Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 2561 in total

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  1. Devadason I
    Med J Malaysia, 1975 Dec;30(2):153-5.
    PMID: 1228382
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  2. Leung AKC, Sergi CM, Leong KF, Kantor PF, Md
    Pediatr Rev, 2021 05;42(5):e17-e22.
    PMID: 33931516 DOI: 10.1542/pir.2018-0330
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  3. Tan KL, Yadav H
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Mar;63(1):17-20.
    PMID: 18935725 MyJurnal
    This is a cohort study investigating the profile of children with disability registered with the primary health care clinics in Malaysia. The purpose of the study was to determine whether reassessment on the development of children with disability under rehabilitation should be done at three months interval or six months interval. Secondary data from the pilot project conducted by the Family Health Development Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia was used in this study. The study was carried out for seven months from 1st August 2004 until 28th February 2005. A total of 168 disabled children followed up for six months were selected in this study. Schedule of Growing Scale (SGS) II was the tool used for analysis. Results showed a statistically significant difference in the mean total SGS score at six months interval but not at three months interval. The result suggests that reassessment on children with Down Syndrome, Autism, Cerebral Palsy, mental retardation and delayed speech under rehabilitation should be carried out every six months while children with gross developmental delay and slow learner might need a longer interval for reassessment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  4. Delilkan AE
    Singapore Med J, 1973 Mar;14(1):26-8.
    PMID: 4713016
    The literature on choice of endotracheal tube in paediatric anaesthesia is reviewed. 643 Malaysian patients were studied regarding size of tube required for endotracheal intubation in a 4-year period. In the 2-10 year age group (500 cases) it was found that the size required is 0.5 mm (internal diameter) less than that currently recommended by a formula based on experience with Western patients. A new formula is proposed for the Malaysian patient as a guide for anaesthetists under training in this part of the world.
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  5. Zalilah MS, Anida HA, Merlin A
    Med J Malaysia, 2003 Dec;58(5):743-51.
    PMID: 15190662 MyJurnal
    The aim was to determine the differences in parents' perceptions of boys' and girls' body shapes and the explanations for the emphasis on body shape care of children. Subjects were low-income parents (n = 158) of preschoolers attending preschools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Parental perceptions of children's body shapes were assessed based on their rankings (scale of 1 to 7) of four attributes (ideal, healthy, fat and thin) for boy and girl figures. Parental responses to five questions on the importance of body shape were also obtained. Parental rankings of ideal and healthy body shapes were significantly lower for girls than boys (p < 0.001). However, mothers' and fathers' rankings of boys' and girls' body shapes were not significantly different. for both boys and girls, parental ratings for ideal body shape were significantly lower than for healthy body shape (p < 0.001). The majority of parents indicated that children's body shape is important for their future health, self enhancement, social interaction and career. With the increasing prevalence of body dissatisfaction among Malaysian children, these findings contribute to the understanding of parental roles in the development of body image and perhaps, in the etiology of body dissatisfaction among children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool*
  6. Santhi K, Tang IP, Nordin A, Prepageran N
    J Surg Case Rep, 2012 Dec 11;2012(12).
    PMID: 24968423 DOI: 10.1093/jscr/rjs026
    Congenital cholesteatoma (CC) rarely presents with Luc's abscess. As a result of widespread usage of antimicrobial agents, Luc's abscess is hardly encountered in current clinical practice. Herein, we report a case of Luc's abscess as the first presenting symptom in a 5-year-old boy with underlying CC. Patient's clinical findings, radiological investigations and treatment were also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  7. Othman IS, Ibrahim H, Hii KC, Ong GB, Menon BS
    Med J Malaysia, 2009 Dec;64(4):325-6.
    PMID: 20954561 MyJurnal
    We describe a 5 1/2 year old boy who was diagnosed with mild autosomal recessive osteopetrosis based on the presence of bony sclerosis, extramedullary haematopoeisis, leukoerythroblastosis and visual impairment who had an allogeneic bone marrow transplant from a matched sibling donor. Conditioning regime was busulphan 16 mg/kg and cyclophosphamide 200 mg/kg. Apart from transient hypercalcaemia, there were no major post transplant complications. Four years post transplant, the extramedullary haematopoeisis has resolved completely with normal blood counts. Apart from a fracture after a trivial fall two months after transplant, he has not suffered any fracture related limb deformities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  8. Amar HSS
    Med J Malaysia, 2008 Mar;63(1):1-3.
    PMID: 18935722
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  9. Norzila MZ, Norrashidah AW, Rusanida A, Chan PWK, Azizi BHO
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Mar;60(1):54-61.
    PMID: 16250281 MyJurnal
