Displaying all 11 publications

  1. Nazni WA, Jeffery J, Lee HL, Lailatul AM, Chew WK, Heo CC, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2011 Jun;33(1):53-6.
    PMID: 21874753 MyJurnal
    A 73-year-old Chinese man was admitted to the Accident and Emergency Premorbid Ward of a local hospital in Malaysia. The patient complained of shortness of breath with cough and was in a semi-conscious state. He was later admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) of the hospital. Six days after admission 5-6 maggots were recoverd from the nasal cavity. The maggots were identified as the third-instar larvae of Lucilia cuprina Wiedmann (Diptera: Calliphoridae) based on the morphological characteristics. This patient was classified as having nosocomial myiasis. The presence of the third instar larvae indicated that the infestation was not more than three to four days. An adult sarcophagid identified as Parasarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) caught in the ICU where the patient was warded provided further evidence of the potential for the nosocomial infestation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross Infection/etiology*
  2. Cheong I, Samsudin LM, Law GH
    Br J Clin Pract, 1996 Jul-Aug;50(5):237-9.
    PMID: 8794598
    Between July and December 1994, 25 patients with MRSA bacteraemia were treated at the Hospital Kuala Lumpur, a tertiary hospital in Malaysia with 3000 beds. The patients included 15 males and 10 females whose mean age was 46.7 years (range 13-75). The sources of their MRSA were: Urology/Nephrology, 11; General ICU, six; Orthopaedic, four; Medicine, three; Surgery, one. Their underlying diseases were: end-stage and chronic renal failure, 11; burns, three; acute necrotising pancreatitis, two; haematological malignancies, two; and one each of fracture of the neck of the femur, pustular psoriasis, alcoholic cirrhosis, liver abscess, peptic ulcer (antrectomy), choledochol cyst, and abdominal aneurysm with gangrene of the legs. Six patients were also diabetic. A total of 19 infections were considered nosocomial. The duration of hospital stay ranged from one to 60 days, mean 16 days. On the day of blood culture, 20 patients (80%) were febrile and 15(60%) had leucocytosis. A total of 14 patients were considered to have received prolonged broad-spectrum antibiotics before the bacteraemia; of these, 11 had had either a third-generation cephalosporin and/or a quinolone. The primary foci of infection were: vascular access dialysis catheters, six; infected AV fistulae, three; non-surgical wounds, five; orthopaedic pin, one; multiple venous lines and catheters, nine; unknown, one. The sensitivities to anti-MRSA antibiotics were: vancomycin, 100%; fusidic acid, 96%; rifampicin, 96%; ciprofloxacin and perfloxacin 28% each. In all, 13 patients (52%) eventually died; nine of these deaths were directly attributed to MRSA bacteraemia. The microbiological eradication rate was 88%. Mortality was significantly associated with duration of hospital stay and failure to remove the infected catheters/peripheral lines after the development of MRSA bacteraemia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross Infection/etiology
  3. Rosenthal VD, Al-Abdely HM, El-Kholy AA, AlKhawaja SAA, Leblebicioglu H, Mehta Y, et al.
    Am J Infect Control, 2016 12 01;44(12):1495-1504.
    PMID: 27742143 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2016.08.007
    BACKGROUND: We report the results of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2010-December 2015 in 703 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific.

    METHODS: During the 6-year study period, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection (DA-HAI), we collected prospective data from 861,284 patients hospitalized in INICC hospital ICUs for an aggregate of 3,506,562 days.

