Animal inflicted wounds, left untreated may result in chronic bacterial or fungal infection. Clinical features of these infections may overlap leading to a delay in diagnosis and treatment. We report a case of chronic non-healing cat bite wound treated with several antibiotics without improvement. Later patient developed the classical "sporotrichoid spread" and a presumptive diagnosis of sporotrichosis was made. Laboratory investigation for fungal culture and skin biopsy failed to identify the underlying pathogen. A trial of oral antifungal agent resulted in complete recovery of the lesions implicating fungus as the causative pathogen. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion for fungal infections when managing animal inflicted wounds.
Aspek pantang larang dalam pemakanan dan perkhidmatan bomoh merupakan entiti unik dalam budaya masyarakat Orang Asli. Satu kajian irisan lintang di kalangan masyara/cat Orang Asli pinggiran (di Pos Betau) dan pedalaman (Pos Sinderut) Kuala Lipis telah dijalankan pada 25hb September hingga 6 Oktober 1999 bagi mengetahui pola pemakanan dan amalan pantang larang dalam aspek pemakanan yang mempengaruhi tahap pemakanan seseorang. Seramai 255 orang responden telah ditemuduga oleh kakitangan terlatih menggunakan borang soal selidik berpandu dimana 15 orang dari kawasan pinggiran dan 104 orang dari pedalaman. Hasil kajian menuruukkan Orang Asli pinggiran lebih kerap mengombil makanan dalam sehari (p
There were a spate of recent complaints of insect bites and the entomological specimens received from various sources were identified to be those of cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) and rat flea (Xenopsylla cheopis), the tropical bed-bug (Cimex hemipterus) and the dog louse (Heterodoxus spiniger). Only the fleas and the bed-bug are known to attack humans.
The vertebrate retina is a clearly organized signal-processing system. It contains more than 60 different types of neurons, arranged in three distinct neural layers. Each cell type is believed to serve unique role(s) in encoding visual information. While we now have a relatively good understanding of the constituent cell types in the retina and some general ideas of their connectivity, with few exceptions, how the retinal circuitry performs computation remains poorly understood. Computational modeling has been commonly used to study the retina from the single cell to the network level. In this article, we begin by reviewing retinal modeling strategies and existing models. We then discuss in detail the significance and limitations of these models, and finally, we provide suggestions for the future development of retinal neural modeling.
Cat scratch disease (CSD) caused by Bartonella henselae is the most common Bartonella infection worldwide. CSD usually presents as self-limiting lymphadenitis characterized by lymphadenopathy that occurs after contact with a cat and the symptoms resolve within 2 to 4 months. Serology testing is the cornerstone of diagnosis. However, it may require the use of clinical specimens for microbiologic evaluation for diagnosis. A number of antimicrobial agents have been advocated for the treatment of cat-scratch disease and treatment with azithromycin has been shown to be beneficial.
The marbled cat Pardofelis marmorata is a poorly known wild cat that has a broad distribution across much of the Indomalayan ecorealm. This felid is thought to exist at low population densities throughout its range, yet no estimates of its abundance exist, hampering assessment of its conservation status. To investigate the distribution and abundance of marbled cats we conducted intensive, felid-focused camera trap surveys of eight forest areas and two oil palm plantations in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Study sites were broadly representative of the range of habitat types and the gradient of anthropogenic disturbance and fragmentation present in contemporary Sabah. We recorded marbled cats from all forest study areas apart from a small, relatively isolated forest patch, although photographic detection frequency varied greatly between areas. No marbled cats were recorded within the plantations, but a single individual was recorded walking along the forest/plantation boundary. We collected sufficient numbers of marbled cat photographic captures at three study areas to permit density estimation based on spatially explicit capture-recapture analyses. Estimates of population density from the primary, lowland Danum Valley Conservation Area and primary upland, Tawau Hills Park, were 19.57 (SD: 8.36) and 7.10 (SD: 1.90) individuals per 100 km2, respectively, and the selectively logged, lowland Tabin Wildlife Reserve yielded an estimated density of 10.45 (SD: 3.38) individuals per 100 km2. The low detection frequencies recorded in our other survey sites and from published studies elsewhere in its range, and the absence of previous density estimates for this felid suggest that our density estimates may be from the higher end of their abundance spectrum. We provide recommendations for future marbled cat survey approaches.