Aim: To investigate the concurrent validity and reliability of the WBB for balance assessment in healthy young adults.
Methods: Thirty-two young adults participated in this study. Their ability to balance was tested while standing on a WBB and a laboratory-grade force platform, under three conditions: feet together with eyes open, feet together with eyes closed and semi-tandem standing with eyes open. They had 10 min resting period between tests. The agreement between the WBB and the laboratory-grade force platform was investigated, and the reliability of the WBB was determined.
Results: A poor agreement between the WBB and the laboratory-grade force platform was found for all standing conditions [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) = 0.03 to 0.07]. A moderate to high reliability was found for the WBB for balance assessment in healthy young adults (ICC = 0.66 to 0.76).
Conclusion: The WBB was found to be a reliable tool for static balance assessment in healthy young adults. However, it had poor validity compared to the laboratory-grade force platform.
METHODS: A validated, bilingual, self-administered questionnaire comprising fifteen questions across the domains of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice was used and responses were assessed with 3 responses; one correct, one incorrect and one reflecting uncertainty. 507 patients from five orthodontic centres participated in this study. Data was analysed using SPSS. Continuous data was summarised as mean and standard deviation or median and inter-quartile range, as appropriate. Categorical data was summarised as frequency and percentage, then univariable analysis was carried out with Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate.
RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 22.5 years (SD ± 2.8). A majority of respondents were female (64.1%) and from the lowest income bracket or B40 group (71%). Overall, for the knowledge domain, a majority of the respondents got all questions correct. 69.4% of patients were aware that incomplete treatment could lead to worsening of their malocclusion. 80.9% of respondents were aware of the need for a retainer upon completion of their orthodontic treatment. For the attitude section, 64.7% felt that they had to wait a very long time to see the orthodontist. In the Practice domain, the majority only got two of the five questions correct. Only 39.8% of respondents made an effort to alter dietary habits all of the time. In general, females and those with tertiary education fared better for all three domains.
CONCLUSIONS: The orthodontic patients in the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya possess good knowledge about their treatment however their attitude and orthodontic related practices need to be improved.
METHODS: The present sample included 110 participants aged 20-60 years old. Participants were invited to provide their information on sociodemographic variables (age, gender, and educational level) and clinical characteristics (age at onset of depression and duration of illness) and to complete a series of cognitive performance measures including the Trail Making Tests A (psychomotor speed) and B (executive function), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (attention), and the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (immediate free recall, acquisition phase, and delayed recall). The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Version 6.0 was used to confirm the diagnosis of MDD and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale was used to assess illness severity.
RESULTS: At the bivariate level, relations of age and educational level to all cognitive deficit domains were significant. At the multivariate level, only educational level and illness severity consistently and significantly predicted all cognitive deficits domains.
CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic modalities should be individualised whilst considering the impacts of cognitive deficits in an attempt to prevent further deterioration in psychosocial functioning of MDD patients.KEY POINTSCognitive deficits are an elemental component of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) persisting during a current major depressive episode or during remission, altering individuals' ability to process information and changes the way they perceive and interact with the environment.Cognitive deficits in MDD are evident among the upper-middle income groups in South-Eastern Asian countries warranting more local research as such deficits could lead to functional decline and work performance such as absenteeism and presenteeism.Therapeutic modalities should be individualised by taking the impacts of cognitive deficits into consideration to promote psychosocial functioning of MDD patients.