Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. have gained increasing significance as opportunistic pathogens in hospitalized patients. Carbapenem resistance is often associated with the loss and/or decrease in outer membrane proteins (OMP) and overexpression of multidrug efflux systems. However, carbapenem-hydrolysing beta-lactamases of Ambler Class B (metallo-enzymes) and Ambler Class D (oxacillinases) have also been detected in Acinetobacter spp. In this study we have investigated the role of the iron regulated outer membrane protein (IROMPs) and the loss of a 29-kDa OMP in carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.
We have isolated and identified a carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from Malaysia that produces an IMP-7 metallo-beta-lactamase. This isolate showed high-level resistance to meropenem and imipenem, the MICs of which were 256 and 128 micro g/ml, respectively. Isoelectric focusing analyses revealed pI values of >9.0, 8.2, and 7.8, which indicated the possible presence of IMP and OXA. DNA sequencing confirmed the identity of the IMP-7 determinant.
Plasmids of incompatibility group A/C (IncA/C) are becoming increasingly prevalent within pathogenic Enterobacteriaceae They are associated with the dissemination of multiple clinically relevant resistance genes, including blaCMY and blaNDM Current typing methods for IncA/C plasmids offer limited resolution. In this study, we present the complete sequence of a blaNDM-1-positive IncA/C plasmid, pMS6198A, isolated from a multidrug-resistant uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain. Hypersaturated transposon mutagenesis, coupled with transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS), was employed to identify conserved genetic elements required for replication and maintenance of pMS6198A. Our analysis of TraDIS data identified roles for the replicon, including repA, a toxin-antitoxin system; two putative partitioning genes, parAB; and a putative gene, 053 Construction of mini-IncA/C plasmids and examination of their stability within E. coli confirmed that the region encompassing 053 contributes to the stable maintenance of IncA/C plasmids. Subsequently, the four major maintenance genes (repA, parAB, and 053) were used to construct a new plasmid multilocus sequence typing (PMLST) scheme for IncA/C plasmids. Application of this scheme to a database of 82 IncA/C plasmids identified 11 unique sequence types (STs), with two dominant STs. The majority of blaNDM-positive plasmids examined (15/17; 88%) fall into ST1, suggesting acquisition and subsequent expansion of this blaNDM-containing plasmid lineage. The IncA/C PMLST scheme represents a standardized tool to identify, track, and analyze the dissemination of important IncA/C plasmid lineages, particularly in the context of epidemiological studies.
Background : Antibiotic resistance among Enterobacteriaceae posts a great challenge to the health care service. The emergence of carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is attracting significant attention due to its rapid and global dissemination. The infection is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, thus creating challenges for infection control and managing teams to curb the infection. In Southeast Asia, there have been limited reports and subsequent research regarding CRKP infections. Thus, the study was conducted to characterize CRKP that has been isolated in our setting. Methods : A total of 321 K. pneumoniae were included in the study. Each isolate went through an identification process using an automated identification system. Phenotypic characterization was determined using disk diffusion, modified Hodge test, Epsilometer test, and inhibitor combined disk test. Further detection of carbapenemase genes was carried out using polymerase chain reaction and confirmed by gene sequence analysis. Results : All together, 13 isolates (4.05%) were CRKP and the majority of them were resistant to tested antibiotics except colistin and tigercycline. Among seven different carbapenemase genes studied (blaKPC, bla IMP, bla SME, bla NDM, bla IMI, bla VIM, and bla OXA), only two, bla IMP4 (1.87%) and bla NDM1 (2.18%), were detected in our setting. Conclusion : Evidence suggests that the prevalence of CRKP in our setting is low, and knowledge of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae and CRKP has improved and become available among clinicians.
In this surveillance study, we identified the genotypes, carbapenem resistance determinants, and structural variations of AbaR-type resistance islands among carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) isolates from nine Asian locales. Clonal complex 92 (CC92), corresponding to global clone 2 (GC2), was the most prevalent in most Asian locales (83/108 isolates; 76.9%). CC108, or GC1, was a predominant clone in India. OXA-23 oxacillinase was detected in CRAB isolates from most Asian locales except Taiwan. blaOXA-24 was found in CRAB isolates from Taiwan. AbaR4-type resistance islands, which were divided into six subtypes, were identified in most CRAB isolates investigated. Five isolates from India, Malaysia, Singapore, and Hong Kong contained AbaR3-type resistance islands. Of these, three isolates harbored both AbaR3- and AbaR4-type resistance islands simultaneously. In this study, GC2 was revealed as a prevalent clone in most Asian locales, with the AbaR4-type resistance island predominant, with diverse variants. The significance of this study lies in identifying the spread of global clones of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii in Asia.
Acinetobacter baumannii is a major cause of nosocomial infection worldwide. We report the draft genome sequence of A. baumannii AC12, a multidrug-resistant nosocomial strain with additional resistance to carbapenems and polymyxin. The genome data will provide insights into the genetic basis of antimicrobial resistance and its adaptive mechanism.
