CASE PRESENTATION: Herein, we report on a middleaged male who presented with left-sided spontaneous epistaxis and aural fullness with no neck node which turned out to be basaloid cell carcinoma of nasopharynx.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: We highlight high clinical suspicion of rare variant of nasopharyngeal carcinoma although no palpable node was evident upon presentation.
OBJECTIVE: We aim to perform a systematic review to evaluate the cardiovascular outcomes and mortality associated with IBD patients.
METHODS: A systematic literature search has been performed on PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Scopus from inception till May 2022 without any language restrictions.
RESULTS: A total of 2,029,941 patients were included in the analysis from 16 studies. The mean age of the patients was 45.6 years. More females were found compared with males (57% vs 43%). The most common risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) included smoking (24.19%) and alcohol (4.60%). The most common comorbidities includes hypertension (30%), diabetes mellitus (14.41%), dyslipidemia (18.42%), previous CVD (22%), and renal disease (10%). Among outcomes, all-cause mortality among IBD patients was 1.66%; ulcerative colitis (UC): 15.92%; and Crohn disease (CD): 0.30%. Myocardial Infarction (MI) among IBD patients were 1.47%, UC: 30.96%; and CD: 34.14%. CVD events among IBD patients were 1.95%. Heart failure events among IBD patients were 5.49%, stroke events among IBD patients were 0.95%, UC: 2.63%, and CD: 2.41%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: IBD patients are at higher risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes, especially in women. Although there remains a lack of concrete treatment algorithms and assessment parameters that better characterize IBD risk factors, nutritional modifications and physical activity should be at the forefront of CVD prevention in IBD.
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