Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 3757 in total

  1. Rodo Mohamud Hassan, Regidor-111 Dioso
    Background: In Africa high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found in regions of East Africa (0.3%),
    West Africa (0.7%), Central Africa (0.2%), South Africa (3.8%), and North Africa (12.5%).

    Aims: This meta-analysis aimed to analyze the prevalence of obesity among young adults, aged 18-25 years
    from five African countries.

    Methods: The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were applied to
    search published studies. of the 100 studies published as found in scientific databases from 2010 to 2017, only
    five were selected. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)
    checklist was used to eliminate other studies.

    Outcomes: A total of 22,320 obese young adults were analyzed to be prevalent. The obesity among adults in
    SouthAfrica was found to be correlated with less physical activities. In Uganda, the prevalence of obesity is
    683 which relates with their sedentary lifestyle and socio-demography. Among 371 young adults in Nigeria, the
    prevalence of obesity was 5.1% among male and 10% among female related to diet and other consumptions.
    Among 646 adults in Ghana, the prevalence of general obesity was observed to be related to genetics.

    Conclusion: Prevalence of the male gender was 9,509 having a p=0.284 (at 95% C.I.±4,440.87845-
    8,788.87845) with a mean score of 1,251, and a SD= 61,066. While the prevalence of obesity on females was
    10,874 having a p= 0.00019, (at 95% C.I.±3,592.07-6,094.07) with a mean score of 2,174, and SD= 3,375.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult*
  2. Marjoribanks RM, Le Sueur E
    DOI: 10.1016/S0035-9203(24)90769-3
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  3. Ramasamy K, Kanapaty Y, Abdul Gani N
    Malays Fam Physician, 2019;14(3):74-76.
    PMID: 32175046
    Oral squamous papillomas are benign neoplasms of the oral cavity that occur commonly on the palate. Albeit benign and often asymptomatic, they may still cause concern due to their appearance, which may mimic other malignant oral pathologies. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is usually implicated in papilloma pathogenesis. We present a rare case of symptomatic oral squamous papilloma arising from the uvula and causing tongue and throat irritation. This benign lesion was excised with electrocautery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  4. Williams B, Sadasivan S, Kadirvelu A, Olaussen A
    Adv Med Educ Pract, 2014;5:149-56.
    PMID: 24876799 DOI: 10.2147/AMEP.S58094
    BACKGROUND: The literature indicates that medical practitioners experience declining empathy levels in clinical practice. This highlights the need to educate medical students about empathy as an attribute early in the academic curriculum. The objective of this study was to evaluate year one students' self-reported empathy levels following a 2-hour empathy workshop at a large medical school in Malaysia.
    METHODS: Changes in empathy scores were examined using a paired repeated-measures t-test in this prospective before and after study.
    RESULTS: Analyzing the matched data, there was a statistically significant difference and moderate effect size between mean empathy scores before and 5 weeks after the workshop (112.08±10.67 versus 117.93±13.13, P<0.0001, d=0.48) using the Jefferson Scale Physician Empathy (Student Version).
    CONCLUSION: The results of this observational study indicate improved mean self-reported empathy scores following an empathy workshop.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; empathy; medical students
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  5. Low SF, Hanafiah M, Nurismah MI, Suraya A
    BMJ Case Rep, 2013;2013.
    PMID: 24057334 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2013-200790
    The patella is an uncommon site for all primary and metastatic bone tumours and primary intra-osseous tumours of the patella are very rare. A majority of the patella tumours are benign. We report a patient with a sudden onset swelling and pain of the right knee following a staircase fall. The plain radiograph showed an expansile multiseptated patella lesion and it was further assessed with an MRI. The radiological findings and the initial histopathological features from a limited sample were suggestive of a primary aneurysmal bone cyst. However, the final histopathological diagnosis from a more adequate specimen was a giant cell tumour with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  6. Loo GH, Mohamad Abu Zeid WM, Lim SL, Ismail AM
    Ann R Coll Surg Engl, 2017 Jul;99(6):e188-e190.
    PMID: 28660832 DOI: 10.1308/rcsann.2017.0104
    Enteroenteric intussusception is a condition in which the full-thickness bowel wall becomes telescoped into the lumen of distal bowel. Intussusception in adult occurs infrequently and varies from childhood intussusception, particularly in its presentation, aetiology and treatment. Duodenoduodenal intussusception is rare because the duodenum is fixed in the retroperitoneal position. It usually occurs secondary to tumour, lipoma, Brunner's gland hamartomatous polyp or adenoma. The diagnosis in adults is usually made at laparotomy, where presentation is with intestinal obstruction. In non-emergency presentation, it may be difficult to arrive at an accurate diagnosis as symptoms may be vague, self-limiting intermittent abdominal pain. Clinical examinations and investigations may not be conclusive and another working diagnosis such as irritable bowel syndrome would be made. We describe a case where a patient initially presented with symptoms mimicking pancreatitis but his symptoms persisted over the course of 2 weeks. When a laparotomy was performed, duodenoduodenal intussusception was discovered and confirmed with histopathology. In this case, a discernible leading point could not be identified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  7. Jamani NA, Puteri Shanaz JK, Azwanis AH
