Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 33 in total

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  1. Norsa'adah B, Nurhazalini-Zayani CG
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(11):6955-9.
    PMID: 24377632
    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is relatively high in Southeast Asia. Globally, HCC has a high fatality rate and short survival. The objectives of this retrospective cohort study were to review the epidemiology and survival of HCC patients at a tertiary centre in north-east of Peninsular Malaysia. Subjects were adult HCC patients diagnosed by histopathology or radio-imaging. Secondary liver carcinoma was excluded. Kaplan Meier and multiple Cox proportional hazard survival analyses were used. Only 210 HCC cases from years 1987-2008, were included in the final analysis. The number of cases was increasing annually. The mean age was 55.0 (SD 13.9) years with male:female ratio of 3.7:1. Approximately 57.6% had positive hepatitis B virus, 2.4% hepatitis C virus, 20% liver cirrhosis and 8.1% chronic liver disease. Only 2.9% had family history and 9.0% had frequently consumed alcohol. Most patients presented with abdominal pain or discomfort and had hepatomegaly, 47.9% had an elevated α-fetoprotein level of 800 IU/ml or more, 51.9% had multiple tumors and 44.8% involved multiple liver lobes. Approximately 63.3% were in stage 3 and 23.4% in stage 4, and 82.9% did not receive any treatment. The overall median survival time was 1.9 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.3). The 1-month, 6-month, 1-year and 2-year survival rates were 71.8%, 23.3%, 13.0% and 7.3% respectively. Significant prognostic factors were Malay ethnicity [Adjusted hazard ratio (AHR) 1.6; 95%CI: 1.0, 2.5; p=0.030], no chemotherapy [AHR 1.7; 95%CI: 1.1, 2.5; p=0.017] and Child-Pugh class C [AHR 2.6; 95%CI: 1.4, 4.9; p=0.002]. HCC in our study affected a wide age range, mostly male, in advanced stage of disease, with no treatment and very low survival rates. Primary prevention should be advocated in view of late presentation and difficulty of treatment. Vaccination of hepatitis virus and avoidance of liver toxins are to be encouraged.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  2. Koh PS, Yusof MM, Yoong BK, Rajadurai P
    J Gastrointest Cancer, 2014 Dec;45 Suppl 1:74-6.
    PMID: 24045908 DOI: 10.1007/s12029-013-9549-8
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  3. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Nazarina AR, Mun KS, Goh KL
    Malays J Pathol, 2008 Dec;30(2):103-7.
    PMID: 19291919 MyJurnal
    Transaminase enzymes, alanine (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), have been reported to be raised and implicated to have prognostic value in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Ki67, a marker of cellular proliferative activity, has also been noted to be increased in HCC. A study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur to determine the possible association of proliferative activity, as determined by Ki67, with the transaminase enzymes. 31 cases of histologically diagnosed HCC who underwent tumour resection were retrieved from departmental archives. The patients' ages ranged between 40 to 79 years with a mean of 58.3 years. There was a male preponderance with M:F = 2.9:1. Ethnic Chinese formed 83.9% of the cases. 4 microm sections, cut from the formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumour tissue block of each case, were immunohistochemically stained with Ki67 (DAKO monoclonal MIB-1) using the commercial DakoCytomation EnVision+System-HRP kit. The latest ALT and AST levels, assayed within 7 days prior to tumour resection, were retrieved from the patients' case records. 24 (77.4%) HCC demonstrated elevation of either ALT and/or AST. 27 (87.1%) HCC were immunopositive for Ki67. Ki67 immunoexpression was significantly correlated with raised transaminases (p<0.05). Hypothetically, the mechanism by which this phenomenon may occur may simply be release of transaminases due to destruction of hepatocytes by the cancer. Thus rising levels of the transaminases could signal a more rapid growth of the tumour and these routinely performed tests can be of prognostic value in management of HCC patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  4. Manikam J, Mahadeva S, Goh KL, Abdullah BJ
    Hepatogastroenterology, 2009 Jan-Feb;56(89):227-30.
    PMID: 19453063
    Spontaneous rupture and hemorrhage is a devastating complication of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Results from current therapeutic modalities remain varied. Recent development of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in the management of this condition has shown promise. We describe 2 cases of ruptured HCC in which nonoperative, percutaneous radio frequency ablation (RFA) was successful in achieving hemostasis. The advantageous of RFA over other interventional techniques in the management of ruptured HCC are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  5. Yap SF, Peh SC
    Malays J Pathol, 1991 Dec;13(2):115-8.