    RESULTS: Although device use in INICC ICUs was similar to that reported from CDC-NHSN ICUs, DA-HAI rates were higher in the INICC ICUs: in the INICC medical-surgical ICUs, the pooled rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection, 4.1 per 1,000 central line-days, was nearly 5-fold higher than the 0.8 per 1,000 central line-days reported from comparable US ICUs, the overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was also higher, 13.1 versus 0.9 per 1,000 ventilator-days, as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 5.07 versus 1.7 per 1,000 catheter-days. From blood cultures samples, frequencies of resistance of Pseudomonas isolates to amikacin (29.87% vs 10%) and to imipenem (44.3% vs 26.1%), and of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to ceftazidime (73.2% vs 28.8%) and to imipenem (43.27% vs 12.8%) were also higher in the INICC ICUs compared with CDC-NHSN ICUs.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although DA-HAIs in INICC ICU patients continue to be higher than the rates reported in CDC-NSHN ICUs representing the developed world, we have observed a significant trend toward the reduction of DA-HAI rates in INICC ICUs as shown in each international report. It is INICC's main goal to continue facilitating education, training, and basic and cost-effective tools and resources, such as standardized forms and an online platform, to tackle this problem effectively and systematically.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cross Infection/etiology*
  4. Sinniah D, Sandiford BR, Dugdale AE
    Clin Pediatr (Phila), 1972 Dec;11(12):690-2.
    PMID: 4639314
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross Infection/etiology
  5. Malik AS
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Mar;49(1):12-6.
    PMID: 8057984
    In view of controversial reports about the role of prelabour rupture of foetal membranes (PROM) in neonatal morbidity and to study the association of PROM with infections and meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), a prospective case control study was conducted in a level II nursery of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan. Of the 111 neonates with PROM studied, 18 developed clinical problems (septicaemia and other specific problems such as pneumonia, omphalitis, skin infection and MAS) while 5/56 of the control group developed similar problems. The difference between the two groups was not significant (p < 0.30). There was no neonatal death. It is concluded that PROM is not associated with neonatal morbidity. Neonates with this problem alone do not need to be admitted to the neonatal nursery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross Infection/etiology*
  6. Abbasi SH, Aftab RA, Chua SS
    PLoS One, 2020;15(6):e0234376.
    PMID: 32569265 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234376
    BACKGROUND: Profound healthcare challenges confront societies with an increase in prevalence of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), which is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Due to several facility and patient related factors, ESRD is significantly associated with increased morbidity and mortality attributed to infections.

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess systematically the characteristics of patients and risk factors associated with nosocomial infections among ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis.

    METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed to identify eligible studies published during the period from inception to December 2018 pertaining to risk factors associated with nosocomial infections among hemodialysis patients. The relevant studies were generated through a computerized search on five databases (PubMed, EBSCOhost, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Scopus) using the Mesh Words: nosocomial infections, hospital acquired infections, healthcare associated infections, end stage renal disease, end stage renal failure, hemodialysis, and risk factors. The complete protocol has been registered under PROSPERO (CRD42019124099).

    RESULTS: Initially, 1411 articles were retrieved. Out of these, 24 were duplicates and hence were removed. Out of 1387 remaining articles, 1337 were removed based on irrelevant titles and/or abstracts. Subsequently, the full texts of 50 articles were reviewed and 41 studies were excluded at this stage due to lack of relevant information. Finally, nine articles were selected for this review. Longer hospital stay, longer duration on hemodialysis, multiple catheter sites, longer catheterization, age group, lower white blood cell count, history of blood transfusion, and diabetes were identified as the major risk factors for nosocomial infections among hemodialysis patients.

