• 1 International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Electronic address:
  • 2 General Directorate of Infection Prevention and Control, Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia
  • 3 Cairo University Hospital, Cairo; Dar Al Fouad Hospital, 6th of October City, Egypt
  • 4 General Directorate of Infection Prevention and Control, Ministry of Health, Bahrain
  • 5 Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School, Samsun, Turkey
  • 6 Medanta The Medicity, New Delhi, India
  • 7 University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  • 8 Bach Mai Hospital, Hanoi, Vietnam
  • 9 American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon
  • 10 Mubarak Al Kabir Hospital, Kuwait City, Kuwait
  • 11 Clínica La Merced, Quito, Ecuador
  • 12 Dubai Hospital, Dubai, United Arab Emirates
  • 13 Hospital Civil de Guadalajara Fray Antonio Alcalde Infection Control Committee, Guadalajara, Mexico
  • 14 Thammasat University Hospital, Pratumthani, Thailand
  • 15 Hospital de Messejana, Fortaleza, Brazil
  • 16 Intermed Hospital, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia
  • 17 National University Hospital Singapore, Singapore, Singapore
  • 18 Philippine Heart Center, Manila, Philippines
  • 19 St George University Hospital, Plovdiv, Bulgaria
  • 20 Hospital Clínica Bíblica, San Jose, Costa Rica
  • 21 Nemazee Hospital Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
  • 22 Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Kauno Klinikos, Kaunas, Lithuania
  • 23 Special Hospital for Surgical Diseases Filip Vtori, Skopje, Macedonia
  • 24 Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
  • 25 Hospital del Niño de Panama, Panama
  • 26 Wroclaw University Hospital, Wroclaw, Poland
  • 27 Hospital General de La Plaza de La Salud, Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic
  • 28 University of Medicine and Pharmacy Victor Babes Timisoara Emergency County Clinical Hospital, Timisoara, Romania
  • 29 Privolzhskiy District Medical Center, Nizhniy Novgorod, Russia
  • 30 Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia
  • 31 Hospital de Clínicas Caracas, Caracas, Venezuela
  • 32 Catholic University in Ruzomberok Faculty Of Health Central Military Hospital Ruzomberok, Ruzomberok, Slovakia
  • 33 Hospital Episcopal San Lucas, Guayama, Puerto Rico
  • 34 Bahry Teaching Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan
  • 35 Ciptomangunkusumo, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • 36 Port Moresby General Hospital, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea
  • 37 Ibn Sina Hospital of Morocco, Rabat, Morocco
  • 38 National Institute for Public Health of Kosovo and Medical School, Prishtina University, Prishtina, Kosovo
  • 39 Joaquin Albarran, La Habana, Cuba
  • 40 Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, China
  • 41 Hospital De Especialidades Del Instituto Hondureno De Seguridad Social, Tegucigalpa, Honduras
  • 42 Sri Jayewardenepura General Hospital, Nugegoda, Sri Lanka
  • 43 Children Hospital Bechir Hamza of Tunis, Tunis, Tunisia
  • 44 General and Oncological Hospital of Kiffissia, Athens, Greece
  • 45 Hospital Central De La Fuerza Aerea Del Peru, Lima, Peru
  • 46 Clínica Sanatorio Alemán, Concepcion, Chile
  • 47 Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell, Montevideo, Uruguay
  • 48 Grande International Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal
  • 49 Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, Bogotá, Colombia
  • 50 Caja de Salud De La Banca, La Paz, Bolivia
Am J Infect Control, 2016 12 01;44(12):1495-1504.
PMID: 27742143 DOI: 10.1016/j.ajic.2016.08.007


BACKGROUND: We report the results of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) surveillance study from January 2010-December 2015 in 703 intensive care units (ICUs) in Latin America, Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Pacific.

METHODS: During the 6-year study period, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection (DA-HAI), we collected prospective data from 861,284 patients hospitalized in INICC hospital ICUs for an aggregate of 3,506,562 days.

RESULTS: Although device use in INICC ICUs was similar to that reported from CDC-NHSN ICUs, DA-HAI rates were higher in the INICC ICUs: in the INICC medical-surgical ICUs, the pooled rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection, 4.1 per 1,000 central line-days, was nearly 5-fold higher than the 0.8 per 1,000 central line-days reported from comparable US ICUs, the overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was also higher, 13.1 versus 0.9 per 1,000 ventilator-days, as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 5.07 versus 1.7 per 1,000 catheter-days. From blood cultures samples, frequencies of resistance of Pseudomonas isolates to amikacin (29.87% vs 10%) and to imipenem (44.3% vs 26.1%), and of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to ceftazidime (73.2% vs 28.8%) and to imipenem (43.27% vs 12.8%) were also higher in the INICC ICUs compared with CDC-NHSN ICUs.

CONCLUSIONS: Although DA-HAIs in INICC ICU patients continue to be higher than the rates reported in CDC-NSHN ICUs representing the developed world, we have observed a significant trend toward the reduction of DA-HAI rates in INICC ICUs as shown in each international report. It is INICC's main goal to continue facilitating education, training, and basic and cost-effective tools and resources, such as standardized forms and an online platform, to tackle this problem effectively and systematically.

* Title and MeSH Headings from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.

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