    PMID: 1726642
    Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels and its expression in liver tissue was studied in 50 cases of histologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Serum AFP levels were elevated (greater than 20iu/ml) in 35/50 (70%) of the cases, 28 of whom had levels greater than 500 iu/ml, which is highly suggestive of HCC. These results indicate that serum AFP, by itself, is a relatively insensitive diagnostic test for HCC. Although elevated levels in high risk patients provide a specific clue, a negative result does not exclude the diagnosis of HCC. Expression of AFP by tumour cells paralleled that of serum in the majority of cases. However, tissue AFP was negative in 7 patients who had markedly elevated serum AFP. This observation may be a reflection of preferential excretion of the tumour antigen or differential expression of the antigen by the tumour cells. None of the patients with normal serum AFP demonstrated a reaction for tissue AFP. There was no correlation between AFP production and tumour differentiation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  6. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Lin HP, Yap SF
    Cancer, 1990 Jan 1;65(1):174-6.
    PMID: 2152851
    In the 7-year period between 1980 and 1987, six cases of childhood primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) were confirmed histologically in our institution. Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) seropositivity was confirmed in five of the cases, and tissue HBsAg was shown in four of these using the Shikata's orcein stain. An associated maternal HBsAg seropositivity was shown in two of the seropositive children. The youngest seropositive patient who developed PHC was 7 years old. The mother of this patient was also seropositive. These observations support a causal relation between childhood Hepatitis B virus infection and PHC. The importance of vertical or perinatal transmission of HBV in the causation of childhood PHC and the prophylactic role of childhood vaccination is emphasized. Attention is also drawn to the relative short malignant transformation time seen in some of these patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  7. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Nazarina AR, Goh KL, Rosmawati M, Vijeyasingam R
    Malays J Pathol, 2003 Jun;25(1):37-43.
    PMID: 16196376
    A study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur into the histological type (WHO classification), grade (modified Edmondson and Steiner's grading system), mitotic rate, bile production, hyaline globule and Mallory hyaline formation of 52 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) diagnosed during a 13-year period between 1st January 1990 to 31st December 2002. In addition, associated cirrhosis, dysplasia (large liver cell dysplasia: LLCD and small liver cell dysplasia: SLCD) and microvascular permeation were also looked for whenever the situation permitted. The patients' ages ranged from 21-years to 85-years (mean = 58.7 years) with a predilection for males and Chinese. Histologically, majority (73.1%) of the tumours demonstrated a trabecular pattern of growth. The bulk (73%) of the tumours were either of grade II or III differentiation. Mitotic activity ranged between 0-100/10 high power fields (hpf) with a mean of 22.2/10 hpf. Bile was noted in 25%, hyaline globules 17.3% and Mallory bodies in one case. Concomitant cirrhosis was present in 73.5%. 73.5% of the cases had associated LLCD. 5 with LLCD also showed SLCD. Microvascular permeation was shown in 76.2% of cases. On comparison with findings from other studies, no major difference seems to exist between the histological characteristics of our HCC cases and that of other populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology*
  8. Swamy SG, Kameshwar VH, Shubha PB, Looi CY, Shanmugam MK, Arfuso F, et al.
    Target Oncol, 2017 02;12(1):1-10.
    PMID: 27510230 DOI: 10.1007/s11523-016-0452-7
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common forms of liver cancer diagnosed worldwide. HCC occurs due to chronic liver disease and is often diagnosed at advanced stages. Chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin are currently used as first-line agents for HCC therapy, but these are non-selective cytotoxic molecules with significant side effects. Sorafenib, a multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is the only approved targeted drug for HCC patients. However, due to adverse side effects and limited efficacy, there is a need for the identification of novel pharmacological drugs beyond sorafenib. Several agents that target and inhibit various signaling pathways involved in HCC are currently being assessed for HCC treatment. In the present review article, we summarize the diverse signal transduction pathways responsible for initiation as well as progression of HCC and also the potential anticancer effects of selected targeted therapies that can be employed for HCC therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  9. Khoo JJ, Clouston A
    Malays J Pathol, 2001 Dec;23(2):115-8.