    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease commonly found among the Caucasian population. The availability of sweat test and with increasing experience have made it possible to diagnose more cases of CF. Our first case of CF was diagnosed 16 years ago and to date we have managed sixteen cases of CF. Sixteen children were diagnosed with CF in our units at the Paediatric Institute and University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). They were referred with either one or all of the following symptoms: i) recurrent pneumonia, ii) bronchiectasis, iii) failure to thrive, iii) malabsorption or iv) history of meconium ileus obstruction during the neonatal period. When the clinical features suggested strongly of CF, sweat tests will be performed in duplicates and considered positive when the sweat chloride or sweat sodium was more than 60 mmol/l for both results. Seventy- two hours fecal fat excretion or stool for fat globule was performed to document malabsorption. From the year 1987 to 2003, 16 patients were confirmed to have cystic fibrosis in Malaysia by positive sweat tests. Thirteen patients were diagnosed in Paediatric Institute while the remaining three were diagnosed in UMMC. On follow-up two patients died due to severe bronchopneumonia at the age of two years old. Although once considered rare, CF should now be considered in any children with clinical presentations of recurrent chest infections, bronchiectasis, in the presence or absence of malabsoption stmptoms and in neonates with meconium ileus obstruction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  10. Krishnappa A, Burke T
    Int J Cancer, 1967 Nov 15;2(6):604-5.
    PMID: 5582276
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  11. Syarifah Haizan Sayed Kamar, Noor Inani Jelani, Noraini Mohamad Nor
    MyJurnal
    Mothers play important roles in their children's oral health. The aim of this study is to
    determine the relationship between mothers’ sociodemographic backgrounds and their oral health
    knowledge, attitude and practice of their preschool children. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  12. Fadzillah AJ, Lee JAC
    MyJurnal
    Parental involvement during early childhood development is important especially when the child has learning disabilities. This research aims to study the effectiveness of parental-based speech training programs for preschoolers with Speech Language Impairments (SLI) in a localized setting. The method used was qualitative and data was collected from selected preschoolers (N = 5) with different types of SLI symptoms. Each participant was assessed using a standardized assessment protocol to measure his/her language scale. The participants were given the intervention program by their own parents using the Hanen’s It Takes Two to Talk program. The progress of each subject and observations from these sessions were documented. The participants were assessed again once the intervention had been implemented. Substantial results were achieved when all subjects showed improvements in language comprehension and production skills. These results highlight the importance of parental involvement as first teachers in the early intervention of children with SLI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  13. Khairudin R, Charyna AR
    Jurnal Psikologi Malaysia, 2010;olume 24:111-121.
    This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of false memory in preschool children aged 3 to 6 years old. Three experiments were conducted using the traditional measurements of memory: free recall (experiment 1), cued recall (experiment 2) and recognition (experiment 3). A total of 24 children who were divided into three groups of 8, participated in the study. Result of experiment 1 showed a significant effect of categorical information on false memory. Preschool children were more likely to be influenced by false memory when the information was carried object category. Results if experiment 2 showed a significant difference in types of questions. More false memories were created for misleading questions than leading questions. Experiment 3 demonstrated that the preschool children were more likely to choose distracter pictures that target pictures. Within the distracter pictures, participants chose more false distracters than leading distracters. Implication of the findings suggests a strong evidence for the occurence of false memory in preschool children. The size of false memory effect was determined by the type of information presented to the children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  14. Rule EK
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  15. Yik YI, How AK
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 Jun;74(3):231-233.
    PMID: 31256180
    We present a very rare case of jejunal web discovered after a toddler presented with foreign bodies entrapment, following incidental ingestion. This is perhaps the first case reported in the English publication. Expectant management with spontaneous passage of foreign bodies failed. Serial abdominal radiographs failed to determine the site of the foreign bodies accurately. Endoscopic removal was unsuccessful. Surgical removal was warranted with unexpected intra-operative finding of a jejunal web with foreign body entrapment. Although rare, a congenital intestinal web must be considered in a child presents with failure of expectant management following foreign body ingestion as surgical intervention is necessary.
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  16. Okely AD, Kariippanon KE, Guan H, Taylor EK, Suesse T, Cross PL, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2021 05 17;21(1):940.
    PMID: 34001086 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-021-10852-3
    BACKGROUND: The restrictions associated with the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in changes to young children's daily routines and habits. The impact on their participation in movement behaviours (physical activity, sedentary screen time and sleep) is unknown. This international longitudinal study compared young children's movement behaviours before and during the COVID-19 pandemic.