The AdeABC pump of Acinetobacter spp. confers resistance to various antibiotic classes. This pump is composed of the AdeA, AdeB, and AdeC proteins where AdeB is a member of the resistance-nodulation-division efflux pump superfamily. The adeA, adeB, and adeC genes are contiguous and adjacent to adeS and adeR, which are transcribed in the opposite direction and which specify proteins homologous to sensors and regulators of two-component systems, respectively. In this study, an attempt is made to elucidate the role of the AdeABC efflux pump in carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections account for high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Increasing resistance toward β-lactams, especially carbapenems, poses a serious therapeutic challenge. However, the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of extended-spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing clinical P. aeruginosa has not been reported in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles, resistance genes, pulsotypes, and sequence types (STs) of clinical P. aeruginosa from a Malaysian tertiary hospital. These characteristics were analyzed by disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, polymerase chain reaction, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and MLST for 199 nonreplicate clinical strains. The susceptibility of the strains toward the carbapenems and piperacillin-tazobactam was the lowest (≤90%), while ≥90% of the strains remained susceptible to all other classes of antimicrobial agents tested. The multidrug-resistant strains displayed high level resistance to cephalosporins (48 to ≥256 mg/L) and carbapenems (4-32 mg/L). Eleven strains harbored class 1 integrons containing blaGES-13, blaVIM-2, blaVIM-6, blaOXA-10, aacA(6')-Ib, aacA(6')-II, aadA6, and gcuD gene cassettes. Extra-integron genes, blaGES-20, blaIMP-4, blaVIM-2, and blaVIM-11, were also found. Overall, the maximum likelihood tree showed concordance in the clustering of strains having the same STs and PFGE clusters. ST708 was the predominant antibiotic-susceptible clone detected from the neonatal intensive care unit. The STs 235, 809, and 1076 clonal clusters consisted of multidrug resistant strains. ST235 is a recognized international high-risk clone. This is the first report of blaGES-13 and blaGES-20 ESBL-encoding gene variants and novel STs (STs 2329, 2335, 2337, 2338, 2340, and 2341) of P. aeruginosa in Malaysia.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections have spread globally, leaving polymyxins, including colistin, as 'last-resort treatments'. Emerging colistin resistance raises the spectre of untreatable infections. Despite this threat, data remain limited for much of the world, including Southeast Asia where only 3 of 11 nations submitted data on carbapenem and colistin resistance for recent World Health Organization (WHO) reports. To improve our understanding of the challenge, we utilised broad strategies to search for and analyse data on carbapenem and colistin resistance among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella in Southeast Asia. We found 258 studies containing 526 unique reports and document carbapenem-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella in 8 and 9 of 11 nations, respectively. We estimated carbapenem resistance proportions through meta-analysis of extracted data for nations with ≥100 representative isolates. Estimated resistance among Klebsiella was high (>5%) in four nations (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam), moderate (1-5%) in two nations (Malaysia and Singapore) and low (<1%) in two nations (Cambodia and Brunei). For E. coli, resistance was generally lower but was high in two of seven nations with ≥100 isolates (Indonesia and Myanmar). The most common carbapenemases were NDM metallo-β-lactamases and OXA β-lactamases. Despite sparse data, polymyxin resistance was documented in 8 of 11 nations, with mcr-1 being the predominant genotype. Widespread presence of carbapenem and polymyxin resistance, including their overlap in eight nations, represents a continuing risk and increases the threat of infections resistant to both classes. These findings, and remaining data gaps, highlight the urgent need for sufficiently-resourced robust antimicrobial resistance surveillance.
Antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is a growing public health concern and an important pathogen in nosocomial infections. We investigated the genes involved in resistance to carbapenems and cephalosporins in clinical A. baumannii isolates from a tertiary medical centre in Malaysia. A. baumannii was isolated from 167 clinical specimens and identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The MIC for imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime and cefepime were determined by the E-test method. The presence of carbapenemase and cephalosporinase genes was investigated by PCR. The isolates were predominantly nonsusceptible to carbapenems and cephalosporins (>70 %) with high MIC values. ISAba1 was detected in all carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii harbouring the blaOXA-23-like gene. The presence of blaOXA-51-like and ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-51 was not associated with nonsusceptibility to carbapenems. A. baumannii isolates harbouring ISAba1-blaADC (85.8 %) were significantly associated with nonsusceptibility to cephalosporins (P<0.0001). However, ISAba1-blaADC was not detected in a minority (<10 %) of the isolates which were nonsusceptible to cephalosporins. The acquired OXA-23 enzymes were responsible for nonsusceptibility to carbapenems in our clinical A. baumannii isolates and warrant continuous surveillance to prevent further dissemination of this antibiotic resistance gene. The presence of ISAba1 upstream of the blaADC was a determinant for cephalosporin resistance. However, the absence of this ISAba1-blaADC in some of the isolates may suggest other resistance mechanisms and need further investigation.