    PMID: 12166592
    A 6-year-old Malay boy presented with fever and abdominal pain for 2 months. Computerised tomography showed a nodular mass in the left lobe of the liver. There was also portal vein thrombosis on the left side. Serum alpha-fetoprotein was not elevated and Hepatitis B antigen was negative. Biopsy of the liver mass led to a histological diagnosis of fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. In view of extensive tumour involvement, he could not be operated on but was treated with chemotherapy. However, the tumour did not respond. While this is expected for fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma, the possibility of the tumour having a component of ordinary hepatocellular carcinoma could not be excluded as the tumour was not resected. Fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma is a rare histological subtype of hepatocellular carcinoma, associated with a better prognosis. It affects the younger age group and has no association with cirrhosis, hepatitis B virus infection or exposure to oral contraceptives, all of which are implicated in ordinary hepatocellular carcinoma. Serum alpha-fetoprotein level is usually within normal limits and other laboratory values are not contributory to the diagnosis. The diagnosis is usually suggested by radiographic studies viz. CT scan of the abdomen, which would show an irregular non-homogenous mass in the liver, and confirmed by histological examination. The most characteristic microscopical feature is fibrosis arranged in a lamellar fashion around polygonal and deeply eosinophilic neoplastic hepatocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology*
  10. Zainol H, Sumithran E
    Histopathology, 1993 Jun;22(6):581-6.
    PMID: 7689070
    This study evaluates the usefulness of a combined cytological and histological approach to the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) when applied to fine needle biopsy specimens obtained under ultrasonic guidance. The material, aspirated from 51 focal liver lesions, was handled in such a way that there was sufficient material for both cytological and histological (cell block) assessment. Of the 29 cases of HCC studied, a confident cytological diagnosis was made in 23 (79%). In the remaining six cases, the cytological features were considered to be suspicious but not diagnostic of HCC. Examination of cell blocks in the six cases enabled a confident diagnosis of HCC to be made in all cases. This was due to the supplementary visual information provided by the histological features, particularly the pattern of arrangement of the tumour cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  11. Katiman D, Manikam J, Goh KL, Abdullah BJ, Mahadeva S
    J Gastrointest Cancer, 2012 Sep;43 Suppl 1:S187-90.
    PMID: 22692948 DOI: 10.1007/s12029-012-9373-6
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  12. Mun KS, Cheah PL, Baharudin NB, Looi LM
    Malays J Pathol, 2006 Dec;28(2):73-7.
    PMID: 18376794 MyJurnal
    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is among the ten most common cancers in Malaysian males. As cellular proliferation is an important feature of malignant transformation, we studied the proliferation pattern of normal and benign perineoplastic liver versus hepatocellular carcinoma in an attempt to further understand the tumour transformation process. 39 HCC (21 with accompanying and 18 without cirrhosis) histologically diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, University of Malaya Medical Centre between January 1992 and December 2003 were immunohistochemically studied using a monoclonal antibody to PCNA (Clone PC10: Dako). 20 livers from cases who had succumbed to traumatic injuries served as normal liver controls (NL). PCNA labeling index (PCNA-LI) was determined by counting the number of immunopositive cells in 1000 contiguous HCC, benign cirrhotic perineoplastic liver (BLC), benign perineoplastic non-cirrhotic (BLNC) and NL cells and conversion to a percentage. The PCNA-LI was also expressed as Ojanguren et al's grades. PCNA was expressed in 10% NL, 38.9% BLNC, 76.2% BLC and 71.8% HCC with BLNC, BLC and HCC showing significantly increased (p < 0.05) number of cases which expressed PCNA compared with NL. The number of BLC which expressed PCNA was also significantly increased compared with BLNC. PCNA-LI ranged from 0-2.0% (mean = 0.2%) in NL, 0-2.0% (mean = 0.3%) in BLNC, 0-3.6% (mean = 0.7%) in BLC and 0-53.8% (mean = 7.6%) in HCC with PCNA-LI significantly increased (p < 0.05) only in HCC compared with BLC, BLNC and NL. Accordingly, all NL, BLC and BLNC showed minimal (<5% cells being immunopositive) immunoreactivity on Ojanguren et al's grading system and only HCC demonstrated immunoreactivity which ranged up to grade 3 (75% of cells). From this study, there appears to be a generally increasing trend of proliferative activity from NL to BLNC to BLC and HCC. Nonetheless, BLNC and BLC, like NL, retained low PCNA-LI and only HCC had a significantly increased PCNA-LI compared with the benign categories. This is probably related to the malignant nature of HCC and may reflect the uncontrolled proliferation of the neoplastic hepatocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  13. Sumithran E, Looi LM
    Cancer, 1985 Sep 1;56(5):1124-7.
