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  1. Roslina Mohammad, Zamree Amin, Norazli Othman
    MyJurnal
    The aim of this paper is to identify, review and carry out comparison to seven guidelines where the main focus is on its risk
    assessment elements related to confined space activities. This is due to lack of the specific approach of the Legislation for confined
    space such as entry procedure requirements, risk assessment method, existing practice of risk assessment is too general and additional
    references are required for conducting risk assessment which would lead to poor response from industries. The selected guidelines will
    be summarized on its requirements, followed by a review of each guideline and finally the comparison of Legislations will be carried
    out. The results from the study would be used as a contribution factor to promote an ideal method in developing an effective risk
    assessment tools for working safely in confined space. Furthermore, several literatures which have been referred could give additional
    input for developing the risk assessment tools.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confined Spaces
  2. Yusof Hamzah, Naurah Mat Isa, Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus
    MyJurnal
    Covalently cross-linked nanogels were prepared via irradiation of inverse micelles that had been preparedfrom radiation crosslinkable polymer, water, oil and surfactant. A mixture of polymer, water, heptane andsodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) at certain compositions forms inverse micelles with the size rangingfrom 2 to 8 nm. The hydrophilic head of the surfactant facilitates encapsulation of water soluble polymer.If the entrapped polymer is radiation crosslinkable, it is expected that upon irradiation, polymerizationshall take place in such small and confined space, leading to formation of nano-sized polymeric gel.Meanwhile, emulsion at 2 nm size was chosen for gamma irradiation process. The formation of thenano-sized discreet gel using irradiation of inverse micelles technique was proven at a dose as low as 5kGy to obtain nanogel sized ~ 95 nm.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confined Spaces
  3. Sekhon PS, Karthigesu IT
    Solid waste collection has been a major challenge for local council Municipal workers in urban areas where the population is growing rapidly and the need for local councils to ensure they provide service to clear solid waste in a timely manner without disrupting the existing system. This case study is a review of awareness of health and safety among municipal workers on solid waste collection. The study is an examination of such awareness in Malaysia which involves the Petaling Jaya City Council in the state of Selangor. We review the operating system of the Petaling Jaya City Council and the risks which are being exposed to the municipal workers in their daily operations. Health and Safety of municipal workers in the areas of public health, safety, and industrial hygiene has been a concern for a long time. In most cases the majority of municipal workers exposed are from the contractual aspect of outsourced labour. It is important to understand how large the area of a solid waste is and to identify, evaluate, and eliminate or control risks and hazards across the operation zone of the municipal workers which involves environmental and occupational demands. The data we find provides the latest perspectives on topics of widespread concern such contractors management, ergonomic safety, confined space, motor vehicle safety, machinery safety, fall hazard safety, electrical safety and emergency response. Management of legal requirements is also discovered to be important to ensure any organization conducting business is not in violation of any law, and if there is a change of process how is this being addressed. Finally, we look at the control measures needed to support a operation on a large scale where it will not endanger the health and safety of municipal workers when they are involved in solid waste management. The recommendation we have based on the review are to ensure there is a holistic approach and systems in place to address all the concerns that will be faced by the local municipal council in their daily operations and responsibilities at every level of the organization. Conclusion: Research material and data related to this area is limited and we hope future holistic research can be conducted to future enhance the study of health and safety effecting the municipal workers. Health and Safety management system and procedures are the key elements in ensuring a successful organization.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confined Spaces
  4. Muid S, Abu Bakar NA, Abdul Rahman T, Tengku Ismail TS, Kholin SF, Suvorov AV, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Dec;41(3):283-292.
    PMID: 31901913
    INTRODUCTION: Apart from inflammation and endothelial dysfunction, other key components in the development of atherogenesis include prothrombogenesis and oxidative stress. The effects of long-term confinement and isolation, exposure to radiation and different gravity forces during space travel could potentially increase the long-term risk of atherosclerosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study determining the status of prothrombogenesis and oxidative stress in six cosmonauts subjected to the longest duration of confined isolation period of 520 days in preparation for prospective undetermined manned space travel to Mars.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This collaborative research between the National Space Agency (ANGKASA), Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia and Institute of Biomedical Problems (IBMP), Russia was conducted at the Russian Academy of Sciences IBMP, Moscow, Russia. Six multi-national cosmonauts were assigned to live in a ground-based confined module for 520 days. Standard exercise and diet regime were instituted throughout the isolation phase. Six age, ethnic and gender-matched healthy, free-living ground controls were recruited in parallel. Serial serum and whole blood were analysed for biomarkers of prothrombogenesis [plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and homocysteine] and oxidative stress [oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) and malondialdehyde (MDA)].

    RESULTS: There were significantly lower concentrations of PAI-1 and homocysteine in cosmonauts during confinement compared to the controls. There were no significant differences seen in the concentrations of biomarkers of oxidative stress during confinement but there was a significant percentage change increment for serum MDA in cosmonauts.

    CONCLUSION: Long-term confinement decreased the risk of prothrombogenesis and this could be attributed to the exercise and diet regime which includes omega-3 fatty acids supplementation given to the crew members during their confinement period. However, oxidative damage could not be excluded and may be attributed to the influence of psychological stress during this prolonged confinement.