    Malays Fam Physician, 2018;13(1):52-54.
    PMID: 29796213 MyJurnal
    A 21-year-old male college student presented with excessive severe bilateral sweating of his palms and
    soles for the past 3 years, which has progressively worsened. His symptoms occur throughout the day
    but worsened during exams or whenever he felt anxious. The condition has caused him difficulty in
    holding objects and writing assignments, and has resulted in public embarrassment on several occasions.
    He has to wipe his hands with a handkerchief each time they sweat. He also needs to change his socks
    frequently. No other area of his body is similarly affected. He denied any associated symptoms, such as
    pungent body odour, changes in weight, fever, heat intolerance, or changes in bowel habits. He has no
    known medical illness and is not on any medication. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  8. Rahmat R
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(1):58-60.
    PMID: 32284808
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common anxiety disorder which can be chronic and sustained. An OCD sufferer experiences intrusive and repetitive thoughts, impulses, and behaviors, which ultimately cause extreme discomfort. We report a case of a patient that primarily presented with lower urinary tract symptoms who was subsequently treated with antibiotics. Nonetheless, the symptoms persisted. In subsequent consultations, the patient clarified the compulsive nature of his symptoms and was treated as a case of OCD. Therefore, it is crucial for physicians to correctly identify the nature of the symptoms to manage the disorder properly and to avoid unnecessary consultation and treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of other presentations of OCD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  9. Hoad W
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  10. Babar MG, Omar H, Lim LP, Khan SA, Mitha S, Ahmad SFB, et al.
    Int J Med Educ, 2013;4:223-229.
    DOI: 10.5116/ijme.5259.4513
    Objectives: To examine the validity and reliability of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Care Provider Student version (JSE-HPS) in a sample of dental students in Malaysia, with the secondary aim of assessing empathy levels in first to final year dental students in public and private universities in Malaysia.
    Methods: The JSE-HPS was administered to 582 first to fifth (final) year dental students; 441 were enrolled at two public universities and 141 at a private university in Malaysia. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using SPSS® version 18.
    Results: The JSE-HPS demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.70). A three-factor solution emerged and included ‘perspective taking’, ‘compassionate care’ and ‘standing in patient’s shoes’ factors, accounting for 27.7%, 13.9%, and 6.3% of the variance, respectively. The total mean empathy score was 84.11±9.80, where the actual scores ranged from a low of 22.05 to a high of 133.35. Overall, male students (84.97 ± 11.12) were more empathic than female students (83.78±9.24). Fourth-year students were more empathic than students in other undergraduate years, and public university students had significantly higher mean empathy score compared to those enrolled at a private university (84.74 versus 82.13, p=0.001).
    Conclusions: This study confirms the construct validity and internal consistency of the JSE-HPS for measuring empathy in dental students. Empathy scores among students vary depending on type of university and year of study. Future studies, preferably longitudinal in design should explore changes in empathy among dental students during progression through undergraduate courses.
    Keywords: Empathy, dental, students, university, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  11. Kaewkaen K, Uthama S, Ruengsirarak W, Puntumetakul R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Mar;26(2):114-121.
    PMID: 31447614 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.2.12
    Introduction: The Wii Balance Board (WBB) is a commonly used tool for balance assessment, however the inconsistency in the reported validity for the WBB when used for the assessment of healthy young adults needs to be clarified.

    Aim: To investigate the concurrent validity and reliability of the WBB for balance assessment in healthy young adults.

    Methods: Thirty-two young adults participated in this study. Their ability to balance was tested while standing on a WBB and a laboratory-grade force platform, under three conditions: feet together with eyes open, feet together with eyes closed and semi-tandem standing with eyes open. They had 10 min resting period between tests. The agreement between the WBB and the laboratory-grade force platform was investigated, and the reliability of the WBB was determined.

