Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 4256 in total

  1. Rodo Mohamud Hassan, Regidor-111 Dioso
    Background: In Africa high prevalence of overweight and obesity was found in regions of East Africa (0.3%),
    West Africa (0.7%), Central Africa (0.2%), South Africa (3.8%), and North Africa (12.5%).

    Aims: This meta-analysis aimed to analyze the prevalence of obesity among young adults, aged 18-25 years
    from five African countries.

    Methods: The Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines were applied to
    search published studies. of the 100 studies published as found in scientific databases from 2010 to 2017, only
    five were selected. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA)
    checklist was used to eliminate other studies.

    Outcomes: A total of 22,320 obese young adults were analyzed to be prevalent. The obesity among adults in
    SouthAfrica was found to be correlated with less physical activities. In Uganda, the prevalence of obesity is
    683 which relates with their sedentary lifestyle and socio-demography. Among 371 young adults in Nigeria, the
    prevalence of obesity was 5.1% among male and 10% among female related to diet and other consumptions.
    Among 646 adults in Ghana, the prevalence of general obesity was observed to be related to genetics.

    Conclusion: Prevalence of the male gender was 9,509 having a p=0.284 (at 95% C.I.±4,440.87845-
    8,788.87845) with a mean score of 1,251, and a SD= 61,066. While the prevalence of obesity on females was
    10,874 having a p= 0.00019, (at 95% C.I.±3,592.07-6,094.07) with a mean score of 2,174, and SD= 3,375.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult*
  2. Marjoribanks RM, Le Sueur E
    DOI: 10.1016/S0035-9203(24)90769-3
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  3. Ramasamy K, Kanapaty Y, Abdul Gani N
    Malays Fam Physician, 2019;14(3):74-76.
    PMID: 32175046
    Oral squamous papillomas are benign neoplasms of the oral cavity that occur commonly on the palate. Albeit benign and often asymptomatic, they may still cause concern due to their appearance, which may mimic other malignant oral pathologies. Human papillomavirus (HPV) is usually implicated in papilloma pathogenesis. We present a rare case of symptomatic oral squamous papilloma arising from the uvula and causing tongue and throat irritation. This benign lesion was excised with electrocautery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  4. Basnight-Brown D, Janssen SMJ, Thomas AK
    Mem Cognit, 2023 Apr;51(3):505-508.
    PMID: 36859524 DOI: 10.3758/s13421-023-01410-w
    In this editorial, the editors briefly introduce the aims of the Special Issue. If the goal of the scientific field of Cognitive Psychology is to improve our understanding of human cognition, then research needs to be conducted on a much broader slice of humanity than it has mostly been doing. The first aim of this Special Issue was to examine cognitive processes in populations that are different from the typical Western young adult samples often used in previously published studies. Studies in this issue therefore included both non-WEIRD participants as well as WEIRD participants who process information using different sensory experiences (e.g., individuals who are deaf). The second aim was to amplify - where possible - the research of scholars from less well-represented regions. The authors of the studies were affiliated with a diverse range of academic institutes and frequently included partnerships between Western and non-Western investigators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  5. Low SF, Hanafiah M, Nurismah MI, Suraya A
    BMJ Case Rep, 2013;2013.
    PMID: 24057334 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2013-200790
    The patella is an uncommon site for all primary and metastatic bone tumours and primary intra-osseous tumours of the patella are very rare. A majority of the patella tumours are benign. We report a patient with a sudden onset swelling and pain of the right knee following a staircase fall. The plain radiograph showed an expansile multiseptated patella lesion and it was further assessed with an MRI. The radiological findings and the initial histopathological features from a limited sample were suggestive of a primary aneurysmal bone cyst. However, the final histopathological diagnosis from a more adequate specimen was a giant cell tumour with a secondary aneurysmal bone cyst.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  6. Jamani NA, Puteri Shanaz JK, Azwanis AH
    Malays Fam Physician, 2018;13(1):52-54.
    PMID: 29796213 MyJurnal
    A 21-year-old male college student presented with excessive severe bilateral sweating of his palms and
    soles for the past 3 years, which has progressively worsened. His symptoms occur throughout the day
    but worsened during exams or whenever he felt anxious. The condition has caused him difficulty in
    holding objects and writing assignments, and has resulted in public embarrassment on several occasions.
    He has to wipe his hands with a handkerchief each time they sweat. He also needs to change his socks
    frequently. No other area of his body is similarly affected. He denied any associated symptoms, such as
    pungent body odour, changes in weight, fever, heat intolerance, or changes in bowel habits. He has no
    known medical illness and is not on any medication. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  7. Hoad W