    PMID: 2990666
    In West Malaysia, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is common in the Chinese and in the members of the Senoi aboriginal tribe, two racial groups with diametrically opposite life-styles. Certain fundamental differences exist between the liver tumors in the two races. In the Senoi, the tumor occurs in a younger age group and there is a greater male preponderance than in the Chinese. There is also a very close relationship between hepatitis B virus infection, chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis, liver cell dysplasia, and HCC in the Senoi and the tumors generally present as multiple nodules studding both lobes of the liver. In the Chinese, although a relationship between hepatitis B virus infection, HCC, and cirrhosis exists, this association is not as strong as in the Senoi and the tumors are generally large and solitary. The data suggest that, although the hepatitis B virus is probably an important oncogenic agent in both racial groups, there may be a difference in the pathogenesis of HCC in the two races.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology*
  14. Basar N, Oridupa OA, Ritchie KJ, Nahar L, Osman NM, Stafford A, et al.
    Phytother Res, 2015 Jun;29(6):944-8.
    PMID: 25779384 DOI: 10.1002/ptr.5329
    Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Fabaceae), commonly known as 'liquorice', is a well-known medicinal plant. Roots of this plant have long been used as a sweetening and flavouring agent in food and pharmaceutical products, and also as a traditional remedy for cough, upper and lower respiratory ailments, kidney stones, hepatitis C, skin disorder, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, gastrointestinal ulcers and stomach ache. Previous pharmacological and clinical studies have revealed its antitussive, antiinflammatory, antiviral, antimicrobial, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and cardioprotective properties. While glycyrrhizin, a sweet-tasting triterpene saponin, is the principal bioactive compound, several bioactive flavonoids and isoflavonoids are also present in the roots of this plant. In the present study, the cytotoxicity of the methanol extracts of nine samples of the roots of G. glabra, collected from various geographical origins, was assessed against immortal human keratinocyte (HaCaT), lung adenocarcinoma (A549) and liver carcinoma (HepG2) cell lines using the in vitro 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazoliumbromide cell toxicity/viability assay. Considerable variations in levels of cytotoxicity were observed among various samples of G. glabra.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  15. Azlin AH, Looi LM, Cheah PL
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2014;15(9):3959-63.
    PMID: 24935581
    The tumour suppressor genes, p53 and pRb, are known to play important roles in neoplastic transformation. While molecular routes to the uncontrolled growth of hepatocytes, leading to primary liver cancer have generated considerable interest, the roles of p53 and pRb mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatoblastoma (HB) remain to be clarified. We examined the immunohistochemical expression of p53 and pRb gene products in 26 HCC and 9 HB, sampled into tissue microarray blocks. 10 (38%) of 26 HCC showed > 10% tumour nuclear staining for p53 protein, 3 of these also being HbsAg positive. Conversely, none of 9 HB expressed nuclear p53 immunopositivity. Some 24 (92%) HCC and 8 (89%) HB showed loss of pRb nuclear expression. Two of the 26 HCC and one of the 9 HB showed >10% tumour nuclear staining for pRb protein. Our results suggest that p53 does not have an important role in the development of HB but may contribute in HCC. There is also loss of pRb expression in the majority of HCC and HB, supporting loss of pRb gene function in the hepatocarcinogenesis pathway. However, a comparison of the staining profiles of p53 and pRb proteins in HCC and HB did not reveal a consistent pattern to differentiate between the two types of tumours immunohistochemically. Hence the use of p53 and pRB protein expression has no contribution in the situation where there is a diagnostic difficulty in deciding between HCC and HB.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  16. Hussin F, Eshkoor SA, Rahmat A, Othman F, Akim A, Eshak Z
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2015;16(14):6047-53.
    PMID: 26320494
    BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Its prevalence is increasing in many countries. Plant products can be used to protect against cancer due to natural anticancer and chemopreventive constituents. Strobilanthes crispus is one of plants with potential chemopreventive ability.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the anticancer effects of Strobilanthes crispus juice on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: MTT assays, flow cytometry, comet assays and the reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to determine the effects of juice on DNA damage and cancer cell numbers.

    RESULTS: This juice induced apoptosis after exposure of the HepG2 cell line for 72 h. High percentages of apoptotic cell death and DNA damage were seen at the juice concentrations above 0.1%. It was found that the juice was not toxic for normal cells. In addition, juice exposure increased the expression level of c-myc gene and reduced the expression level of c-fos and c-erbB2 genes in HepG2 cells. The cytotoxic effects of juice on abnormal cells were in dose dependent.

    CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that the Strobilanthes crispus juice may have chemopreventive effects on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology*
  17. Isa NM, Bong JJ, Ghani FA, Rose IM, Husain S, Azrif M
    Diagn. Cytopathol., 2012 Nov;40(11):1010-4.
