STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: It is well established that dendrimers have demonstrated promising potentials for drug delivery. However, the inherent toxicity poses challenges for its clinical translation. In this regard, PEGylation has helped mitigate some of the toxicity concerns of dendrimers and have paved the way forward for testing its translational potentials. The review is a collection of articles demonstrating the utility of PEGylation of the most studied PAMAM dendrimers. To our knowledge, this is a first such attempt to draw reader's attention, specifically, towards PEGylated PAMAM dendrimers.
METHOD: Kind of therapeutics like low molecular weight drugs can be delivered to the CNS via this route. In this review, we have outlined the anatomy and physiological aspect of nasal mucosa, certain hurdles, various strategies including importance of muco-adhesive polymers to increase the drug delivery and possible clinical prospects that partly contribute in intranasal drug delivery.
RESULTS: Exhaustive literature survey related to intranasal drug delivery system revealed the new strategy that circumvents the BBB, based on non-invasive concept for treating various CNS disorders. Numerous advantages like prompt effects, self-medication through wide-ranging devices, and the frequent as well protracted dosing are associated with this novel route.
CONCLUSION: Recently few reports have proven that nasal to brain drug delivery system bypasses the BBB. This novel route is associated with targeting efficiency and less exposure of therapeutic substances to non-target site. Nevertheless, this route desires much more research into the safe transferring of therapeutics to the brain. Role of muco-adhesive polymer and surface modification with specific ligands are area of interest of researcher to explore more about this.
METHODS: Polymeric nanocarriers are among one of the effective delivery systems, which has given promising results in the treatment of breast cancers. Nanocarriers does exert their anticancer effect either through active or passive targeting mode.
RESULTS: The use of nanocarriers has been resolute about the adverse effects of chemotherapeutic drugs such as poor solubility and less penetrability in tumor cells.
CONCLUSION: The present review is focused on recent developments regarding polymeric nanocarriers, such as polymeric micelles, polymeric nanoparticles, dendrimers, liposomes, nanoshells, fullerenes, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and quantum dots, etc. for their recent advancements in breast cancer therapy.
METHODS: During the 6-year study period, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection (DA-HAI), we collected prospective data from 861,284 patients hospitalized in INICC hospital ICUs for an aggregate of 3,506,562 days.
RESULTS: Although device use in INICC ICUs was similar to that reported from CDC-NHSN ICUs, DA-HAI rates were higher in the INICC ICUs: in the INICC medical-surgical ICUs, the pooled rate of central line-associated bloodstream infection, 4.1 per 1,000 central line-days, was nearly 5-fold higher than the 0.8 per 1,000 central line-days reported from comparable US ICUs, the overall rate of ventilator-associated pneumonia was also higher, 13.1 versus 0.9 per 1,000 ventilator-days, as was the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 5.07 versus 1.7 per 1,000 catheter-days. From blood cultures samples, frequencies of resistance of Pseudomonas isolates to amikacin (29.87% vs 10%) and to imipenem (44.3% vs 26.1%), and of Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates to ceftazidime (73.2% vs 28.8%) and to imipenem (43.27% vs 12.8%) were also higher in the INICC ICUs compared with CDC-NHSN ICUs.
CONCLUSIONS: Although DA-HAIs in INICC ICU patients continue to be higher than the rates reported in CDC-NSHN ICUs representing the developed world, we have observed a significant trend toward the reduction of DA-HAI rates in INICC ICUs as shown in each international report. It is INICC's main goal to continue facilitating education, training, and basic and cost-effective tools and resources, such as standardized forms and an online platform, to tackle this problem effectively and systematically.
METHODS: Prospective, surveillance study on PVCR-BSI conducted from September 1, 2013, to May 31, 2019, in 727 intensive care units (ICUs), by members of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC), from 268 hospitals in 141 cities of 42 countries of Africa, the Americas, Eastern Mediterranean, Europe, South East Asia, and Western Pacific regions. For this research, we applied definition and criteria of the CDC NHSN, methodology of the INICC, and software named INICC Surveillance Online System.
RESULTS: We followed 149,609 ICU patients for 731,135 bed days and 743,508 short-term peripheral venous catheter (PVC) days. We identified 1,789 PVCR-BSIs for an overall rate of 2.41 per 1,000 PVC days. Mortality in patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 6.67%, and mortality was 18% in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. The length of stay of patients with PVC but without PVCR-BSI was 4.83 days, and the length of stay was 9.85 days in patients with PVC and PVCR-BSI. Among these infections, the microorganism profile showed 58% gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (16%), Klebsiella spp (11%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6%), Enterobacter spp (4%), and others (20%) including Serratia marcescens. Staphylococcus aureus were the predominant gram-positive bacteria (12%).
CONCLUSIONS: PVCR-BSI rates in INICC ICUs were much higher than rates published from industrialized countries. Infection prevention programs must be implemented to reduce the incidence of PVCR-BSIs in resource-limited countries.
METHODS: During the 6-year study period, prospective data from 532,483 ICU patients hospitalized in 242 hospitals, for an aggregate of 2,197,304 patient days, were collected through the INICC Surveillance Online System (ISOS). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-National Healthcare Safety Network (CDC-NHSN) definitions for device-associated health care-associated infection (DA-HAI) were applied.
RESULTS: Although device use in INICC ICUs was similar to that reported from CDC-NHSN ICUs, DA-HAI rates were higher in the INICC ICUs: in the medical-surgical ICUs, the pooled central line-associated bloodstream infection rate was higher (5.05 vs 0.8 per 1,000 central line-days); the ventilator-associated pneumonia rate was also higher (14.1 vs 0.9 per 1,000 ventilator-days,), as well as the rate of catheter-associated urinary tract infection (5.1 vs 1.7 per 1,000 catheter-days). From blood cultures samples, frequencies of resistance, such as of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to piperacillin-tazobactam (33.0% vs 18.3%), were also higher.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite a significant trend toward the reduction in INICC ICUs, DA-HAI rates are still much higher compared with CDC-NHSN's ICUs representing the developed world. It is INICC's main goal to provide basic and cost-effective resources, through the INICC Surveillance Online System to tackle the burden of DA-HAIs effectively.
METHODS: Prospective data from patients hospitalized in ICUs were collected through INICC Surveillance Online System. CDC-NHSN definitions for device-associated healthcare-associated infection (DA-HAI) were applied.
RESULTS: We collected data from 428,847 patients, for an aggregate of 2,815,402 bed-days, 1,468,216 central line (CL)-days, 1,053,330 mechanical ventilator (MV)-days, 1,740,776 urinary catheter (UC)-days. We found 7,785 CL-associated bloodstream infections (CLAB), 12,085 ventilator-associated events (VAE), and 5,509 UC-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI). Pooled DA-HAI rates were 5.91% and 9.01 DA-HAIs/1,000 bed-days. Pooled CLAB rate was 5.30/1,000 CL-days; VAE rate was 11.47/1,000 MV-days, and CAUTI rate was 3.16/1,000 UC-days. P aeruginosa was non-susceptible (NS) to imipenem in 52.72% of cases; to colistin in 10.38%; to ceftazidime in 50%; to ciprofloxacin in 40.28%; and to amikacin in 34.05%. Klebsiella spp was NS to imipenem in 49.16%; to ceftazidime in 78.01%; to ciprofloxacin in 66.26%; and to amikacin in 42.45%. coagulase-negative Staphylococci and S aureus were NS to oxacillin in 91.44% and 56.03%, respectively. Enterococcus spp was NS to vancomycin in 42.31% of the cases.
CONCLUSIONS: DA-HAI rates and bacterial resistance are high and continuous efforts are needed to reduce them.