Displaying all 8 publications

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  1. Morano JP, Zelenev A, Walton MR, Bruce RD, Altice FL
    Am J Public Health, 2014 Aug;104(8):1508-15.
    PMID: 24922157 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.301897
    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficacy of a mobile medical clinic (MMC) screening program for detecting latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis.
    METHODS: A LTBI screening program in a MMC in New Haven, Connecticut, used medical surveys to examine risk factors and tuberculin skin test (TST) screening eligibility. We assessed clinically relevant correlates of total (prevalent; n = 4650) and newly diagnosed (incident; n = 4159) LTBI from 2003 to 2011.
    RESULTS: Among 8322 individuals, 4159 (55.6%) met TST screening eligibility criteria, of which 1325 (31.9%) had TST assessed. Similar to LTBI prevalence (16.8%; 779 of 4650), newly diagnosed LTBI (25.6%; 339 of 1325) was independently correlated with being foreign-born (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 8.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.54, 13.02), Hispanic (AOR = 3.12; 95% CI = 1.88, 5.20), Black (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.31, 3.55), employed (AOR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.14, 2.28), and of increased age (AOR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.05). Unstable housing (AOR = 4.95; 95% CI = 3.43, 7.14) and marijuana use (AOR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.37) were significantly correlated with incident LTBI, and being male, heroin use, interpersonal violence, employment, not having health insurance, and not completing high school were significantly correlated with prevalent LTBI.
    CONCLUSIONS: Screening for TST in MMCs successfully identifies high-risk foreign-born, Hispanic, working, and uninsured populations and innovatively identifies LTBI in urban settings.
    Study site: Mobile clinic, New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    Matched MeSH terms: Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data
  2. Lim SH, Pan A
    Epilepsia, 2005;46 Suppl 1:48-9.
    PMID: 15816980
    Knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of epilepsy (KAPE) among the public play a major role in determining the extent to which people with epilepsy can be integrated into their society.
    Matched MeSH terms: Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data
  3. Aziz Z
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2004 Jun;29(3):241-6.
    PMID: 15153085
    We hypothesized that as the use of herbal medicines increases in the general population, so do patients' requests to physicians for recommendations. However, why some physicians recommend herbal medicines while others do not is not well understood.
    Matched MeSH terms: Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data
  4. Mohd Noor MS, Khoo LS, Zamaliana Alias WZ, Hasmi AH, Ibrahim MA, Mahmood MS
    Forensic Sci. Int., 2017 Sep;278:410.e1-410.e9.
    PMID: 28698062 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2017.05.014
    The first ever mass identification operation of skeletal remains conducted for the clandestine graves in Malaysia consisted of 165 individuals unearthed from 28 human trafficking transit camps located in Wang Kelian, along the Thai-Malaysia border. A DVI response was triggered in which expert teams comprising of pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists, radiologists and DNA experts were gathered at the identified operation centre. The Department of Forensic Medicine, Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Star, Kedah, located approximately 75km away from Wang Kelian, was temporarily converted into a victim identification centre (VIC) as it is the nearest available forensic facility to the mass grave site. The mortuary operation was conducted over a period of 3 months from June to September 2015, and was divided into two phases; phase 1 involving the postmortem examination of the remains of 116 suspected individuals and for phase 2 the remains of 49 suspected individuals. The fact that the graves were of unknown individuals afforded the mass identification operation a sufficient duration of 2 weeks as preparatory phase enabling procedurals and daily victim identification workflow to be established, and the setting up of a temporary body storage for the designated mortuary. The temporary body storage has proven to be a significant factor in enabling the successful conclusion of the VIC operation to the final phase of temporary controlled burials. Recognition from two international observers, Mr. Andréas Patiño Umaña, from the International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) and Prof. Noel Woodford from Victoria Institute of Forensic Medicine (VIFM) had proven the mortuary operation was in compliance to the international quality and standards. The overall victim identification and mortuary operation identified a number of significant challenges, in particular the management of commingled human remains as well as the compilation of postmortem data in the absence of antemortem data for future reconciliation. CF Index in this DVI operation is 9%, indicating the primary identifications in this operation were effective. Limitations and further improvements of the mass identification operation will be discussed. This paper details the planning, preparations and management of the mass identification operation on the exhumed human remains which was also a forensic humanitarian service for the dead with dignity and respect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data
  5. Akhabue E, Perak AM, Chan C, Greenland P, Allen NB
    J. Pediatr., 2018 11;202:98-105.e6.
    PMID: 30177351 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2018.07.023
    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether racial differences in rates of change in body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) percentiles emerge during distinct periods of childhood.