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  8. Gan DEY, Chan KH, Veerappan P, Sun KJ, Hayati F
    Am J Case Rep, 2021 Jun 17;22:e930967.
    PMID: 34135299 DOI: 10.12659/AJCR.930967
    BACKGROUND A rectal foreign body (RFB) can be stigmatizing for patients and present a dilemma for the treating physician. Removal can be challenging owing to the variety of objects introduced. The goals of therapy are to safely remove the RFB and to minimize injury to the bowel. CASE REPORT A 22-year-old man was referred from a district hospital to our institution after being unable to remove a self-inflicted RFB after sexual gratification. He was hemodynamically stable with a soft and nontender abdomen. A mass was felt in the suprapubic region. Abdominal radiography revealed a well-defined radiolucent object in the pelvic region, which was consistent with a lubricant bottle. No sign of bowel obstruction or perforation was observed. The RFB was successfully retrieved by a combination of transrectal digital manipulation and directed gentle abdominal pressure, allowing for descent of the RFB and transanal traction at the bedside. Various approaches have been described for removal of a RFB, from simple bedside strategies to open surgery for complicated cases. Endoscopy and minimally invasive techniques have also demonstrated a role in formulating a tailored approach. CONCLUSIONS We describe a successful retrieval of an RFB at the bedside, avoiding unnecessary open surgery.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  9. Loo GH, Mohamad Abu Zeid WM, Lim SL, Ismail AM
    Ann R Coll Surg Engl, 2017 Jul;99(6):e188-e190.
    PMID: 28660832 DOI: 10.1308/rcsann.2017.0104
    Enteroenteric intussusception is a condition in which the full-thickness bowel wall becomes telescoped into the lumen of distal bowel. Intussusception in adult occurs infrequently and varies from childhood intussusception, particularly in its presentation, aetiology and treatment. Duodenoduodenal intussusception is rare because the duodenum is fixed in the retroperitoneal position. It usually occurs secondary to tumour, lipoma, Brunner's gland hamartomatous polyp or adenoma. The diagnosis in adults is usually made at laparotomy, where presentation is with intestinal obstruction. In non-emergency presentation, it may be difficult to arrive at an accurate diagnosis as symptoms may be vague, self-limiting intermittent abdominal pain. Clinical examinations and investigations may not be conclusive and another working diagnosis such as irritable bowel syndrome would be made. We describe a case where a patient initially presented with symptoms mimicking pancreatitis but his symptoms persisted over the course of 2 weeks. When a laparotomy was performed, duodenoduodenal intussusception was discovered and confirmed with histopathology. In this case, a discernible leading point could not be identified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  10. Rahmat R
    Malays Fam Physician, 2020;15(1):58-60.
    PMID: 32284808
    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common anxiety disorder which can be chronic and sustained. An OCD sufferer experiences intrusive and repetitive thoughts, impulses, and behaviors, which ultimately cause extreme discomfort. We report a case of a patient that primarily presented with lower urinary tract symptoms who was subsequently treated with antibiotics. Nonetheless, the symptoms persisted. In subsequent consultations, the patient clarified the compulsive nature of his symptoms and was treated as a case of OCD. Therefore, it is crucial for physicians to correctly identify the nature of the symptoms to manage the disorder properly and to avoid unnecessary consultation and treatment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of other presentations of OCD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  11. Williams B, Sadasivan S, Kadirvelu A, Olaussen A
    Adv Med Educ Pract, 2014;5:149-56.
    PMID: 24876799 DOI: 10.2147/AMEP.S58094
    BACKGROUND: The literature indicates that medical practitioners experience declining empathy levels in clinical practice. This highlights the need to educate medical students about empathy as an attribute early in the academic curriculum. The objective of this study was to evaluate year one students' self-reported empathy levels following a 2-hour empathy workshop at a large medical school in Malaysia.
    METHODS: Changes in empathy scores were examined using a paired repeated-measures t-test in this prospective before and after study.
    RESULTS: Analyzing the matched data, there was a statistically significant difference and moderate effect size between mean empathy scores before and 5 weeks after the workshop (112.08±10.67 versus 117.93±13.13, P<0.0001, d=0.48) using the Jefferson Scale Physician Empathy (Student Version).
    CONCLUSION: The results of this observational study indicate improved mean self-reported empathy scores following an empathy workshop.
    KEYWORDS: Malaysia; empathy; medical students
    Study site: Jeffry Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  12. Babar MG, Omar H, Lim LP, Khan SA, Mitha S, Ahmad SFB, et al.
    Int J Med Educ, 2013;4:223-229.
    DOI: 10.5116/ijme.5259.4513
    Objectives: To examine the validity and reliability of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy-Health Care Provider Student version (JSE-HPS) in a sample of dental students in Malaysia, with the secondary aim of assessing empathy levels in first to final year dental students in public and private universities in Malaysia.
