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  1. Tay WM
    Dent J Malaysia Singapore, 1968 Feb;8(1):24-8.
    PMID: 5248555
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Amalgam
  2. Bhatia S, Kohli S, Selvadurai SS
    Am J Med, 2021 06;134(6):e390-e391.
    PMID: 33359776 DOI: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.11.016
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Amalgam/adverse effects*; Dental Amalgam/chemistry
  3. Tahir TF, Salhin A, Ab Ghani S
    Sensors (Basel), 2012 Nov 06;12(11):14968-82.
    PMID: 23202196 DOI: 10.3390/s121114968
    A flow injection analysis (FIA) incorporating a thiosemicarbazone-based coated wire electrode (CWE) was developed method for the determination of mercury(II). A 0.1 M KNO(3) carrier stream with pH between 1 and 5 and flow rate of 1 mL·min(-1) were used as optimum parameters. A linear plot within the concentration range of 5 × 10(-6)–0.1 M Hg(II), slope of 27.8 ± 1 mV per decade and correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.984 were obtained. The system was successfully applied for the determination of mercury(II) in dental amalgam solutions and spiked environmental water samples. Highly reproducible measurements with relative standard deviation (RSD < 1% (n = 3)) were obtained, giving a typical throughput of 30 samples·h(-1).
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Amalgam
  4. Lui JL
    Quintessence Int, 1992 Aug;23(8):533-8.
    PMID: 1410256
    Many clinical applications have been recommended for glass-cermet cement because of its improved properties compared to the original glass-ionomer cements. It has also been accepted as a dentinal substitute that can strengthen teeth. In this paper, an additional clinical application for glass-cermet cement, the reinforcement of weakened endodontically treated roots, is suggested. This technique is in keeping with the trends of tooth conservation and the use of an adhesive restorative material in the restoration of severely damaged teeth by a conservative approach.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Amalgam
  5. Lui JL, Tong SL, Teh SK
    Ann Dent, 1994;1(1):1-4.
    MyJurnal
    The mercury controversy related to dental amalgam is still continuing. In Malaysia, part of, this controversy has been attributed to a recently - introduced dental amalgam claimed to be non-mercury releasing and causing no mercury toxicity. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether this amalgam, Composil, was indeed non-mercury releasing. Six specimens each of Composil and a control (GS-80) were incubated at 3TC in deionised-distilled water. The daily mercury release was determined over a four-week study period using the stationary cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometric method. The mean mercury release of Composil was 30.9 Ilg/cm2/ 24hr whilst that of GS-80 was 0.9 Ilg/cm2124hr and the difference was found to be highly significant (P < 0.00l). Results of this study therefore did not substantiate the manufacturer's claim. The release of mercury from amalgam restorations and their implications in clinical practice were also discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Amalgam
  6. Mohamad Mahathir Amir Sultan, Goh CT, Peterson PJ, Sharifah Ezat Wan Puteh, Mazlin Mokhtar
    The risks of mercury use have prompted the establishment of Minamata Convention on Mercury which placed strong emphasis on management of mercury-added products. This convention aims to reduce and phase out the use, manufacturing and trade of mercury-added products including batteries, switches and non-electronic measuring devices. This commitment will cause significant impacts especially in the developing countries in designing the right approach to achieve it. This is also true for medical industry which is well known for the utilization of mercury-added devices and dental amalgam in its services but had embarked on efforts in eliminating mercury for many years. The experiences learned within a medical facility can be useful in efforts to meet this global ambition of mercury phase out. This paper aims to provide conceptual discussion on the challenges faced by developing countries and lessons learned from medical facility that can helps the formulation of appropriate approaches to manage mercury-added products. The paper adopted medical industry as a case study and used document analysis to discuss the issue. The main challenges identified for developing countries include lacks of capacity, funding, data and newer technologies. Based on analysis of previous studies, this study proposed a mercury management framework in medical facility and identified the recommended practices, namely technological application, policy instrument, capacity building and guidelines development. These identified approaches are found to have specific relationships between cost and potential impacts, hence giving flexibility for adoption based on the available resources in promoting better mercury management system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Amalgam
  7. Sahani M, Sulaiman NS, Tan BS, Yahya NA, Anual ZF, Mahiyuddin WR, et al.
    J Air Waste Manag Assoc, 2016 Nov;66(11):1077-1083.
    PMID: 27192328 DOI: 10.1080/10962247.2016.1188866
    Dental amalgam in fillings exposes workers to mercury. The exposure to mercury was investigated among 1871 dental health care workers. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of mercury exposure among dental compared to nondental health care workers and to determine other risk factors for mercury exposure. Respondents answered questionnaires to obtain demographic, personal, professional, and workplace information and were examined for their own amalgam fillings. Chronic mercury exposure was assessed through urinary mercury levels. In total, 1409 dental and 462 nondental health care workers participated in the study. Median urine mercury levels for dental and nondental health care workers were 2.75 μg/L (interquartile range [IQR] = 3.0175) and 2.66 μg/L (IQR = 3.04) respectively. For mercury exposure, there were no significant risk factor found among the workers involved within the dental care. The Mann-Whitney test showed that urine mercury levels were significantly different between respondents who eat seafood more than 5 times per week compared to those who eat it less frequently or not at all (p = 0.003). The urinary mercury levels indicated significant difference between dental workers in their practice using squeeze cloths (Mann-Whitney test, p = 0.03). Multiple logistic regression showed that only the usage of cosmetic products that might contain mercury was found to be significantly associated with the urinary mercury levels (odds ratio [OR] = 15.237; CI: 3.612-64.276). Therefore, mean urinary mercury levels of health care workers were low. Exposure to dental amalgam is not associated with high mercury exposure. However, usage of cosmetic products containing mercury and high seafood consumption may lead to the increase of exposure to mercury.

