METHODS: One-hundred and twenty-one women (mean age 59 (± 4) years) were randomized into two groups: control (n = 60; regular milk, 428 mg calcium per day) or intervention (n = 61; fortified milk at 1200 mg calcium, 96 mg magnesium, 2.4 mg zinc, 15 μg vitamin D and 4 g FOS-inulin per day). At baseline, weeks 12, 24, 36 and 52, parathyroid hormone (PTH), C-Telopeptide of Type I Collagen (CTx-1), Procollagen I Intact N-Terminal propeptide (PINP) and vitamin D levels were assessed. Bone density (BMD) was measured at baseline and week 52 using a GE Lunar iDXA.
RESULTS: Body mass index, lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD did not differ between groups at baseline. Over 52 weeks, mean plasma 25 (OH) D3 levels increased to 74.8 nmol/L (intervention group) or remained at 63.1 nmol/L (control group) (p
METHODS: One hundred and ninety-seven healthy women, aged 25 to 60, were selected from a hospital staff health screening program; 68% were Chinese, 18% Malay, and 14% Indian. P1NP, CTX, and 25-OHD(3) were measured using the Roche Cobas® electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Serum PTH was measured using the Siemens ADVIA Centaur® immunoassay.
RESULTS: Sixty-five percent had 25-OHD(3) concentrations <50 nmol/l. Vitamin D insufficiency (25-OHD(3) < 50 nmol/l) was more prevalent in Malays (89%) and Indians (82%) compared to Chinese (56%). There was no correlation between vitamin D and age. PTH positively correlated with age, and Malays and Indians had higher PTH concentrations than Chinese. There was an inverse correlation between PTH and 25-OHD(3), but no threshold of 25-OHD(3) concentrations at which PTH plateaued. The bone turnover markers P1NP and CTX inversely correlated with age but were not different between ethnic groups. CTX and P1NP exhibited good correlation, however, there was no significant correlation between 25-OHD(3) or PTH concentrations and the bone turnover markers P1NP and CTX.
CONCLUSIONS: Healthy women in Singapore have a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency. Vitamin D insufficiency was more prevalent in Malays and Indians compared to Chinese.
METHODS: Premenopausal women (n = 136, mean age 41 (±5) years) and postmenopausal women [n = 121, mean age 59 (±4) years] were recruited, and each age group randomised into two groups to take two glasses per day of control = regular milk (500 mg calcium per day) or intervention (Int) = fortified milk (1000 mg calcium for pre-M women and 1200 mg calcium for PM women, 96 mg magnesium, 2.4 mg zinc, 15 µg vitamin D, 4 g FOS-inulin per day). At baseline, week 4 and week 12 serum minerals and bone biochemical markers were measured and bone density was measured at baseline.
RESULTS: Mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) vitamin D3] levels among groups were between 49 and 65 nmol/L at baseline, and over the 12 weeks of supplementation, the fortified milk improved vitamin D status in both Int groups. CTx-1 and PINP reduced significantly in both Pre-M and PM groups over the 12 weeks, with the changes in CTx-1 being significantly different (P