Displaying all 17 publications

  1. Ang KP, Nordin RB, Lee SCY, Lee CY, Lu HT
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 02;74(1):51-56.
    PMID: 30846663
    INTRODUCTION: We aim to study the diagnostic value of electrocardiogram (ECG) in cardiac tamponade.

    METHODS: This study was a single centre, retrospective casecontrol study. We recruited 42 patients diagnosed with cardiac tamponade of various aetiologies confirmed by transthoracic echocardiography and 100 controls between January 2011 and December 2015. The ECG criteria of cardiac tamponade we adopted was as follows: 1) Low QRS voltage in a) the limb leads alone, b) in the precordial leads alone or, c) in all leads, 2) PR segment depression, 3) Electrical alternans, and 4) Sinus tachycardia.

    RESULTS: Malignancy was the most common causes of cardiac tamponade, the two groups were of similar proportion of gender and ethnicity. We calculated the sensitivity (SN), specificity (SP), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of each ECG criteria. Among the ECG abnormalities, we noted the SN of 'low voltage in all chest leads' (69%), 'low voltage in all limb leads' (67%) and 'sinus tachycardia' (69%) were higher as compared to 'PR depression' (12%) and 'electrical alternan' (5%). On the other hand, 'low voltage in all chest leads' (98%), 'low voltage in all leads' (99%), 'PR depression' (100%) and 'electrical alternans' (100%) has highest SP.

