:48.
    PMID: 20831801 DOI: 10.1186/1475-925X-9-48
    Sterilization and re-usage of tumour bone for reconstruction after tumour resection is now gaining popularity in the East. This recycle tumour bone needs to be sterilized in order to eradicate the tumour cells before re-implantation for limb salvage procedures. The effect of some of these treatments on the integrity and sterility of the bone after treatment has been published but there has yet been a direct comparison between the various methods of sterilization to determine the one method that gives the best tumour kill without compromising the bone's structural integrity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/surgery*
  5. Khadijah K, Mashita M, Saidu MF, Fazilah F, Khalid KA
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:123-4.
    PMID: 15468849
    This study is to qualitatively evaluate a locally produced hydroxyapatite (HA), made by AMREC-SIRIM in an experimental animal bone defect using New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. HA cylindrical blocks measuring 2.5 mm (D) x 1.0 mm (H) were implanted in the rabbits' left tibia. The tibias were harvested within one to three weeks post-implantation. The implantion site was cut into thin undecalcified sections of about 30 microm to 60 microm and stained with Toluidine Blue and Goldner's Masson Trichrome. Microscopic examinations using standard light microscopy of these slides were performed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/surgery*
  6. Al-Obaidi MM, Al-Bayaty FH, Al Batran R, Ibrahim OE, Daher AM
    Curr Pharm Des, 2016;22(16):2403-10.
    PMID: 27139374
    OBJECTIVES: -To examine the effect of nicotine (Ni) on bone socket healing treated with Ellagic acid (EA) after tooth extraction in rat.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-Two Sprague Dawley (SD) male rats were divided into four groups. The group 1 was administrated with distilled water intragastrically and injected sterile saline subcutaneously. The group 2 was administrated with EA orally and injected with sterile saline subcutaneously. The groups 3 & 4 were subcutaneously exposed to Ni for 4 weeks twice daily before tooth extraction procedure, and maintained Ni injection until the animals were sacrificed. After one month Ni exposure, the group 4 was fed with EA while continuing Ni injection. All the groups were anesthetized, and the upper left incisor was extracted. Four rats from each group were sacrificed on 14(th) and 28(th) days. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were applied to assess in serum rat at 14th and 28(th) days. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBRAS) levels were assessed to evaluate the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation accordingly after tooth extraction in homogenized gingival maxilla tissue of rat at 14(th) and 28(th) days. The socket hard tissue was stained by eosin and hematoxylin (H&E); immunohistochemical technique was used to assess the healing process by Osteocalcin (OCN) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) biomarkers.

    RESULTS: Ni-induced rats administered with EA compound (Group 4) dropped the elevated concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines significantly when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). Ni-induced rats administrated with EA compound (Group 4) showed significant production of SOD and recession in TBRAS level when compared to Ni-induced rats (Group 3) (p<0.05). The immunohistochemistry analysis has revealed that OCN and ALP have presented stronger expression in Ni-induced rats treated with EA (Group 4), as against Ni-induced rats (Group 3).

    CONCLUSION: We have concluded that, Ni-induced rats, treated with EA have exerted positive effect on the trabecular bone formation after tooth extraction in nicotinic rats could be due to the antioxidant activity of EA which lead to upregulate of OCN and ALP proteins which are responsible for osteogenesis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/surgery
  7. Mahmood SK, Razak IA, Ghaji MS, Yusof LM, Mahmood ZK, Rameli MABP, et al.
    Int J Nanomedicine, 2017;12:8587-8598.
    PMID: 29238193 DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S145663
    The healing of load-bearing segmental defects in long bones is a challenge due to the complex nature of the weight that affects the bone part and due to bending, shearing, axial, and torsional forces. An innovative porous 3D scaffolds implant of CaCO3aragonite nanocomposite derived from cockle shell was advanced for substitute bone solely for load-bearing cases. The biomechanical characteristics of such materials were designed to withstand cortical bone strength. In promoting bone growth to the implant material, an ideal surface permeability was formed by means of freeze drying and by adding copolymers to the materials. The properties of coating and copolymers supplement were also assessed for bone-implant connection resolutions. To examine the properties of the material in advanced biological system, an experimental trial in an animal model was carried out. Critical sized defect of bone was created in rabbit's radial bone to assess the material for a load-bearing application with a short and extended period assessment with histological evaluation of the incorporated implanted material to the bone of the host. Trials in animal models proved that the material has the capability of enduring load-bearing conditions for long-term use devoid of breaking or generating stress that affects the host bone. Histological examination further confirmed the improved integration of the implanted materials to the host bone with profound bone development into and also above the implanted scaffold, which was attained with negligible reaction of the tissues to a foreign implanted material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/surgery
  8. Hollister SJ, Lin CY, Lin CY, Schek RD, Taboas JM, Flanagan CL, et al.
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:131-2.
    PMID: 15468853
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/surgery
  9. Kokubo T
    Med J Malaysia, 2004 May;59 Suppl B:91-2.
    PMID: 15468833
    Metallic materials implanted into bone defects are generally encapsulated by a fibrous tissue. Some metallic materials such as titanium and tantalum, however, have been revealed to bond to the living bone without forming the fibrous tissue, when they were subjected to NaOH solution and heat treatments. Thus treated metals form bone tissue around them even in muscle, when they take a porous form. This kind of osteoconductive and osteoinductive properties are attributed to sodium titanate or tantalate layer on their surfaces formed by the NaOH and heat treatments. These layers induce the deposition of bonelike apatite on the surface of the metals in the living body. This kind of bioactive metals are useful as bone substitutes even highly loaded portions, such as hip joint, spine and tooth root.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/surgery*
  10. Fong TS, Kim SC, Kim JE, Lee ES, Kim TW, Lee YS
    J Arthroplasty, 2019 09;34(9):1929-1937.
    PMID: 31138501 DOI: 10.1016/j.arth.2019.04.061
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing the morphometry of resected femurs in Korean patients during total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and comparing these measurements with current Western-designed femoral component dimensions.

    METHODS: This single-blind, prospective, randomized, controlled trial involved intraoperative measurements for 271 femoral component implantations from 3 contemporary TKA systems, with 2 systems offering narrow sizing options. The difference between femoral component dimensions and the resected surface of distal femur was measured in millimeters at 5 distinct zones.

    RESULTS: Overhang of standard femoral component was common in the anterior-medial condyle and anterior-lateral condyle ranging from 50.8% to 99.0% and 21.5% to 88.0%, respectively. With narrow femoral components, the rate of overhang reduced to 21.5%-30.2% and 9.2%-32.1%. Conversely, underhang rates were higher over the anterior flange width, middle medial-lateral and posterior medial-lateral zones. Standard components displayed higher underhang rates at these zones compared to narrow components. The good fit rate for femoral component was low among the 3 systems ranging from 1.0% to 56.0%. System with narrow option sizing increases the underhang rates in males, while improving the component fit among females at similar zones with rate ranging from 5.2% to 52.9%.

    CONCLUSION: Currently available TKA implant designs may not provide a perfect match for the distal femoral shape of the Korean population. The availability of implants with standard and narrow options can substantially improve the optimal fitting of femoral components in the Korean population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bone and Bones/surgery
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