The cestode fauna of the darkspotted numbfish, Narcine maculata (Shaw) (Torpediniformes: Narcinidae), from Malaysian Bomrneo was examined for the first time. This work resulted in the discovery of a new genus and two new species of Anteroporidae (Lecanicephalidea). Sesquipedalapex comicus gen. n., sp. n. was erected on the basis of the peculiarities of its scolex, in particular its possession of an extremely long apical modification of the scolex proper, which readily distinguishes it from the other genus in the family. The genus is also distinct in its possession of acetabula that are in the form of suckers, rather than bothridiate in form. This species was found to deeply embed its elongate apical structure for much of its length within the intestinal mucosa, provoking a papilliform expansion of the outer wall of the spiral intestine at the site of attachment. The second new species, Anteropora klosmamorphis sp. n., is readily distinguished from its congeners on the basis of testis number and bothridial shape. Both new species are hyperapolytic. The diagnosis of Anteroporidae is amended to accommodate both new taxa. This increases the total number of genera in the family to two, and the total number of species to five.
As part of a metazoan parasite survey of elasmobranchs from Malaysian Borneo, specimens of Rhoptrobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 were collected from the eagle rays Aetomylaeus maculatus (Gray) and Aetomylaeus niehofii (Bloch et Schneider). The type species is redescribed from its type host, and a neotype specimen is designated. In addition, three new species of Rhoptrobothrium are described: R. chongi sp. n., R. gambangi sp. n. and R. limae sp. n. Rhoptrobothrium myliobatidis conspicuously differs from the three new species in its lack of a secondary areola; R. limae is distinguished from R. chongi and R. gambangi based on its greater total length; R. chongi possesses conspicuously stalked remi, while R. gambangi possesses short remi, often folded anteriorly. Rhoptrobothrium is somewhat unusual among tetraphyllideans in its possession of a "metascolex," a character it shares with other taxa in the Thysanocephalinae (i.e., Myzocephalus Shipley et Hornell, 1906, Myzophyllobothrium Shipley et Hornell, 1906 and Thysanocephalum Linton, 1889). The morphology of the "metascolex" of Rhoptrobothrium is investigated and new terminology is suggested to standardise the names given to structures constituting a metascolex. As a result, Rhoptrobothrium is considered to possess cephalic peduncle extensions, termed remi. In Rhoptrobothrium, each remus bears, at its distal end, a primary areola, and, in the case of the three new species, also a secondary areola proximal to the primary areola. Myzocephalus and Myzophyllobothrium are tentatively considered to possess remi; the configuration of the "metascolex" of Thysanocephalum, however, is not considered homologous to the condition in the other three genera currently placed in the Thysanocephalinae.
There are essentially no reports on the use of modern biotechnological methods on the study of cestode parasites in the Philippines, Indonesia or Malaysia. The only recent reports of cestode studies in these countries have been on reports of new species in animals and on prevalence rates of cestode parasites in humans; Taenia solium and cysticercosis, Taenia saginata and Hymenolepis nana, etc. Reports on the use of biotechnology has emanated from outside the area on cestodes of humans and animals, and some of these methods could be used to study cestodes in this part of the world.
Thirty snakehead fish, Channa micropeltes (Cuvier, 1831) were collected at Lake Kenyir, Malaysia. Muscle, liver, intestine and kidney tissues were removed from each fish and the intestine was opened to reveal cestodes. In order to assess the concentration of heavy metal in the environment, samples of water in the surface layer and sediment were also collected. Tissues were digested and the concentrations of manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were analysed by using inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipment. The results demonstrated that the cestode Senga parva (Fernando and Furtado, 1964) from fish hosts accumulated some heavy metals to a greater extent than the water and some fish tissues, but less than the sediment. In three (Pb, Zn and Mn) of the five elements measured, cestodes accumulated the highest metal concentrations, and in remaining two (Cu and Cd), the second highest metal accumulation was recorded in the cestodes when compared to host tissues. Therefore, the present study indicated that Senga parva accumulated metals and might have potential as a bioindicator of heavy-metal pollution.
In this study we take a closer look at the diseases that afflicted Japanese police officers who were stationed in a remote mountainous region of Taiwan from 1921 to 1944. Samples were taken from the latrine at the Huabanuo police outpost, and analyzed for the eggs of intestinal parasites, using microscopy and ELISA. The eggs of Eurytrema sp., (possibly E. pancreaticum), whipworm and roundworm were shown to be present. True infection with Eurytrema would indicate that the policemen ate uncooked grasshoppers and crickets infected with the parasite. However, false parasitism might also occur if the policemen ate the uncooked intestines of infected cattle, and the Eurytrema eggs passed through the human intestines. These findings provide an insight into the diet and health of the Japanese colonists in Taiwan nearly a century ago.
Lesions associated with two species of tapeworms within the digestive tract of wild-caught specimens of the bull shark, Carcharhinus leucas, and the sicklefin weasel shark, Hemigaleus microstoma, from Malaysian Borneo are described. Portions of the glandular stomach and pyloric gut with parasites were removed and fixed in 10% formalin buffered in sea water. Whole mounts, histological sections of tissues with and without worms in situ, and scanning electron microscopy images of detached worms were examined. Both species of cestodes belonged to the trypanorhynch family Tentaculariidae. Heteronybelinia estigmena was found in large numbers parasitizing the pyloric gut of C. leucas; an unidentified tentaculariid was found in relatively small numbers in both the glandular stomach and pyloric gut of H. microstoma. Both species burrowed their scoleces deeply in the mucosa and attached via hooked tentacles and unciniform microtriches of the scolex. The lesions induced by the parasites were marked in both sharks and ranged from acute necrotizing to chronic granulomatous gastroenteritis. Regenerative hyperplasia and intestinal metaplasia of gastric epithelium were also present. The severity and character of pathology was causally linked to the intensity of infection, the attachment mode of the parasites, and to the anatomophysiological relationships within the gut of the host shark.