    CONCLUSION: Our study reaffirmed the findings of previous studies that electrocardiography cannot be used as a screening tool for diagnosing cardiac tamponade due to its low sensitivity. However, with clinical correlation, electrocardiography is a valuable adjuvant test to 'rule in' cardiac tamponade because of its high specificity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade/diagnosis*; Cardiac Tamponade/physiopathology
  2. Atmawidjaja RW, Zainal Abidin MA, Ismail IH
    Med J Malaysia, 2016 Jun;71(3):147-8.
    PMID: 27495892 MyJurnal
    Pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade is a rare and life-threatening complication of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in a neonate. We report a 33-week preterm neonate who had sudden clinical deterioration at day seven of total parenteral nutrition regime via PICC. Recognition of pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade in neonates with a PICC requires a high index of suspicion and steps in prevention include proper catheter tip placement and continuous monitoring of line position and function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade*
  3. Aung T
    Med J Malaysia, 1997 Dec;52(4):441-3.
    PMID: 10968125
    A case of unsuspected penetrating cardiac injury is presented. It was recognised by the presence of bleeding into peritoneal cavity even after the source of bleeding from intra-abdominal organs had been stopped. It highlights the importance of high index of suspicion of associated cardiac injury in high epigastric penetrating injury.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade/etiology*
  4. Adi O, Fong CP, Ahmad AH, Azil A, Ranga A, Panebianco N
    Am J Emerg Med, 2021 07;45:688.e3-688.e7.
    PMID: 33514476 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajem.2021.01.022
    Pericardial Decompression Syndrome (PDS) is an uncommon but life-threatening complication following pericardiocentesis for cardiac tamponade. We report PDS after pericardiocentesis in two patients that presented to the emergency department with cardiac tamponade. In both cases, pericardiocentesis was performed under ultrasound guidance using the left parasternal approach and approximately 1200-1500 mL of pericardial fluid was removed. Immediately after pericardiocentesis, the haemodynamic status of the patients improved. However, 2-3 h post decompression, both patients developed hypotension and pulmonary edema with reduced left ventricular function, suggestive of PDS. PDS is a condition that is described as paradoxical worsening of vital signs after successful decompression of the pericardium in the setting of acute tamponade. Three possible mechanisms explaining PDS are ischaemic, hemodynamic and autonomic processes. If PDS is unrecognized and untreated, it is associated with a high mortality rate secondary to pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock. If managed urgently, the cardiopulmonary dysfunction in PDS is usually transient and largely reversible with supportive care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade/etiology*
  5. Majid AA
    Aust N Z J Surg, 1990 Feb;60(2):139-41.
    PMID: 2327916
    A 35 year old diabetic presented with features of septicaemia and developed cardiac tamponade. He was found to have pulmonary, acute septicaemic and pericardial melioidosis. Some initial improvement was achieved with medical therapy but only with surgical intervention was a successful outcome achieved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade/etiology; Cardiac Tamponade/radiography; Cardiac Tamponade/surgery*
  6. Tan JH, Ng ZQ, Tan HCL, Vendargon S
    BMJ Case Rep, 2018 Jun 27;2018.
    PMID: 29950501 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2018-224741
    A 72-year-old Chinese man presented with mild symptoms of heart failure. Transthoracic echocardiography showed signs of cardiac tamponade though clinically he was relatively well. The option of pericardiocentesis was not carried out due to a narrow window for aspiration with only a thin layer of effusion seen surrounding the apex and right ventricle on subcostal view.Pericardial window was done via a left anterolateral thoracotomy. Intraoperatively, 500 cm3 of purulent fluid was drained. Microbiology screens were all negative. We present the atypical clinical course of this elderly man presenting with a large pyopericardium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade/etiology; Cardiac Tamponade/surgery
  7. Poh F, Chow MB
    Med J Malaysia, 2014 Feb;69(1):37-9.
    PMID: 24814629
    Chest pain is a common presenting complaint in the emergency room of which acute aortic syndrome is a sinister cause associated with high morbidity. A contrastenhanced CT aortogram is often performed for initial evaluation at the first instance of suspicion. We present a patient with Stanford Type A intramural haematoma complicated by haemopericardium and acute cardiac tamponade and highlight the relevant CT signs that would alert the managing physician to urgent echocardiogram correlation and emergent cardiothoracic intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade
  8. Low, Qin Jian, Cheo, Seng Wee