    IMPLICATIONS: Exposure to the high levels of mercury from dental amalgam can lead to serious health effects among the dental health care workers. Nationwide chronic mercury exposure among dental personnel was assessed through urinary mercury levels. Findings suggest low urinary mercury levels of these health care workers. Exposure to dental amalgam is not associated with high mercury exposure. However, the usage of cosmetic products containing mercury and high seafood consumption may lead to the increase of exposure to mercury.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Amalgam*
  8. Sulong MZ, Aziz RA
    J Prosthet Dent, 1990 Mar;63(3):342-9.
    PMID: 2407832
    This is a review of the literature concerning wear related to the following materials used in dentistry: dental amalgam, composite resins, and glass-ionomer cements, as well as natural tooth substance. Discussions are included on both in vivo and in vitro studies in which various methods were used to help determine wear resistance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Amalgam*
  9. Sidhu P, Sultan OS, Math SY, Malik NA, Wilson NHF, Lynch CD, et al.
    J Dent, 2021 07;110:103683.
    PMID: 33957189 DOI: 10.1016/j.jdent.2021.103683
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current and future teaching of posterior composite restorations in undergraduate curricula in Malaysian dental schools.

    METHODS: A 24-item validated questionnaire including closed and open questions on the teaching of posterior composites was emailed to faculty members in all 13 Dental Schools in Malaysia. Responses were compiled on Excel and analysed.

    RESULTS: All 13 dental schools responded to the survey yielding a 100 % response. All schools indicated the use of posterior composites for 2- and 3-surface cavities in premolars and molars. The didactic teaching time devoted to composites was greater than for amalgam (38 h vs 29 h). Clinically, most posterior restorations placed by students were composites (average 74.1 %, range 10 %-100 %); the remaining 25.9 % were amalgams (range, 0 %-50 %). Slot-type cavities were the preparation techniques most commonly taught (n = 11,84.6 %). The use of rubber dam for moisture control was mandatory in most schools (n = 11, 84.6 %). History of adverse reaction to composites was found to be the most common contraindication to composite placement. The phase down of teaching and use of amalgam in Malaysia is expected to occur within the next six years.

    CONCLUSION: The trend to increase the teaching of posterior composites reported for other countries is confirmed by the findings from Malaysian dental schools. Notwithstanding this trend, the use of amalgam is still taught, and future studies are required to investigate the implications of the phase down of amalgam in favour of posterior composites.

    CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Notwithstanding the increase in the teaching of posterior composites there is a pressing need to update and refine clinical guidelines for the teaching of posterior composites globally.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Amalgam
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