The emergence of Escherichia coli resistant to extended-spectrum cephalosporins (ESCs) is of concern as ESC is often used to treat infections by Gram-negative bacteria. One-hundred and ten E. coli strains isolated in 2009-2010 from children warded in a Malaysian tertiary hospital were analyzed for their antibiograms, carriage of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC genes, possible inclusion of the beta-lactamase genes on an integron platform, and their genetic relatedness. All E. coli strains were sensitive to carbapenems. About 46% of strains were multidrug resistant (MDR; i.e., resistant to ≥3 antibiotic classes) and almost half (45%) were nonsusceptible to ESCs. Among the MDR strains, high resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (98%), tetracycline (75%), and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (73%). Out of 110 strains, bla(TEM-1) (49.1%), bla(CTX-M) (11.8%), and bla(CMY-2) (6.4%) were detected. Twenty-one strains were ESBL producers. CTX-M-15 was the predominant CTX-M variant found and this is the first report of a CTX-M-27-producing E. coli strain from Malaysia. Majority (3.1%) of the strains harbored class 1 integron-encoded integrases with a predominance of aadA and dfr genes within the integron variable region. No gene cassette encoding ESBL genes was found and integrons were not significantly associated with ESBL or non-ESBL producers. Possible clonal expansion was observed for few CTX-M-15-positive strains but the O25-ST131 E. coli clone known to harbor CTX-M-15 was not detected while CMY-2-positive strains were genetically diverse.
Doripenem has been recently introduced in Malaysia and is used for severe infections in the intensive care unit. However, limited data currently exist to guide optimal dosing in this scenario. We aimed to describe the population pharmacokinetics of doripenem in Malaysian critically ill patients with sepsis and use Monte Carlo dosing simulations to develop clinically relevant dosing guidelines for these patients. In this pharmacokinetic study, 12 critically ill adult patients with sepsis receiving 500 mg of doripenem every 8 h as a 1-hour infusion were enrolled. Serial blood samples were collected on 2 different days, and population pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using a nonlinear mixed-effects modeling approach. A two-compartment linear model with between-subject and between-occasion variability on clearance was adequate in describing the data. The typical volume of distribution and clearance of doripenem in this cohort were 0.47 liters/kg and 0.14 liters/kg/h, respectively. Doripenem clearance was significantly influenced by patients' creatinine clearance (CL(CR)), such that a 30-ml/min increase in the estimated CL(CR) would increase doripenem CL by 52%. Monte Carlo dosing simulations suggested that, for pathogens with a MIC of 8 mg/liter, a dose of 1,000 mg every 8 h as a 4-h infusion is optimal for patients with a CL(CR) of 30 to 100 ml/min, while a dose of 2,000 mg every 8 h as a 4-h infusion is best for patients manifesting a CL(CR) of >100 ml/min. Findings from this study suggest that, for doripenem usage in Malaysian critically ill patients, an alternative dosing approach may be meritorious, particularly when multidrug resistance pathogens are involved.
Multidrug-resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter baumannii has increasingly emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen. The aim of this study was to determine the resistance profiles and genetic diversity in A. baumannii clinical isolates in a tertiary medical center in Malaysia. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems (imipenem and meropenem), cephalosporins (ceftazidime and cefepime), and ciprofloxacin were determined by E-test. PCR and sequencing were carried out for the detection of antibiotic resistance genes and mutations. Clonal relatedness among A. baumannii isolates was determined by REP-PCR. Sequence-based typing of OXA-51 and multilocus sequence typing were performed. One hundred twenty-five of 162 (77.2%) A. baumannii isolates had MDR phenotype. From the 162 A. baumannii isolates, 20 strain types were identified and majority of A. baumannii isolates (66%, n = 107) were classified as strain type 1 and were positive for ISAba1-blaOXA-23and ISAba1-blaADCand had mutations in both gyrA and parC genes at positions, 83 and 80, resulting in serine-to-leucine conversion. REP-PCR analysis showed 129 REP types that generated 31 clones with a 90% similarity cutoff value. OXA-66 variant of the blaOXA-51-likegenes was predominantly detected among our A. baumannii clinical isolates belonging to ST195 (found in six clones: 1, 8, 9, 19, 27, and 30) and ST208 (found in clone 21). The study helps us in understanding the genetic diversity of A. baumannii isolates in our setting and confirms that international clone II is the most widely distributed clone in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Malaysia.
Background: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major opportunistic pathogen frequently associated with nosocomial infections, and often poses a major threat to immunocompromised patients. In our previous study, two K. pneumoniae (K36 and B13), which displayed resistance to almost all major antibiotics, including colistin, were isolated. Both isolates were not associated with infection and isolated from the stools of two preterm neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) during their first week of life. Materials and Methods: In this study, whole genome sequencing was performed on these two clinical multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae. We aimed to determine the genetic factors that underline the antibiotic-resistance phenotypes of these isolates. Results: The strains harbored blaSHV-27, blaSHV-71, and oqxAB genes conferring resistance to cephalosporins, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones, respectively, but not harboring any known plasmid-borne colistin resistance determinants such as mcr-1. However, genome analysis discovered interruption of mgrB gene by insertion sequences gaining insight into the development of colistin resistance. Conclusion: The observed finding that points to a scenario of potential gut-associated resistance genes to Gram negative (K. pneumoniae) host in the NICU environment warrants attention and further investigation.