    Results: A poor agreement between the WBB and the laboratory-grade force platform was found for all standing conditions [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.03 to 0.07]. A moderate to high reliability was found for the WBB for balance assessment in healthy young adults (ICC = 0.66 to 0.76).

    Conclusion: The WBB was found to be a reliable tool for static balance assessment in healthy young adults. However, it had poor validity compared to the laboratory-grade force platform.

    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  12. Zakaria MN, Tahir A, Zainun Z, Salim R, Mohd Sakeri NS, Abdul Wahat NH
    Acta Otolaryngol, 2021 Jan;141(1):62-65.
    PMID: 32957810 DOI: 10.1080/00016489.2020.1817552
    BACKGROUND: The graviceptive otolith function can be measured using subjective visual horizontal (SVH) testing. Nevertheless, more research efforts are required to understand the essential variables affecting SVH.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of type of visual image and gender on subjective visual horizontal (SVH) perception among healthy adults.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this comparative study, 50 healthy young adults were enrolled. While in an upright body position, they were required to report their perception of horizontality for two types of visual images (solid line and arrow pattern) using a computerized SVH device.

    RESULTS: The arrow pattern produced significantly bigger SVH angles than the solid line (p < .001). In contrast, no significant influence of gender was found on SVH results (p = .743), Based on the statistical outcomes, the preliminary normative data for SVH were established.

    CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The arrow pattern (a more complex visual image) produced bigger SVH deviations than the simple solid line image. In contrast, the horizontality perception does not appear to be affected by gender. The preliminary normative SVH data gathered from the present study can be beneficial for clinical and future research applications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  13. Buari NH, Chen AH, Musa N
    J Optom, 2014 Oct-Dec;7(4):210-6.
    PMID: 25323642 DOI: 10.1016/j.optom.2013.12.009
    A reading chart that resembles real reading conditions is important to evaluate the quality of life in terms of reading performance. The purpose of this study was to compare the reading speed of UiTM Malay related words (UiTM-Mrw) reading chart with MNread Acuity Chart and Colenbrander Reading Chart.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  14. Mohamadpour M, Sharif ZM, Keysami MA
    J Health Popul Nutr, 2012 Sep;30(3):291-302.
    PMID: 23082631
    Food insecurity is a worldwide problem and has been shown to contribute to poor health and nutritional outcomes. In Malaysia, poor dietary intake, overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia have been reported to be more prevalent in females compared to males and in Indians compared to other ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and health and nutritional status among 169 Indian women (19-49 years old, non-pregnant, and non-lactating) from randomly-selected palm-plantation households in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Subjects were interviewed for socioeconomic and demographic data, and information on household food security and dietary intake. They were examined for weight, height, waist-circumference, blood pressure and lipids, and plasma glucose levels. For analysis of data, descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used. Majority (85.2%) of the households showed food insecurity as assessed using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument. The food-secure women had significantly higher mean years of education and lower mean number of children than food-insecure groups (p<0.05). There was a significant decrease in the mean household income and income per capita as food insecurity worsened (p<0.05). Women who reported food security had significantly higher mean diet diversity score (11.60±4.13) than child hunger (9.23±3.36). The group of subjects with higher intake of meat/fish/poultry/legumes (crude odds ratio [OR]=0.53, confidence interval [CI]=0.29-0.95) and higher diet diversity score (crude OR=0.87, CI=0.78-0.97) was more likely to have < 3 health risks. Diet diversity score remained a significant protective factor against heath risks even after adjusting for other variables. The present study showed that food insecurity is indirectly associated with poor health and nutritional status. Therefore, appropriate community-based interventions should be designed and implemented to address the problems of food insecurity and possible health and nutritional outcomes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  15. Moy FM, Johari S, Ismail Y, Mahad R, Tie FH, Wan Ismail WA
    Malays J Nutr, 2009 Sep;15(2):165-74.
    PMID: 22691814 MyJurnal
    An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in a public university in Kuala Lumpur among a random sample of 2665 undergraduates. The objective was to study the prevalence of breakfast skipping and its associated factors. Data collection was conducted via a self-administered pre-tested questionnaire. There were 43.5% male respondents, with Malays being the majority (58.3%). The prevalence of breakfast skipping was 29.2 (95% CI: 27.3 - 30.3)%. The factors significantly associated with breakfast skipping (p<0.05) were age, race, accommodation, faculty and skipping dinner. As the respondents' age increased, their risk of breakfast skipping was lower (OR: 0.95; 0.89 - 0.99). Malays (OR: 1.94; 1.48 - 2.54), Indians (OR: 1.70; 1.08 - 2.66), and students from the Sabah and Sarawak indigenous communities (OR: 2.13; 1.37 - 3.33) were more likely to skip breakfast compared to their Chinese counterparts. Respondents who stayed in their own houses were also less likely to skip breakfast compared to those staying in hostel with meals catered (OR: 2.32; 1.39 - 3.84), hostel with cafeteria (OR: 2.92; 1.74 - 4.91) or in rented houses (OR: 2.08; 1.25 - 3.46). Respondents majoring in Arts and Economics had 1.40 (1.07 - 1.82) times risk of breakfast skipping compared to those majoring in Life Sciences. Those who skipped dinner too had twice the odds (1.47 - 2.77) of breakfast skipping. In conclusion the prevalence of breakfast skipping among the undergraduates of this university was moderately high. Health awareness campaigns or introduction of healthy eating guidelines should be initiated for the undergraduates as well as food caterers in campus. The policy and pricing of catered food in campus should also be reviewed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  16. Zainuddin AA, Mahdy ZA
    Arch Sex Behav, 2017 Feb;46(2):353-360.
    PMID: 27102604 DOI: 10.1007/s10508-016-0754-y
    In Islam, the person with somatic sex ambiguity due to a disorder of sex development (DSD), such as 46,XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia or 46,XY androgen insensitivity, is recognized as khunsa. Two types of khunsa are distinguished: wadhih (discernible) and musykil (intractable). A recent fatwa (religious edict) in Malaysia decreed that it is permissible for male-assigned patients from these two groups to have gender reassignment surgery to female following diagnosis; however, the religious authority has yet to rule on the reassignment from female to male, if requested. The different schools of law in Islam agree on some aspects of gender-related issues like the position of khunsa in prayer congregations, but differ in their opinions on others such as property inheritance and bathing rituals. For purposes of illustration, this article includes three case reports on Muslim patients with DSD in Malaysia, focusing on issues of gender assignment: (1) a patient with 46,XX CAH, assigned as female, requesting reassignment to male; (2) a patient with 46,XX CAH, assigned female, and gender dysphoric, but undecided on the gender to be; and (3) a patient with 46,XY complete gonadal dysgenesis, raised female due to her phenotype at birth, diagnosed late, at age 18 years, and content to remain female. Gender-related issues from the perspective of Islamic jurisprudence are highlighted and discussed. To ensure holistic care, health-service providers involved in the care of Muslim patients with DSDs need to be aware of the Islamic perspectives on gender-related issues and involve expert religious authorities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  17. Hu C, Kumar S, Huang J, Ratnavelu K
    PLoS One, 2017;12(4):e0175623.
    PMID: 28399153 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0175623
    In face-to-face communications, to avoid sanctions and disapproval from others, people are more likely to hide negative aspects of their true self (such as socially undesirable personalities, minds, beliefs and consciousness) to avoid conflict with social norms and laws. The anonymity of cyberspace provides people a unique environment to behave more freely and openly with less restraint from the real word. Existing research related to online true self expression has mainly explored true self as an independent aspect of self. Regarding true self as a two-dimensional concept, this study investigates true self from the perspective of individuals' self-guide and identity reconstruction in both online and offline world. Using qualitative research methods, the current study investigates 57 participants through interviews and questionnaires. Content analysis reveals four factors that motivate people to express more true self (especially negative true self) when reconstructing their online identity and involve true self as a part of their self-guide in anonymous environment. By incorporating true self as an important part of individuals' self-guide and identity online, the current study advances self-discrepancy theory, making it more comprehensive for cyberspace. The results are also interpreted based on self-determination theory. The theoretical contributions of this study are discussed and practical implications are also presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  18. Mark Paul, Najihah Hanim Asmi, Rohaida Ibrahim, Eshamsol Kamar Omar, Irfan Mohamad
    Tonsillectomy is a very common procedure in Otolaryngology practice. Common complications include
    bleeding, which can be primary or secondary due to infection of the tonsillar bed. Subcutaneous emphysema
    after a tonsillectomy is very rare. We report a 19-year-old girl who developed cervicofacial subcutaneous
    emphysema several hours after tonsillectomy with successful conservative treatment outcome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
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