    Methods: The JSE-HPS was administered to 582 first to fifth (final) year dental students; 441 were enrolled at two public universities and 141 at a private university in Malaysia. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were performed using SPSS® version 18.
    Results: The JSE-HPS demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.70). A three-factor solution emerged and included ‘perspective taking’, ‘compassionate care’ and ‘standing in patient’s shoes’ factors, accounting for 27.7%, 13.9%, and 6.3% of the variance, respectively. The total mean empathy score was 84.11±9.80, where the actual scores ranged from a low of 22.05 to a high of 133.35. Overall, male students (84.97 ± 11.12) were more empathic than female students (83.78±9.24). Fourth-year students were more empathic than students in other undergraduate years, and public university students had significantly higher mean empathy score compared to those enrolled at a private university (84.74 versus 82.13, p=0.001).
    Conclusions: This study confirms the construct validity and internal consistency of the JSE-HPS for measuring empathy in dental students. Empathy scores among students vary depending on type of university and year of study. Future studies, preferably longitudinal in design should explore changes in empathy among dental students during progression through undergraduate courses.
    Keywords: Empathy, dental, students, university, Malaysia
    Study site: University of Malaya (UM), University Technology Mara (UiTM), International Medical University (IMU), Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  13. Mahmudiono T, Yuniar CT, Dewi RK, Rachmah Q, Atmaka DR, Zebadia E, et al.
    Nutrients, 2022 Oct 22;14(21).
    PMID: 36364712 DOI: 10.3390/nu14214450
    Over the past two years, the world has faced the pandemic, COVID-19, and various changes. Several regulations and recommendations from the Ministry of Health of Indonesia have contributed to behavioral changes among Indonesian residents, especially in food consumption patterns. The change in food consumption patterns can be a positive change that formed due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to examine whether the application of a Health Belief Model (HBM)-based nutrition education programme can be effectively used in changing the beliefs of adults with or without a COVID-19 history in supplement and nutrient intake. This study was a cross-sectional study involving 140 adults. This study placed 70 adults with/without a COVID-19 history into the intervention group. The intervention group participated in a nutrition education programme. The respondents were asked to fill out the questionnaire. The data were analyzed by independent and paired t-tests and Chi-square test. The result of this study showed no association between perceived susceptibility, severity, benefit, barrier, and self-efficacy, of nutrient and supplement intake with the history of COVID-19 among the respondents. However, most of the respondents in this study were low in their scores of perceivedness. Thus, it is still important for the government to increase nutrient and supplement intake education, especially in young adults aged below 25 years old.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  14. Farah NM, Amran AD, Che Muhamed AM
    J Sports Sci, 2021 Dec;39(24):2755-2762.
    PMID: 34323655 DOI: 10.1080/02640414.2021.1957294
    Exaggerated cardiovascular (CV) reactivity to stress is associated with negative cardiovascular outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the effects of acute high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and moderate-intensity exercise (MIE) on CV reactivity in response to a stress challenge in untrained males. Thirteen, normotensive males (age: 22.8 ± 2 years, BMI: 21.9 ± 3.6 kg/m2) underwent three conditions in counterbalanced order: HIIE (bodyweight exercises; 80-90% HRR), MIE (treadmill-jog; 55-60% HRR) and seated rest (CON) separated by 7-10 days. Thirty minutes after performing HIIE, MIE or CON, subjects underwent a 2-min cold pressor task (CPT). Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were measured before, during, and after CPT. CV reactivity, i.e., the change in BP and HR responses were compared across conditions. Systolic BP reactivity were attenuated following HIIE (-60%, p = 0.015) and MIE (-42%, p = 0.033) compared to CON, but no differences were observed between HIIE and MIE. HR reactivity was not different across all conditions. We conclude that performing HIIE or MIE 30 minutes prior to acute stress exposure lowers BP reactivity compared to rest in untrained males. These findings highlight the potential benefits of HIIE in lowering stress-induced elevations in blood pressure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  15. Mathew R, Sathasivam HP, Mohamednor L, Yugaraj P
    BMC Oral Health, 2023 Mar 08;23(1):132.
    PMID: 36890517 DOI: 10.1186/s12903-023-02780-y
    BACKGROUND: Orthodontic treatment is a time-consuming and highly technique-sensitive clinical procedure. A patient's comprehension and compliance with oral hygiene instructions and appliance maintenance are critical to the success of orthodontic treatment. This study was performed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of patients seen at government orthodontic clinics in the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya towards orthodontic treatment.

