Primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the brain is rare. Majority of the lesions are intraaxial, multicentric and involve the leptomeninges. We report a case of malignant primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arising from the cranial vault. Computed tomography of the brain showed an extraaxial lesion in the right parietal region mimicking a meningioma.
Glioma is the commonest primary intracranial tumour and it has been the most predominant tumour in many studies. It accounts for 24.7% of all primary brain tumour and 74.6% of malignant brain tumour. Intraoperative diagnosis plays a crucial role in determining the patient management. Frozen section has been the established technique in providing rapid and accurate intraoperative diagnosis. However due to some disadvantages like ice crystal artefact, high expenditure and requirement of skilled technician, there is increase usage of cytology smear either replacing or supplementing frozen section technique. The aim of this review is to determine the diagnostic accuracy of cytology smear and frozen section in glioma and to see whether there is significant difference between those techniques. The overall diagnostic accuracy for frozen section in glioma ranging from 78.4% to 95% while for cytology smear, the diagnostic accuracy ranging from 50% to 100%. Based on certain literatures, no statistically difference was observed in diagnostic accuracy of cytology smear and frozen section. Thus, cytology smear provides an alternative method in establishing intraoperative diagnosis. Both cytology smear and frozen section are complimentary to each other. It is recommended to use both techniques to improve the diagnostic accuracy in addition with adequate knowledge, clinical history, neuroimaging and intraoperative findings.
Rhabdoid tumour is a rare childhood tumour with poor prognosis. We report a 13-month-old Malay girl suffering from this tumour that was located at the left fronto-temporo-parietal region of the brain. Computed tomography showed a large irregular enhancing mass that caused obstructive hydrocephalus. The tumour did not reduce in size after three operations and finally the patient succumbed to the disease four months after diagnosis.
A case of germinoma originating in the basal ganglia and thalamus is presented. This tumour most commonly originates during childhood and adolescence, at pineal and suprasellar regions. In the early stages, the diagnosis of germinoma in the basal ganglion and thalamus is difficult because of its rarity and non-specific findings. The computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings though non-diagnostic, are discussed here. A few differential diagnoses had been discussed with radiological abnormality. Open biopsy done in this case proved to be two-cell pattern germinoma. Early detection of the tumour is desirable, since this tumour is highly sensitive to radio and chemotherapy and is potentially curable. Our patient was treated with combined chemotherapy and the response was well and no residual tumour or recurrence was seen on the repeated imaging modality, however his neurological deficits remained unchanged.
The aim of this study was to determine the factors for the large size of intracranial meningiomas at the time of presentation to the Sarawak General Hospital. The data was collected prospectively from 1/3/2000 to 28/2/2001. During this period a total of 57 cases of intracranial tumours were operated upon. Twenty of these cases (35%) were meningioma, making meningioma the most common intracranial tumour operated in the Neurosurgery service here with one to two cases operated per month. Headache was the most common symptom. The average duration of symptoms before the diagnosis was made was twenty-five months, the longest being fifteen years. The patients needed an average of seven visits prior to the diagnosis.
Pediatric brain tumor survivors (PBTS) suffer from cognitive late effects, such as deteriorating executive functioning (EF). We explored the suitability of the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) to screen for these late effects. We assessed the relationship between the BRIEF and EF tasks, and between the BRIEF-Parent and BRIEF-Teacher, and we explored the clinical utility. Eighty-two PBTS (8-18 years) were assessed with EF tasks measuring attention, cognitive flexibility, inhibition, visual-, and working memory (WM), and with the BRIEF-Parent and BRIEF-Teacher. Pearson's correlations between the BRIEF and EF tasks, and between the BRIEF-Parent and BRIEF-Teacher were calculated. The BRIEF-Parent related poorly to EF tasks (rs < .26, ps > .01), but of the BRIEF-Teacher the WM-scale, Monitor-scale, Behavioral-Regulation-Index, and Meta-cognition-Index, and Total-score (rs > .31, ps < .01) related significantly to some EF tasks. When controlling for age, only the WM scale and Total score related significantly to the attention task (ps < .01). The inhibit scales of the BRIEF-Parent and BRIEF-Teacher correlated significantly (r = .33, p < .01). Children with clinically elevated scores on BRIEF scales that correlated with EF tasks performed worse on all EF tasks (ds 0.56-1.23, ps < .05). The BRIEF-Teacher Total and Index scores might better screen general EF in PBTS than the BRIEF-Parent. However, the BRIEF-Teacher is also not specific enough to capture separate EFs. Solely relying on the BRIEF as a screening measure of EFs in BPTS is insufficient. Questionnaires and tasks give distinctive, valuable information.