    METHODS: Parents of children aged 3-5 years, from 14 countries (8 low- and middle-income countries, LMICs) completed surveys to assess changes in movement behaviours and how these changes were associated with the COVID-19 pandemic. Surveys were completed in the 12 months up to March 2020 and again between May and June 2020 (at the height of restrictions). Physical activity (PA), sedentary screen time (SST) and sleep were assessed via parent survey. At Time 2, COVID-19 factors including level of restriction, environmental conditions, and parental stress were measured. Compliance with the World Health Organizations (WHO) Global guidelines for PA (180 min/day [≥60 min moderate- vigorous PA]), SST (≤1 h/day) and sleep (10-13 h/day) for children under 5 years of age, was determined.

    RESULTS: Nine hundred- forty-eight parents completed the survey at both time points. Children from LMICs were more likely to meet the PA (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AdjOR] = 2.0, 95%Confidence Interval [CI] 1.0,3.8) and SST (AdjOR = 2.2, 95%CI 1.2,3.9) guidelines than their high-income country (HIC) counterparts. Children who could go outside during COVID-19 were more likely to meet all WHO Global guidelines (AdjOR = 3.3, 95%CI 1.1,9.8) than those who were not. Children of parents with higher compared to lower stress were less likely to meet all three guidelines (AdjOR = 0.5, 95%CI 0.3,0.9).

    CONCLUSION: PA and SST levels of children from LMICs have been less impacted by COVID-19 than in HICs. Ensuring children can access an outdoor space, and supporting parents' mental health are important prerequisites for enabling pre-schoolers to practice healthy movement behaviours and meet the Global guidelines.

    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  17. Lee YL, Thambiah SC
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2021 06;57(6):926-928.
    PMID: 32627250 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.15050
    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  18. Nair T, Choo CSC, Abdullah NS, Lee S, Teo LLE, Chen Y, et al.
    Eur J Anaesthesiol, 2021 08 01;38(8):880-887.
    PMID: 33186309 DOI: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000001385
    BACKGROUND: Hospital admissions and surgical operations commonly trigger anxiety in young children. Despite employing numerous support measures in our hospital, such as a pre-operative play room, the encouragement of parental companionship during induction of anaesthesia and distraction therapy, allaying the anxiety of our young surgical patients remains a challenge.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a Home-Initiated-Programme-to-Prepare-for-Operation (HIPPO) on emotional manifestation and anxiety in children undergoing surgery.

    DESIGN, SETTING AND PATIENTS: One hundred and thirty children were randomly assigned to either control or intervention group between February 2018 and April 2019 in a tertiary paediatric hospital in Singapore.

    INTERVENTION: In addition to our standard pre-operative workflow, the intervention group received an additional home preparation kit consisting of an animated video on preoperative preparation and age-specific preoperative preparation activity sheets.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the Children's Emotional Manifestation Scale score to evaluate behaviour and emotion in the children before and during induction of anaesthesia. Secondary outcomes evaluated anxiety levels in parents and children, the child's behaviour and degree of co-operation using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory scores, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Children scores, the Induction Compliance Checklist scores, the Visual Analogue Scale scores for anxiety and the feedback questionnaire.