Numerous global reports of the species Udonella caligorum, currently thought to be a species complex, suggests that the group may be species-rich. Herein we describe Udonella fugu n. sp., previously described as U. caligorum, found on the parasitic copepod Pseudocaligus fugu infecting Takifugu spp. from Japan. Using morphological data U. fugu can be distinguished from the current valid species by at least one of the traditionally used characters in udonellid taxonomy, and phylogenetic analyses of ssrDNA sequence data for U. fugu and other udonellids confirm that U. fugu forms a distinct clade from other udonellids including U. caligorum. Variable regions in the ssrDNA demonstrated a range of between 2.75 and 5.5% difference between currently recognized species of Udonella. These differences in ssrDNA sequences are phylogenetically useful when distinguishing between morphologically similar udonellids and can be used in conjunction with other data (morphology, phylogeography and fish host) to help clarify udonellid systematics. Udonella fugu was also found to cause significant damage to farmed tiger puffers through their feeding activities. Individual skin lesions were round in shape but merged with adjoining lesions to form more extensive lacerations. In some of the specimens from P. fugu infecting Takifugu niphobles, the protozoan ciliate Trichodina was found on the udonellid body surface and in their intestinal contents. We conclude that the udonellids are a more species-rich group than currently recognized, that early descriptions of new species may have been synonymized with U. caligorum in error and that the frequent global reports of U. caligorum may actually represent new species. This has led to a wide range of morphological descriptions for U. caligorum, blurring the usefulness of morphological data for the group.
The ornamental fish trade provides a pathway for the global translocation of aquatic parasites. We examined a total of 1020 fish imported from Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, or Sri Lanka to Australia (including freshwater and marine fish species) for monogenean ectoparasites. Fish were received following veterinary certification that they showed no clinical signs of pests and diseases from the exporting country and visual inspection at Australian border control. Australian import conditions require mandatory treatment for goldfish with parasiticides (e.g. trichlorfon, formaldehyde, sodium chloride) for the presence of gill flukes (Dactylogyrus vastator Nybelin, 1924 and Dactylogyrus extensus Mueller and Van Cleave, 1932) prior to export. Over 950 individual parasites were detected in five imported fish species, representing 14 monogenean species. Seven Dactylogyrus spp. including D. vastator and three Gyrodactylus spp. infected goldfish, Carassius auratus Linnaeus, 1758, from Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand. Dactylogyrus ostraviensis Řehulka, 1988, infected rosy barb, Pethia conchonius Hamilton, 1822, from Singapore, Sri Lanka, and Thailand while two Trianchoratus spp. infected three spot gourami, Trichopodus trichopterus Pallas, 1970 and pearl gourami Trichopodus leerii Bleeker, 1852, from Sri Lanka. Urocleidoides reticulatus Mizelle & Price, 1964, infected guppy, Poecilia reticulata Peters, 1859, from Sri Lanka. The discovery of D. vastator in goldfish, as well as 13 other monogenean species, shows that pre-export health requirements, which include chemical treatment of goldfish, and inspection of all ornamental fish species did not prevent infection by monogeneans. Inspection prior to exportation and at border control must account for the highly cryptic nature of monogenean parasites and consider alternatives to current pre-export conditions and visual inspection at border control.
The lecanicephalidean cestodes parasitizing the spiral intestine of the endangered giant freshwater whipray, Urogymnus polylepis (Bleeker), are investigated for the first time. Eight host specimens were collected between 2002 and 2008 at 2 collecting sites off the eastern coast of Borneo: 6 from the Kinabatangan River (Malaysia) and 2 from a fish market in Tarakan (Indonesia). Two of these individuals were found to be infected with a total of 3 new species of TetragonocephalumShipley and Hornell, 1905. Tetragonocephalum georgei n. sp. and Tetragonocephalum opimum n. sp. were recovered from a host specimen from the Kinabatangan River, and Tetragonocephalum levicorpum n. sp. was found parasitizing a host specimen purchased at a fish market in Tarakan. Specimens of each of the new species were prepared for light microscopy; specimens of 2 of the new species were prepared for scanning electron microscopy, and histological sections were prepared for 1 of the new species. The 3 new species are distinct from the 9 valid species of Tetragonocephalum and the 1 species inquirendum based on, for example, total length, number of proglottids and testes, and size of the scolex and acetabula. Tetragonocephalum georgei n. sp. and T. levicorpum n. sp. are unusual among their congeners in that they are euapolytic (i.e., gravid proglottids were not observed) rather than apolytic. They differ from one another in scolex and acetabula size. Tetragonocephalum opimum n. sp. is unusual among its congeners in its possession of vitelline follicles arranged in 2, rather than 3, regions in the proglottid. These new species increase the total number of valid species of Tetragonocephalum to 12 and the total number of known cestodes from U. polylepis to 13 species across 6 genera in 4 orders. This is the first account of lecanicephalideans reported from freshwater. The taxonomic status of each of the 32 nominal taxa historically associated with Tetragonocephalum is re-assessed. Type host identities of all valid species are revised and discussed in light of recent taxonomic efforts in the Dasyatidae Jordan and Gilbert.