Animal inflicted wounds, left untreated may result in chronic bacterial or fungal infection. Clinical features of these infections may overlap leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. We report a case of chronic non-healing cat bite wound treated with several antibiotics without improvement. Later patient developed the classical "sporotrichoid spread" and a presumptive diagnosis of sporotrichosis was made. Laboratory investigation for fungal culture and skin biopsy failed to identify the underlying pathogen. A trial of oral antifungal agent resulted in complete recovery of the lesions implicating fungus as the causative pathogen. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion for fungal infections when managing animal inflicted wounds.
The Tropical Council for Companion Animal Parasites Ltd. (TroCCAP) is a not-for-profit organisation whose mission is to independently inform, guide and make best-practice recommendations for the diagnosis, treatment and control of companion animal parasites in the tropics and sub-tropics, with the aim of protecting animal and human health. In line with this primary mission, TroCCAP recently developed guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and control of feline and canine parasites in the tropics. The development of these guidelines required unique and complex considerations to be addressed, often inapplicable to developed nations. Much of the tropics encompass middle-to-low income countries in which poor standards of environmental hygiene and large populations of stray dogs and cats coexist. In these regions, a range of parasites pose a high risk to companion animals, which ultimately may place their owners at risk of acquiring parasitic zoonoses. These considerations led to the development of unique recommendations with regard, for example, to deworming and endoparasite testing intervals for the control of both global and 'region-specific' parasites in the tropics. Moreover, the 'off-' or 'extra'-label use of drugs for the treatment and control of parasitic infections is common practice in many tropical countries and many generic products lack manufacturers' information on efficacy, safety, and quality control. Recommendations and advice concerning the use of such drugs and protocols are also addressed in these guidelines. The formation of these guidelines is an important first step towards improving the education of veterinarians specifically regarding best-practice for the diagnosis, treatment and control of canine and feline parasites in the tropics.
Aspek pantang larang dalam pemakanan dan perkhidmatan bomoh merupakan entiti unik dalam budaya masyarakat Orang Asli. Satu kajian irisan lintang di kalangan masyara/cat Orang Asli pinggiran (di Pos Betau) dan pedalaman (Pos Sinderut) Kuala Lipis telah dijalankan pada 25hb September hingga 6 Oktober 1999 bagi mengetahui pola pemakanan dan amalan pantang larang dalam aspek pemakanan yang mempengaruhi tahap pemakanan seseorang. Seramai 255 orang responden telah ditemuduga oleh kakitangan terlatih menggunakan borang soal selidik berpandu dimana 15 orang dari kawasan pinggiran dan 104 orang dari pedalaman. Hasil kajian menuruukkan Orang Asli pinggiran lebih kerap mengombil makanan dalam sehari (p
Platynosomum illiciens is a liver trematode encountered infecting mainly felids although it has also been reported in birds and in additional mammalian species, including non-human primates. The current study reports a natural P. illiciens infection primate of the genus Callithrix. The diagnosis was made using a combination of copro-parasitological techniques, morphological evaluation of adult specimens recovered from the liver during necropsy, and molecular analyses. Eggs were brown in color, oval, operculated, and contained a miracidium. Adult specimens recovered during necropsy were measured and showed dimensions compatible with P. illiciens. Molecular characterization of the trematode involved amplification by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), in combination with nucleotide sequencing, of an approximately 900 base pairs fragment corresponding to 18S-ITS1-5.8S ribosomal DNA. Sequenced amplicons showed 100% nucleotide identity with sequences deposited in the GenBank database as derived from specimens of P. illiciens recovered from cats in Malaysia and Brazil. It was concluded that the morphological and molecular analyses presented herein, confirmed the identification of the trematode recovered as P. illiciens.
There were a spate of recent complaints of insect bites and the entomological specimens received from various sources were identified to be those of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), the tropical bed-bug (Cimex hemipterus) and the dog louse (Heterodoxus spiniger). Only the fleas and the bed-bug are known to attack humans.
Fleas are the common cause of skin disorders in cats. They are well-known for transmitting various pathogens to both cats and humans. Accordingly, this study was conducted to gain insights on the risk factors associated with flea infestation on cats. Flea combing conducted on 426 cats from four distinct regions in Peninsular Malaysia revealed a relatively high rate of flea infestation on 306 cats (71.83%). A total of 651 fleas were collected, all of them were identified as Ctenocephalides felis with the total intensity of 2.13 and abundance of 1.53. The sex ratio of fleas was female-biased at 2.5:1 (♀=464, ♂=187). Statistical analysis of the data revealed that flea infestation was significantly (P<0.05) associated with several risk factors including region, age, weight, status (stray, sheltered, pet), body condition, and hair length. Higher flea prevalence was also observed in female cats (77.99%), big-sized cats (91.76%), stray cats (84.94%), cats with clean body condition (73.35%), and cats with long hairs (78.38%) as compared to their contemporaries within the same comparison variables. The high infestation of fleas in this study is indicative of cats as a flea reservoir particularly C. felis. Thus the findings of this study and the knowledge gained on the risk factors can be used to develop and improve control measures and management of flea infestations.
Rural communities in Malaysia have been shown to be exposed to Coxiella, Borrelia and rickettsial infections in previous seroprevalence studies. Further research is necessary to identify the actual causative agents and the potential vectors of these infections. The arthropods parasitizing peri-domestic animals in these communities may serve as the vector in transmitting arthropod-borne and zoonotic agents to the humans. Molecular screening of bacterial and zoonotic pathogens from ticks and fleas collected from dogs, cats and chickens from six rural communities in Malaysia was undertaken. These communities were made up of mainly the indigenous people of Malaysia, known as the Orang Asli, as well as settlers in oil palm plantations. The presence of Coxiella burnetii, Borrelia, and rickettsial agents, including Rickettsia and Anaplasma, was investigated by performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. Candidatus Rickettsia senegalensis was detected in one out of eight pools of Ctenocephalides felis fleas. A relapsing fever group Borrelia sp. was identified from one of seven Haemaphysalis hystricis ticks tested. The results from the PCR screening for Anaplasma unexpectedly revealed the presence of Candidatus Midichloria sp., a potential tick endosymbiont, in two out of fourteen Haemaphysalis wellingtoni ticks tested. C. burnetii was not detected in any of the samples tested. The findings here provide evidence for the presence of potentially novel strains of rickettsial and borrelial agents in which their impact on public health risks among the rural communities in Malaysia merit further investigation. The detection of a potential endosymbiont of ticks also suggest that the presence of tick endosymbionts in the region is not fully explored.
The vertebrate retina is a clearly organized signal-processing system. It contains more than 60 different types of neurons, arranged in three distinct neural layers. Each cell type is believed to serve unique role(s) in encoding visual information. While we now have a relatively good understanding of the constituent cell types in the retina and some general ideas of their connectivity, with few exceptions, how the retinal circuitry performs computation remains poorly understood. Computational modeling has been commonly used to study the retina from the single cell to the network level. In this article, we begin by reviewing retinal modeling strategies and existing models. We then discuss in detail the significance and limitations of these models, and finally, we provide suggestions for the future development of retinal neural modeling.
Cat scratch disease (CSD) caused by Bartonella henselae is the most common Bartonella infection worldwide. CSD usually presents as self-limiting lymphadenitis characterized by lymphadenopathy that occurs after contact with a cat and the symptoms resolve within 2 to 4 months. Serology testing is the cornerstone of diagnosis. However, it may require the use of clinical specimens for microbiologic evaluation for diagnosis. A number of antimicrobial agents have been advocated for the treatment of cat-scratch disease and treatment with azithromycin has been shown to be beneficial.