We report a case of an adult who presented with progressive swelling in the right eye with suggestive of intracranial lesion on imaging. Histopathological revealed a lacrimal gland malignant mixed tumour.
We present a computer aided diagnostic workflow focusing on two diagnostic branch points in neuropathology (intraoperative consultation and p53 status in tumor biopsy specimens) by means of texture analysis via discrete wavelet frames decomposition. For intraoperative consultation, our methodology is capable of classifying glioblastoma versus metastatic cancer by extracting textural features from the non-nuclei region of cytologic preparations based on the imaging characteristics of glial processes, which appear as anisotropic thin linear structures. For metastasis, these are homogeneous in appearance, thus suitable and extractable texture features distinguish the two tissue types. Experiments on 53 images (29 glioblastomas and 24 metastases) resulted in average accuracy as high as 89.7 % for glioblastoma, 87.5 % for metastasis and 88.7 % overall. For p53 interpretation, we detect and classify p53 status by classifying staining intensity into strong, moderate, weak and negative sub-classes. We achieved this by developing a novel adaptive thresholding for detection, a two-step rule based on weighted color and intensity for the classification of positively and negatively stained nuclei, followed by texture classification to classify the positively stained nuclei into the strong, moderate and weak intensity sub-classes. Our detection method is able to correctly locate and distinguish the four types of cells, at 85 % average precision and 88 % average sensitivity rate. These classification methods on the other hand recorded 81 % accuracy in classifying the positive and negative cells, and 60 % accuracy in further classifying the positive cells into the three intensity groups, which is comparable with neuropathologists' markings.
Primary germinomas of the central nervous system carry a good prognosis because of their radiosensitivity. Recurrences are rare and extraneural metastases are even more unusual. One of the possible routes of extraneural spread is via ventriculo-peritoneal shunts which may be required to reduce intracranial pressure. One such case of germinoma metastasizing via a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt is reported. Patients with intracranial germinomas and ventriculo-peritoneal shunts should have close surveillance of their abdomens and may require systemic chemotherapy.
The pattern of allelic loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and PTEN mutations appear to be associated with the progression of gliomas leading to a decrement in the survival rate of patients. This present study was carried out to determine the LOH and PTEN mutational status in glioma patients and its association with patients' survival.
We report a 33-year-old Chinese gentleman who presented with visual epilepsy and symptoms of raised intracranial pressure in which clinical examination revealed normal visual fields and acuity despite Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) brain showing large contrast enhancing mass at the right occipital lobe. Craniotomy and excision of tumour was done and the histology confirmed glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). He completed radiotherapy and recovered well except developing left inferior homonymous quadrantropia post operatively which improved with time.
Extramedullary plasmacytoma is a rare malignant plasma cell tumour. We report an extremely aggressive case of extramedullary plasmacytoma of the right maxillary sinus, which had metastasised to the brain and rib. A 56-year-old man presented with recurrent epistaxis and acute anaemia. Nasendoscopy revealed a medialised medial wall of the right maxilla and a mass occupying the whole nasopharynx. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right maxillary tumour with extension to the ipsilateral nasal cavity, nasopharynx, right sphenoid and ethmoidal sinuses. There was an extra-axial brain metastasis. There were metastases to the right parietal region and left eighth rib. Histopathology examination of the maxillary mass revealed abundant plasma cells with kappa-chain restriction. He was planned for four cycles of chemotherapy. Unfortunately, in view of the advanced stage of disease, he succumbed to his disease during the first cycle of chemotherapy.
Alteration of the tumor suppressor gene p53 is considered to be a critical step in the development of human cancer. Changes in this gene have been detected in a wide range of human tumours, including gliomas. In glioma, the presence of p53 gene alterations has been associated with worse prognosis.