    METHODS: A validated, bilingual, self-administered questionnaire comprising fifteen questions across the domains of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice was used and responses were assessed with 3 responses; one correct, one incorrect and one reflecting uncertainty. 507 patients from five orthodontic centres participated in this study. Data was analysed using SPSS. Continuous data was summarised as mean and standard deviation or median and inter-quartile range, as appropriate. Categorical data was summarised as frequency and percentage, then univariable analysis was carried out with Pearson's chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate.

    RESULTS: The mean age of respondents was 22.5 years (SD ± 2.8). A majority of respondents were female (64.1%) and from the lowest income bracket or B40 group (71%). Overall, for the knowledge domain, a majority of the respondents got all questions correct. 69.4% of patients were aware that incomplete treatment could lead to worsening of their malocclusion. 80.9% of respondents were aware of the need for a retainer upon completion of their orthodontic treatment. For the attitude section, 64.7% felt that they had to wait a very long time to see the orthodontist. In the Practice domain, the majority only got two of the five questions correct. Only 39.8% of respondents made an effort to alter dietary habits all of the time. In general, females and those with tertiary education fared better for all three domains.

    CONCLUSIONS: The orthodontic patients in the Federal Territories of Kuala Lumpur and Putrajaya possess good knowledge about their treatment however their attitude and orthodontic related practices need to be improved.

    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  16. Subhas N, Ang JK, Tan KA, Ahmad SNA
    Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract, 2023 Sep;27(3):219-231.
    PMID: 36448673 DOI: 10.1080/13651501.2022.2149415
    OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the relations between clinical characteristics and cognitive deficits in adult patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) from a local outpatient psychiatric clinic in Malaysia.

    METHODS: The present sample included 110 participants aged 20-60 years old. Participants were invited to provide their information on sociodemographic variables (age, gender, and educational level) and clinical characteristics (age at onset of depression and duration of illness) and to complete a series of cognitive performance measures including the Trail Making Tests A (psychomotor speed) and B (executive function), the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (attention), and the Auditory Verbal Learning Test (immediate free recall, acquisition phase, and delayed recall). The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Version 6.0 was used to confirm the diagnosis of MDD and the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale was used to assess illness severity.

    RESULTS: At the bivariate level, relations of age and educational level to all cognitive deficit domains were significant. At the multivariate level, only educational level and illness severity consistently and significantly predicted all cognitive deficits domains.

    CONCLUSIONS: Therapeutic modalities should be individualised whilst considering the impacts of cognitive deficits in an attempt to prevent further deterioration in psychosocial functioning of MDD patients.KEY POINTSCognitive deficits are an elemental component of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) persisting during a current major depressive episode or during remission, altering individuals' ability to process information and changes the way they perceive and interact with the environment.Cognitive deficits in MDD are evident among the upper-middle income groups in South-Eastern Asian countries warranting more local research as such deficits could lead to functional decline and work performance such as absenteeism and presenteeism.Therapeutic modalities should be individualised by taking the impacts of cognitive deficits into consideration to promote psychosocial functioning of MDD patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  17. Wan Hussain WMH
    Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract, 2023 Nov;27(4):385-396.
    PMID: 37452649 DOI: 10.1080/13651501.2023.2233580
    Hikikomori is the Japanese term for the phenomenon of young adults isolating themselves from society and becoming reclusive. This study aims to examine the evolution and distribution of hikikomori, as well as identify the major players and institutions involved in hikikomori research. The searches, which were conducted in Scopus database identified 286 academic research works pertaining to hikikomori research. The findings indicate that hikikomori has attracted the attention of academic researchers in both the East and the West, with a consistent increase in research output since the Internet revolution over the past decade. The study highlights the potential for additional research on hikikomori and provides a benchmark for new researchers entering the field.
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
  18. Dee EC, Eala MAB, Chua MLK, Bray F, Bhoo-Pathy N
    Pediatr Blood Cancer, 2022 Jul;69(7):e29593.
    PMID: 35129873 DOI: 10.1002/pbc.29593
    Matched MeSH terms: Young Adult
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