    CONCLUSION: The results of this review indicate an information gap and potential benefits of additional preventive measures to further reduce the risk of infections in hemodialysis population. Moreover, several patient-related and facility-related risk factors were consistently observed in the studies included in this review, which require optimal control measures.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cross Infection/etiology*
  7. Malik AS, Pennie RA
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Mar;49(1):17-23.
    PMID: 8057985
    A prospective study of 486 high risk neonates admitted to a level II nursery in a relatively poor and rural area of Malaysia was carried out to determine the incidence, the spectrum of micro-organisms and predisposing factors in relation to early onset septicaemia. The incidence of proven or probable septicaemia was 57.61 per 1000 high risk newborns over 1.5 kg. The case fatality was 10.71 per cent. Coagulase negative staphylococci, Streptococcus Group B and Klebsiella species were the most commonly isolated organisms. Meconium staining of liquor was the most common risk factor for admission to the nursery, and prematurity was the most significant risk factor for early neonatal infection (P < 0.005) followed by small for gestational age (P < 0.04). Although the incidence of septicaemia was quite high in the level II nursery, the mortality rate was comparable to established figures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross Infection/etiology*
  8. Habsah H, Zeehaida M, Van Rostenberghe H, Noraida R, Wan Pauzi WI, Fatimah I, et al.
    J Hosp Infect, 2005 Nov;61(3):213-8.
    PMID: 16213372
    Contaminated parenteral nutrition (PN) is an important source of infection in neonates. Many organisms have been reported to cause contamination that results in outbreaks in intensive care units. The objective of this study was to investigate an outbreak caused by Pantoea spp., which contaminates PN, in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). This was a descriptive study of an outbreak of sepsis in an NICU of a tertiary teaching hospital in Malaysia. Pantoea spp. infection was detected in eight patients over a three-day period from 24 to 27 January 2004 following the administration of PN. Seven of the eight patients died due to the infection. Extensive environmental samplings for culture were performed. PN solution from the NICU and the pharmacy were also cultured during the outbreak period. Pantoea spp. was isolated from blood cultures of all infected patients, and the unused PN from the pharmacy and the NICU. All the strains of Pantoea spp. had a similar antibiotic susceptibility pattern and biochemical reaction. From the results, we concluded that PN was the source of the outbreak and the contamination may have occurred during its preparation in the pharmacy. A thorough investigation has been carried out and, where possible, corrective measures have been taken to avoid similar outbreaks in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross Infection/etiology
  9. Hassan SA, Rahman RA, Huda N, Wan Bebakar WM, Lee YY
    J R Coll Physicians Edinb, 2013;43(2):103-7.
    PMID: 23734349 DOI: 10.4997/JRCPE.2013.203
    Clostridum difficile (C. difficile) infection is increasingly seen among hospitalised patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus but its rate and associated risk factors are not known. We aimed to determine the rate and characteristics of hospital-acquired C. difficile infection in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus admitted into acute medical wards.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross Infection/etiology*
  10. Ho CM, Khuzaiah R, Yasmin AM
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Mar;49(1):29-35.
    PMID: 8057987
    Primary varicella-zoster virus infection in children with haematological malignancy is a life threatening disease. In one year, there were 10 cases of varicella and 2 cases of zoster among these children as well as 5 mothers who were accompanying their children who developed varicella in the oncology ward. Two children died of fulminating disease despite aggressive antiviral and supportive treatment. Acyclovir can be used in treatment and prophylaxis in exposed susceptible children. Varicella -zoster immune globulin is not available in this country. Vaccination with live virus has been shown to be protective in immunocompromised children and needs consideration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross Infection/etiology
  11. Peirce K, Roberts P, Ali J, Coombes J, Matson P
    Hum Fertil (Camb), 2018 Sep;21(3):174-182.
    PMID: 28589740 DOI: 10.1080/14647273.2017.1334131
    Scientists working in assisted reproduction [members of Scientists in Reproductive Technology (SIRT) Australia, and subscribers of the online forums EmbryoMail and Quartec] were invited to complete an online questionnaire on the use of human blood products in assisted reproductive technologies (ART). A total of 260 started the questionnaire, with 208 (80%) completing it. A total of 62% of respondents had worked in human ART ≥8 years and 68% had post-graduate qualifications. The majority (82%) reported using products of animal or human origin, with 75% knowing why protein was added to culture media and 41% not worried by this. Almost half (49%) of respondents were unaware of regulations surrounding the use of human blood products in health care and 70% were unaware of adverse events involving human blood products in human ART. Most respondents (70%) indicated that they were not concerned about infections such as hepatitis, but agents such as prions were a cause for concern (57%). A total of 57% of respondents were unaware of alternatives, but 77% would use a suitable alternative. Using blood products in human ART is surrounded by a lack of awareness, often independent of respondents' qualifications or experience. A better understanding of these products and possible alternatives is required if informed decisions about their suitability are to be made.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cross Infection/etiology
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