    The normal pericardium is a fibroelastic sac containing a thin layer of fluid that surrounds the heart. Cardiac tamponade, which may be acute or subacute, is characterized by the accumulation of pericardial fluid under pressure. Tuberculous pericarditis is a complication of tuberculosis which is often diagnose late due to the difficulty in establishing this diagnosis. We present a case of pericardial tuberculosis diagnosed in a 20-year-old young retroviral disease patient who presented with signs of cardiac tamponade. His clinical condition improved post-pericardial tapping and he was discharged with anti tuberculosis medications. This case highlight the importance of having a high level of suspicion as this condition is easily curable.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade
  9. Ismail O, Yusoff K, Azhar T, Phang KS
    Med J Malaysia, 1991 Mar;46(1):104-9.
    PMID: 1660561
    A 49 year old Malay women presented with pericardial tamponade 18 months following left segmentectomy and local irradiation for carcinoma of the breast. Subsequently she developed complete heart block terminating in cardiac arrest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade/etiology*
  10. Murty OP
    Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 2008 Sep;29(3):245-8.
    PMID: 18725781 DOI: 10.1097/PAF.0b013e318183d55f
    Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) is a rare but fatal disease of idiopathic origin. It results in focal necrosis of myocardium. This is a case report of middle aged Malaysian Indian female who died due to cardiac tamponade due to rupture myocardium and tear in the root of aorta. On naked eye examination, it simply resembled as recent as well as old fibrotic areas of myocardial infarction. She was clinically diagnosed as a case of obstructive cardiomyopathy with atrioventricular block, and was on pace maker. There was subendocardial fibrosis and left ventricular transmural infarction in the left ventricle. On histopathology, this was diagnosed as GCM, there were widespread areas of inflammatory cellular infiltration within the myocardium with multinucleated giant cells and granulomas interspersed with lymphocytes. Microscopic field showed up to 10 multinucleated giant cells. In this case, there were focal areas at multiple locations and caused uneven thickness in the left ventricle wall. Idiopathic GCM is very rare and causation of hemopericardium is the unique feature of this case. In this case the direct link of GCM with aortitis and rupture of left ventricle wall resulting in hemopericardium is shown. This case is documented through macroscopic as well as microscopic photographs in H&E, Ziel-Nelson, and GMS staining.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade/complications; Cardiac Tamponade/pathology*
  11. Tan TL, Lim SH, Ruslan Mustapa M, Ganeswary R
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 11;75(6):742-744.
    PMID: 33219189
    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) purulent pericarditis, characterised by frank pus collection or microscopic pyogenic effusion in the pericardium represents the most serious form of pericardial infection. The route of MRSA acquisition in pericardial abscess commonly occurs via the blood stream infection and it is more commonly observed among immunocompromised individuals. To date, diabetic foot ulcer infection rarely disseminates and becomes a nidus for pericardial infection. Herein, we report an unusual case of MRSA pericardial abscess in a 44-year-old man who presented at Hospital Seri Manjung, Malaysia with cardiac tamponade. Past medical history indicated that he was recently treated for infected diabetic foot ulcer with MRSA bacteraemia one week earlier. Despite adequate pericardial drainage and extended parenteral vancomycin therapy, this case ended in fatality on day 42 of admission due to nosocomial infection. It is hoped that this report serves to increase the vigilance among clinicians that diabetic foot ulcer infections have the potential to progress to pericardial abscess in the presence of MRSA bacteraemia, although they may appear seemingly innocuous at presentation. Systemic vancomycin must be instituted promptly when MRSA bacteraemia is confirmed in order to circumvent the propagation of MRSA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade
  12. Loh KB, Bux SI, Abdullah BJ, Raja Mokhtar RA, Mohamed R
    Korean J Radiol, 2012 Sep-Oct;13(5):643-7.
    PMID: 22977334 DOI: 10.3348/kjr.2012.13.5.643
    Local treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has been widely used in clinical practice due to its minimal invasiveness and high rate of cure. Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is widely used because its treatment effectiveness. However, some serious complications can arise from percutaneous RFA. We present here a rare case of hemorrhagic cardiac tamponade secondary to an anterior cardiac vein (right marginal vein) injury during RFA for treatment of HCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade/etiology*
  13. Osman A, Wan Chuan T, Ab Rahman J, Via G, Tavazzi G
    Eur J Emerg Med, 2018 Oct;25(5):322-327.
    PMID: 28509710 DOI: 10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000471
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel pericardiocentesis technique using an in-plane parasternal medial-to-lateral approach with the use of a high-frequency probe in patients with cardiac tamponade.

    BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is pivotal in the diagnosis of pericardial effusion and tamponade physiology. Ultrasound guidance for pericardiocentesis is currently considered the standard of care. Several approaches have been described recently, which differ mainly on the site of puncture (subxiphoid, apical, or parasternal). Although they share the use of low-frequency probes, there is absence of complete control of needle trajectory and real-time needle visualization. An in-plane and real-time technique has only been described anecdotally.

    METHODS AND RESULTS: A retrospective analysis of 11 patients (63% men, mean age: 37.7±21.2 years) presenting with cardiac tamponade admitted to the tertiary-care emergency department and treated with parasternal medial-to-lateral in-plane pericardiocentesis was carried out. The underlying causes of cardiac tamponade were different among the population. All the pericardiocentesis were successfully performed in the emergency department, without complications, relieving the hemodynamic instability. The mean time taken to perform the eight-step procedure was 309±76.4 s, with no procedure-related complications.

    CONCLUSION: The parasternal medial-to-lateral in-plane pericardiocentesis is a new technique theoretically free of complications and it enables real-time monitoring of needle trajectory. For the first time, a pericardiocentesis approach with a medial-to-lateral needle trajectory and real-time, in-plane, needle visualization was performed in a tamponade patient population.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade/therapy*
  14. Meera Thalayasingam, Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi
    Anaphylaxis in the operating room although infrequent can be potentially fatal. The diagnosis of perioperative anaphylaxis is complex due to a multitude of factors. Firstly, patients under anesthesia cannot verbalize their complaints, the anesthetic agents themselves can alter vital parameters (e.g. heart rate and blood pressure) and cutaneous signs in a completely draped patient may be missed. Secondly, the differential diagnosis of intraoperative anaphylaxis is wide. Conditions such as asthma exacerbation, arrhythmia, hemorrhage, angioedema, mastocytosis, acute myocardial infarction, drug overdose, pericardial tamponade, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolus, sepsis, tension pneumothorax, vasovagal reaction, venous air embolism, laryngospasm, blood transfusion reaction and malignant hyperthermia need to be considered. Thirdly, the diagnostic workup is challenging due to the multiple medications administered and other exposures encountered such as latex and chlorhexidene. However, through a timely allergy consultation and a systematic approach, identification of the culprit agent and safe alternatives can be established to prevent future occurrences as illustrated in the case below.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade
  15. Benjamin Ng Han Sim
    Phasic ECG voltage changes or electrical alternans is a well-described ECG changes seen in the pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. Popular as once believed, this ECG features are no longer considered pathognomonic for pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade. Electric alternans is observed in pneumothorax especially left-sided pneumothorax. This is a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and breathlessness to the emergency department. Assessment in the emergency unit revealed an obvious distress man with a respiratory rate of 60 breaths/min with cyanosis There were generalised rhonchi and prolonged expiratory breath sound appreciated. Chest X-ray (CXR) was done and diagnosed to have left tension pneumothorax. Initial electrocardiogram (ECG) showed electrical alternans in all leads. He was intubated for respiratory distress followed by chest tube insertion. His initial ECG findings resolved after treatment of the tension pneumothorax. Doctors need to evaluate the cardiac findings along with respiratory findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade
  16. Adi O, Ahmad AH, Fong CP, Ranga A, Panebianco N
    Ultrasound J, 2021 Apr 15;13(1):22.
    PMID: 33856577 DOI: 10.1186/s13089-021-00225-7
    BACKGROUND: Pericardial effusion is a known complication of post-open cardiac surgery which can progress to life-threatening cardiac tamponade. Classical signs of tamponade such as hypotension and pulsus paradoxus are often absent. Diagnosing acute cardiac tamponade with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) can be challenging in post-cardiac surgical patients due to distorted anatomy and limited scanning windows by the presence of surgical dressings or scar. Additionally, this patient population is more likely to have a loculated pericardial effusion, or an effusion that is isoechoic in appearance secondary to clotted blood. These findings can be challenging to visualize with traditional TTE. Missed diagnosis of cardiac tamponade due to loculated pericardial clot can result in delayed diagnosis and clinical management.

    CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case series that illustrates the diagnostic challenge and value of resuscitative transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the emergency department (ED) for the diagnosis of cardiac tamponade due to posterior loculated pericardial clot in post-surgical coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients.

    CONCLUSIONS: Cardiac tamponade due to loculated posterior pericardial clot post-CABG requires prompt diagnosis and appropriate management to avoid the potential for hemodynamic instability. Transesophageal echocardiography allows a rapid diagnosis, early appropriate referral and an opportunity to institute appropriate therapeutic measures.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade
  17. Wong CK, Md Fuzi NH, Baherin MF, Lee HG
    Med J Malaysia, 2020 03;75(2):171-172.
    PMID: 32281602
    We report a rare case of severe Plasmodium knowlesi malaria and dengue co-infection in a 36-year-old lady with hyperparasitaemia, metabolic acidosis, haemolysis and acute kidney injury. She was in shock requiring inotropic support and elective intubation. She had pericardial tamponade which necessitate pericardiocentesis to allow for haemodynamic stability during haemodialysis. She underwent haemodialysis, was ventilated for six days and stayed in hospital for 29 days. She was discharged home well with almost complete renal recovery. Physicians must have a high degree of suspicion for dengue co-infection in malaria patients with plasma leakage such as pericardial effusion to allow for prompt management.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cardiac Tamponade
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