    RESULTS: The difference between the Children's Emotional Manifestation Scale score in control and intervention groups was not statistically significant. A promising difference was however observed in one of the secondary outcomes where the state-State-Trait Anxiety Inventory Children scores of 7 to 10-year olds in the intervention group almost reached significance; P = 0.067.

    CONCLUSION: Despite being a child-friendly, easily accessible and affordable tool for patient education, HIPPO did not reduce anxiety experienced by children in the pre-operative waiting area or during induction of anaesthesia.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04271553.

    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  19. Leung AKC, Barankin B, Leong KF
    Curr Pediatr Rev, 2020;16(4):265-276.
    PMID: 32384035 DOI: 10.2174/1573396316666200508104708
    BACKGROUND: Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is an IgA-mediated systemic smallvessel vasculitis with a predilection for the skin, gastrointestinal tract, joints, and kidneys. It is the most common form of systemic vasculitis in children.

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to familiarize physicians with the etiopathogenesis, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of children with Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

    METHODS: A PubMed search was conducted in January 2020 in Clinical Queries using the key terms "Henoch-Schönlein purpura" OR "IgA vasculitis" OR "anaphylactoid purpura". The search strategy included meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials, clinical trials, observational studies, and reviews published within the past 10 years. Only papers published in the English literature were included in this review. This paper is based on, but not limited to, the search results.

    RESULTS: Globally, the incidence of HSP is 10 to 20 cases per 100, 000 children per year. Approximately 90% of cases occur in children between 2 and 10 years of age, with a peak incidence at 4 to 7 years. The diagnosis should be based on the finding of palpable purpura in the presence of at least one of the following criteria, namely, diffuse abdominal pain, arthritis or arthralgia, renal involvement (hematuria and/or proteinuria), and a biopsy showing predominant IgA deposition. Most cases are self-limited. The average duration of the disease is 4 weeks. Long-term complications are rare and include persistent hypertension and end-stage kidney disease. Therapy consists of general and supportive measures as well as treatment of the sequelae of the vasculitis. Current evidence does not support the universal treatment of HSP patients with corticosteroids. Oral corticosteroids may be considered for HSP patients with severe gastrointestinal pain and gastrointestinal hemorrhage.

    CONCLUSION: Most cases of HSP have an excellent outcome, with renal involvement being the most important prognostic factor in determining morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, early steroid treatment does not reduce the incidence and severity of nephropathy in children with HSP. In HSP children who have severe nephritis or renal involvement with proteinuria of greater than 3 months, an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker should be considered in addition to corticosteroids to prevent and/or limit secondary glomerular injury.

    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
  20. Sunjaya DK, Herawati DMD, Indraswari N, Megawati G, Sumintono B
    J Environ Public Health, 2021;2021:5515712.
    PMID: 34603456 DOI: 10.1155/2021/5515712
    Background: Inappropriate anthropometric measurements of infants and toddlers lead to a misclassification in nutritional status and loss of important interventions. Considering the practice conducted in this program within a country, its impact on millions of children must be considered. This study assesses the ability of community health volunteers (CHVs) before and after anthropometric training on infants and toddlers. Methods. This study used a quantitative approach with a quasiexperimental and pretest-posttest design. The pre- and posttraining assessments of CHVs were conducted by standardized trainers using instruments developed according to WHO standards. There were 11 and 13 statement items for infants' and toddlers' indicators of assessment in anthropometric measurements, respectively. The result of the assessment was then analyzed using Rasch modeling with stacking and racking data analysis techniques.

    Results: The CHVs' skills before training were far from adequate. Although widely varied, all trainees improved their abilities. Stacking analysis showed that the skills of all CHVs in measuring infants and toddlers increased by 2.68 and 3.34 logits (p < 0.01), respectively. Racking analysis showed a decrease in the perceived difficulty of all items by 2.61 and 3.07 logits for infant and toddler measurements, respectively (p < 0.01). The results of the racking analysis showed that the difficulty in measuring the anthropometrics of infants decreased more than that of toddlers.

    Conclusions: CHVs' capacity to monitor child growth must be refreshed regularly. Standardized and proper training and assessment were developed to make CHVs reliable in taking anthropometric measurements of infants and toddlers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Child, Preschool
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