    STUDY DESIGN: In this retrospective cohort study, we included children aged 5-20 years who received regular outpatient care at a large academic medical center between January 1996 and April 2016. BMI was expressed as age- and sex-specific percentiles and BP as age-, sex-, and height-specific percentiles. Linear mixed models incorporating linear spline functions with 2 breakpoints at 9 and 12 years of age were used to estimate the changes in BMI and BP percentiles over time during age periods: <9, 9-<12, and >12 years of age.

    RESULTS: Among 5703 children (24.8% black, 10.1% Hispanic), Hispanic females had an increased rate of change in BMI percentile per year relative to white females during ages 5-9 years (+2.94%; 95% CI, 0.24-5.64; P = .033). Black and Hispanic males also had an increased rate of change in BMI percentile per year relative to white males that occurred from ages 5-9 (+2.35% [95% CI, 0.76-3.94; P = .004]; +2.63% [95% CI, 0.31-4.95; P = .026], respectively). There were no significant racial differences in the rate of change of BP percentiles, although black females had higher hypertension rates compared with white females (10.0% vs 5.7%; P 

    Matched MeSH terms: Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data*
  6. Chan WK, Tan AT, Vethakkan SR, Tah PC, Vijayananthan A, Goh KL
    Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol, 2014 Jun;38(3):284-91.
    PMID: 24736032 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinre.2014.02.009
    BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular diseases are both common among patients with diabetes mellitus.
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine if ultrasonography-diagnosed NAFLD is associated with prevalent ischemic heart disease (IHD) among patients with diabetes mellitus.
    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study on consecutive patients seen at the Diabetic Clinic, University of Malaya Medical Centre. The medical record for each patient was reviewed for documented IHD. Patients without documented IHD but had symptoms and/or electrocardiographic changes suggestive of IHD were referred for cardiac evaluation.
    RESULTS: Data for 399 patients were analyzed. Mean age was 62.8±10.5 years with 43.1% male. NAFLD and IHD were present in 49.6 and 26.6%, respectively. The prevalence of IHD among patients with and without NAFLD was 24.7 and 28.4%, respectively (P=0.414). The prevalence of IHD was highest among the Indians (34.1%) followed by the Malays (29.2%) and the Chinese (20.1%). No association was found between NAFLD and IHD when analyzed according to ethnicity. On multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with IHD were older age, lower levels of physical activity, greater waist circumference and higher serum glycated hemoglobin level.
    CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonography-diagnosed NAFLD was not associated with prevalent IHD among patients with diabetes mellitus in a multiracial Asian hospital clinic population.

    Study site: Diabetic clinc, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC)
    Matched MeSH terms: Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data
  7. Loh BI, Sathyasuryan DR, Mohamed HJ
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(2):241-8.
    PMID: 23635368 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.2.04
    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; p<0.001). It was found that in individuals who consumed 1 unit of foods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.
    Matched MeSH terms: Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data
  8. Chang CT, Esterman A
    Rural Remote Health, 2007 Apr-Jun;7(2):667.
    PMID: 17511524
    Delayed diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) can lead to an increased period of infectivity in the community, a delay in treatment and a severe form of the disease. The objective of this study was to determine the length of delay, and factors linking the delay from the onset of symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) until the commencement of treatment in Sarawak, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Continental Population Groups/statistics & numerical data
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