    Matched MeSH terms: Confined Spaces*
  5. Manivasagam, Dayanath
    MyJurnal
    The Department of Occupational Safety and Health Malaysia (DOSH) is the authority responsible to safeguard the occupational safety, health and welfare of workers in Malaysia. Occupational noise-related hearing disorders are the leading type of occupational diseases recorded by DOSH every year. Occupational Health Doctor (OHD) is a competency recognized by DOSH and their scope of duties in industries is currently confined to conduct medical surveillance for workers with hazardous chemical exposure and confined space medical fitness examination. The duties of OHD are good to be expanded by empowering more of their roles in industrial activities involving other legislations under DOSH. The noise exposure regulation under the Factories and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967 has been governing the worker’s exposure to hazardous industrial noise and preventing noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) since 1989. However, the provisions of the regulation need to be strengthened in some essential medical elements of the Hearing Conservation Programme (HCP) for a comprehensive prevention of NIHL at the workplace. Recently enacted Occupational Safety and Health (Noise Exposure) Regulations 2019 offer a wider coverage of workers in ten sectors of industries applicable under the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994. The current regulatory requirements for management of workplace noise have many improvements compared to the existing law. Enhancement in the medical requirements of industrial audiometry is made prominent by involving OHDs to interpret audiograms and conduct medical examination for workers. The reporting of occupational noise-related hearing disorders to DOSH is outlined better in the new regulation. The occurrence of NIHL and other related hearing disorders are expected to reduce eventually after the introduction of Occupational Safety and Health (Noise Exposure) Regulations 2019. The OHDs will play a pivotal role in industrial audiometry and prevention of hearing disorders among the working population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confined Spaces
  6. Tee HS, Saad AR, Lee CY
    J. Econ. Entomol., 2011 Dec;104(6):2031-8.
    PMID: 22299367
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Aprostocetus hagenowii (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to control American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), in sewer manholes and in crevices around buildings. Parasitoids were released weekly for 12 wk from laboratory parasitized heat-killed oothecae, and parasitism monitored using sentinel oothecae of American cockroaches. In addition, preference of A. hagenowii for 1- to 4-wk-old oothecae was evaluated in the laboratory. A. hagenowii females showed no preference for any ootheca age. Twenty of the 30 tested females parasitized one ootheca, whereas the other 10 parasitized two oothecae. The total progeny (males, females, and total) that emerged from a single ootheca parasitized by a female was not significantly different to the total progeny that emerged from two oothecae parasitized by a female. The number of males, females, and total progeny that emerged from the second parasitized ootheca was significantly less than the number that emerged from the first parasitized ootheca. The weekly mean sentinel oothecal parasitism rate in wall crevices was 18.1 +/- 3.2% and in sewer manholes was 13.3 +/- 2.0%. The mean number of released A. hagenowii females per number of parasitized sentinel oothecae recorded in crevices was 189 +/- 18, whereas it was 428 +/- 50 in sewers. A. hagenowii females were more effective at parasitizing sentinel oothecae placed at high and middle levels in manholes than at a low level when releases were made at the midpoint of the manhole shaft.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confined Spaces
  7. Thuhairah Rahman, Radzi Ahmad, Suhaila Muid, Tengku Saifudin Tengku Ismail, Buravkova, Ludmila B., Hapizah Nawawi
    MyJurnal
    Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are key components in atherogenesis. Should the status of these pro-atherogenesis factors be enhanced during prolonged confined space travel, specific countermeasures need to be instituted to prevent these processes to ensure safe outcome for astronauts during space expeditions. Six crew members were exposed to prolonged, confined isolation for 520 days. Standard exercise and diet regime were instituted throughout isolation phase. Age and gender-matched healthy, free living controls were recruited in parallel. Serial serum and whole blood were analysed for biomarkers of inflammation (hsCRP and IL-6) and endothelial activation (sICAM-1, sVCAM-1 and E-selectin). Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the artery was performed following the standard protocols set by the International Brachial Artery Reactivity Task Force by trained personnel. There was decreased sVCAM-1 concentration in crew members compared to baseline. However, there was significant decrease in percentage dilatation from baseline in FMD of the brachial artery in the crew members. Percent change increment was observed in hsCRP while percent change reduction was seen in sVCAM-1. The enhanced inflammation and reduced endothelial function could possibly be attributed to the rigorous exercise instituted throughout the confinement period. Furthermore, possible haemoconcentration as a result of psychosocial stress and/ or exercise-induced physiological response could further explain elevations in hsCRP, and unlikely pathological. Furthermore, endothelial activation was attenuated during isolation, suggesting that the diet and exercise program instated throughout the period improved endothelial function.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confined Spaces
  8. Reuben U, Ismail AF, Ahmad AL, Maina HM, Daud A
    PMID: 31013942 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16081334
    : The chemicals from laboratories pose a significant risk forinducing erythema, an abnormal redness of the skin, as a result of poor occupational and environmental factors that promote hypersensitivity to a chemical agent. The aim of this present study was to determine the occupational and environmental risk factors influencing the inducement of erythema in laboratory workers due to exposure to chemicals. This was a cross-sectional study on a population-based sample of Nigerian university laboratory workers. Data were collected using the erythema index meter and an indoor air control meter. The study included 287 laboratory workers. The laboratory workers who properly used personal protective equipment (PPE) were 60% less likely to have induced erythema (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.40; 95% confidence interval CI: 0.22-0.77; probability value p = 0.011). The chemical mixture exceeding the permissible exposure limit (PEL) was found to have a small effect in inducing the erythema (AOR = 4.22; 95%CI: 2.88-12.11; p = 0.004). Most of the sampled laboratories where the respondents worked had unsuitable temperatures (AOR = 8.21; 95% CI: 4.03-15.01; p = 0.001). Erythema was more frequently found in the respondents who spent 4-5h in the laboratory (AOR = 3.11; 95%CI: 1.77-9.23; p = 0.001). However, high levels of ventilation reduce the likelihood of erythema in a laboratory by 82% (0.18). Multiple logistic regressions revealed that PPE, PEL, exposure time, temperature, and ventilation were the probable predictive factors associated with the inducement of erythema. Providing better educational knowledge and improving the attitude towards hazards and safety in a laboratory would lead to reduced rates of new cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Confined Spaces
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