Some filarial nematodes, such as Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, and Brugia timori, cause lymphatic diseases in humans in the tropics, whereas other filarial parasites from wild animals cause zoonotic diseases in humans worldwide. To elucidate the prevalence and diversity of filarial parasites in Malaysia, we investigated the filarial parasites from wild animals in Gemas, Negeri Sembilan. To find adult filarial parasites, we dissected 26 animals, which included five frogs, one skink, one snake, two birds, six common treeshrews, and 11 rats. Then, we examined microfilariae in the blood smears and skin snips obtained from each animal. We found two types of microfilariae in the blood smears of common treeshrews: one was very similar to Malayfilaria sofiani and the other closely resembled Brugia tupaiae. These findings indicate an additional distribution of these filarial parasites in Gemas.
This study describes the properties of colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with sizes of 20, 30 and 40 nm, which were synthesized using citrate reduction or seeding-growth methods. Likewise, the conjugation of these AuNPs to mouse anti-human IgG(4) (MαHIgG(4)) was evaluated for an immunochromatographic (ICG) strip test to detect brugian filariasis. The morphology of the AuNPs was studied based on the degree of ellipticity (G) of the transmission electron microscopy images. The AuNPs produced using the seeding-growth method showed lower ellipticity (G ≤ 1.11) as compared with the AuNPs synthesized using the citrate reduction method (G ≤ 1.18). Zetasizer analysis showed that the AuNPs that were synthesized using the seeding-growth method were almost monodispersed with a lower polydispersity index (PDI; PDI≤0.079), as compared with the AuNPs synthesized using the citrate reduction method (PDI≤0.177). UV-visible spectroscopic analysis showed a red-shift of the absorbance spectra after the reaction with MαHIgG(4), which indicated that the AuNPs were successfully conjugated. The optimum concentration of the BmR1 recombinant antigen that was immobilized on the surface of the ICG strip on the test line was 1.0 mg ml(-1). When used with the ICG test strip assay and brugian filariasis serum samples, the conjugated AuNPs-MαHIgG(4) synthesized using the seeding-growth method had faster detection times, as compared with the AuNPs synthesized using the citrate reduction method. The 30 nm AuNPs-MαHIgG(4), with an optical density of 4 from the seeding-growth method, demonstrated the best performance for labelling ICG strips because it displayed the best sensitivity and the highest specificity when tested with serum samples from brugian filariasis patients and controls.
A total of 82 persons have been found to be positive for microfilaria a sub-periodic Brugia malayi out of 1,613 examined in seven villages in Serian District. This represents an average microfilaria infection rate of 5.1% with a range of zero to 10.7%. It is found that males are more predominantly affected than females with a ratio of 3:1. It is also confirmed that Mansonia dives and M. bonneae are possible vectors for the transmission of the disease although Anopheles species cannot be ruled out owing to the small number of specimens examined. The study is confined to areas where indoor DDT spraying has been done since 1960 and only in two of the areas it has been terminated in 1966. Yet to be published data shows higher filaria infection rate than any of these villages.
Brugia malayi infection is endemic in several Asian countries. Filaria-specific IgG4 antibody detection based on BmR1 recombinant antigen has been shown to be sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of brugian filariasis. Two formats of the test has been reported ie indirect ELISA (BE) and rapid dipstick test (BR). Since different test formats use different amounts of sample and reagents which may affect its sensitivity and specificity, this study was performed to compare these two test formats in the detection of B. malayi. A total of 264 blinded serum samples from India and Malaysia were employed. Group 1 comprised 164 samples from actively infected individuals and group 2 comprised 100 samples from filaria non-endemic areas. Sensitivity was 96.3% (158/164) and 90.8% (149/164) for rapid test and ELISA respectively; chi-square p=0.00. Both test formats demonstrated 100% specificity. Therefore the rapid test format was equally specific but more sensitive than the ELISA format. The ELISA format would be able to demonstrate decline in IgG4 titer post-treatment while the rapid test would be very useful for screening and diagnosis in the field.
R. sabanus and R. muelleri are very common in the lowland forests of Malaysia. In nature they are infected with Breinlia sp. and D. ramachandrani. In an attempt to determine whether they are also susceptible to subperiodic B. malayi and thereby being potential reservoirs of infection of the disease, 24 R. muelleri and 17 R. sabanus were experimentally infected with the parasite. Results show that although they can support the full development of the parasite, they are poor hosts. This confirms the observation that in Malaysia natural infection of Rattus spp. with the parasite has not been seen. These rats therefore are probably not important in the zoonotic transmission of subperiodic B. malayi in Malaysia.
Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis in Indonesia but in some endemic areas, B malayi is more commonly found. Diagnosis of filariasis is normally based on clinical, parasitological and immunological examinations but those methods have limitations. The discovery of monoclonal antibodies is expected to provide a new dimension to the efforts in the development of specific and sensitive immunological tests for the various stages of filariasis infection. This preliminary report, using monoclonal antibodies and dot-blot assay in human lymphatic filariasis showed that 75% of sera from microfilaremic patients with clinical signs, 40% of sera from amicrofilaraemic patients with clinical signs, 88.8% of sera from microfilaremic patients without clinical signs and 19.6% of sera from amicrofilaremic patients without clinical signs have circulating antigens.
The lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia timori occurs only in eastern Indonesia where it causes high morbidity. The absence of an animal reservoir, the inefficient transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes and the high sensitivity to DEC/albendazole treatment make this species a prime candidate for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA).
A control programme against subperiodic brugian filariasis was implemented in three villages, (Kg. Ampungan, Kg. Sebangkoi and Kg. Sebamban) in Sarawak, Malaysia. In Kampong Ampungan, the mass administration of diethylcarbamazine (DEC-citrate) combined with residual house spraying of pirimiphos-methyl reduced microfilarial rate to 8% of the pre-treatment level and microfilarial density (MfD50) to 44% of the pre-treatment level over a period of four years. In Kampong Sebangkoi and Kampong Sebamban, where only mass DEC therapy was applied, the microfilarial rate and MfD50 declined distinctly in the second blood survey but increased gradually in two subsequent follow-up blood surveys. In Kg, Ampungan, we observed a significant reduction of infective biting rate (88.3%), infection rate (62.5%) and transmission potential (88.1%) of Mansonia bonneae at the fourth spray round. The corresponding reduction rates in Kg. Sebangkoi and Kg. Sebamban were 35.3%, 26.7%, 42.2% and 24%, 30.8% and 15.4% respectively. The biting density of the vector was reduced by 79.8% indoors and 31.8% outdoors at the sprayed village, while only a slight decrease in densities (17.9% indoors and 12.4% outdoors) was observed at the unsprayed village. Bioassay tests revealed that pirimiphos-methyl had a substantial fumigant effect on the vector. The integrated control measure in controlling subperiodic brugian filariasis is discussed.