    PMID: 21563319 DOI: 10.1002/dc.21706
    Cutaneous metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is very rare, accounting for less than 0.8% of all known cutaneous metastases and occurring in 2.7-3.4% of HCCs. With less than 50 such cases reported worldwide, most of which were diagnosed histologically on excised lesions, it can only be expected that diagnosis made on cytological features alone would be challenging. We report a case of cutaneous metastasis of HCC diagnosed based on cytological features and confirmed by Hep Par 1 immunopositivity of the cell block material. An 81-year-old man, who was known to have unresectable HCC, presented with a 1-month history of painless, left nasal alae mass. The mass measured 1.5 cm in diameter, and was multilobulated with a central necrosis. Fine needle aspiration of the mass was done. Smears were cellular, comprising of malignant cells in loose clusters and aggregates as well as singly dispersed. The malignant cells displayed moderate nuclear pleomorphism, occasional prominent nucleoli, and intranuclear pseudoinclusion. Cell block material demonstrated the trabeculae pattern of the malignant cells and Hep Par 1 immunopositivity. The final diagnosis of a metastatic cutaneous HCC was made. In conclusion, cutaneous HCC metastasis is rare and should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with a history of HCC presenting with suspicious skin lesion. In the right clinical setting, a confident diagnosis can be made in such cases by using the fine needle aspiration technique aided with immunopositivity for Hep Par 1 antibody of the aspirated material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology*
  18. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Lin HP, Yap SF
    Pathology, 1991 Jan;23(1):66-8.
    PMID: 1648195
    A case of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (PHC) developing in a 10 year old boy who contracted Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in the course of maintenance phase chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was seen at University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. This case is of interest in that it (1) supports an etiological relationship between HBV infection and PHC, (2) manifested a distinctly short malignant transformation time, and (3) draws attention to the possible contributory role of chemotherapy in increasing the risk of developing PHC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
  19. Dai X, Wang L, Deivasigamni A, Looi CY, Karthikeyan C, Trivedi P, et al.
    Oncotarget, 2017 Feb 21;8(8):12831-12842.
    PMID: 28086233 DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.14606
    A prior screening programme carried out using MTT assay by our group identified a series of novel benzimidazole derivatives, among which Methyl 2-(5-fluoro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-1H- benzo[d]imidazole-5-carboxylate (MBIC) showed highest anticancer efficacy compared to that of chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin. In the present study, we found that MBIC inhibited cell viability in different hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines without exerting significant cytotoxic effects on normal liver cells. Annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometry analysis and Western blotting results indicated that MBIC can induce apoptosis in HCC cells, which was found to be mediated through mitochondria associated proteins ultimately leading to the activation of caspase-3. The exposure to MBIC also resulted in remarkable impairment of HCC cell migration and invasion. In addition, treatment with MBIC led to a rapid generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and substantial activation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). The depletion of ROS by N-Acetyl cysteine (NAC) partially blocked MBIC-induced apoptosis and JNK activation in HCC cells. Finally, MBIC significantly inhibited tumor growth at a dose of 25 mg/kg in an orthotopic HCC mouse model. Taken together, these results demonstrate that MBIC may inhibit cell proliferation via ROS-mediated activation of the JNK signaling cascade in HCC cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology*
  20. Ban KC, Singh H, Krishnan R, Seow HF
    Cancer Lett., 2003 Sep 25;199(2):201-8.
    PMID: 12969793
    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential correlation between the expression of phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (phospho-GSK-3beta) and beta-catenin, and the mutations of beta-catenin gene at the consensus GSK-3beta phosphorylation site. The reason for this approach is to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis in Malaysia. The expression of phospho-GSK-3beta and beta-catenin by immunohistochemistry and the mutations of beta-catenin were studied in 23 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and surrounding tissues. Overexpression of phospho-GSK-3beta and beta-catenin was found in 12/23 (52.2%) and 13/23 (56.5%) in HCC tissues, 6/23 (26.1%) and 9/23 (39.1%) in surrounding tissues, respectively. Overexpression of beta-catenin in HCC tissues compared to the surrounding liver tissue was found to be higher in HCC tissues (p=0.015). In addition, we found that the expression of phospho-GSK-3beta was related with the accumulation of beta-catenin in surrounding tissues (p<0.05). The expression of phospho-GSK-3beta and its association with the development of HCC is reported for the first time. In addition, this is the first report from Malaysia which shows that there are no mutations at the GSK-3beta consensus phosphorylation sites on beta-catenin gene in all 23 paired HCC and surrounding tissues. This result differed from HCC in geographical areas with high aflatoxin exposure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/pathology
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