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  1. Abdullah H, Pearson GJ
    Asian J Aesthet Dent, 1993 Jul;1(2):91-4.
    PMID: 7921802
    The effect of temperature change on the working and setting time of a glass ionomer luting cement and a resin luting cement was measured using the oscillating rheometer. The time taken for each cement to set was calculated from the chart recordings. It was observed that as the temperature increased, the working and setting time of both materials decreased. However, the reduction was much more marked for the dual curing resin cement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Cements/chemistry*
  2. Ahmed T, Rahman NA, Alam MK
    Biomed Res Int, 2021;2021:6663683.
    PMID: 33959664 DOI: 10.1155/2021/6663683
    Objective: To compare the orthodontic bracket debonding force and assess the bracket failure pattern clinically between different teeth by a validated prototype debonding device. Materials and Method. Thirteen (13) patients at the end of comprehensive fixed orthodontic treatment, awaiting for bracket removal, were selected from the list. A total of 260 brackets from the central incisor to the second premolar in both jaws were debonded by a single clinician using a validated prototype debonding device equipped with a force sensitive resistor (FSR). Mean bracket debonding forces were specified to ten (10) groups of teeth. Following debonding, Intraoral microphotographs of the teeth were taken by the same clinician to assess the bracket failure pattern using a 4-point scale of adhesive remnant index (ARI). Statistical analysis included one-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey HSD and independent sample t-test to compare in vivo bracket debonding force, Cohen's kappa (κ), and a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test for the reliability and the assessment of ARI scoring.

    Results: A significant difference (p < 0.001) of mean debonding force was found between different types of teeth in vivo. Clinically, ARI scores were not significantly different (p = 0.921) between different groups, but overall higher scores were predominant.

    Conclusion: Bracket debonding force should be measured on the same tooth from the same arch as the significant difference of mean debonding force exists between similar teeth of the upper and lower arches. The insignificant bracket failure pattern with higher ARI scores confirms less enamel damage irrespective of tooth types.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Cements/chemistry*
  3. Ab-Ghani Z, Ngo H, McIntyre J
    Aust Dent J, 2007 Dec;52(4):276-81.
    PMID: 18265682
    BACKGROUND: There have been cononcerns about the dissolution of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) and its possible degradation when exposed to an acidic environment over time. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of exposure of Fuji IX Fast to the simulated acidic aspects of the oral environment in terms of any change in the elemental composition of strontium (Sr), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and fluorine (F) which resulted at the surface of this material.

    METHODS: Sixty-five cylindrical block of Fuji IX Fast were prepared using split moulds. The demineralizing solution was an acetate buffered demineralizing solution at pH 403. The remineralizing solution was a buffered solution containing 1.5 mM Ca, 0.9 mM P and 10 ppm F at pH 7. The blocks of Fuji IX Fast were subjected either to two-day alternating cycles of remineralization and demineralization for up to 24 days (test); 6 two-day cycles of demineralizing or remineralizing solution separately, or deionized distilled water alone (controls) or were left untreated (base line control). Mineral profiles of Ca, P, Sr and F within 100 microm of the material surface were assessed following 8, 16 and 24 days of treatment (test); 4, 8 or 12 days (controls) or for baseline control samples, using electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).

    RESULTS: There were significant changes in mineral profile in the test specimens in terms of Sr and Ca concentrations. A molecule for molecule exchange of these elements resulted between GIC and eluant solutions. Fluoride loss from the GIC occurredto the level comparable with uptake levels recorded in eluant solutions from previous studies. The ionic exchanges appeared to be the result of dissolution followed by an equilibrium-driven diffusion. These exchanges were superficial though substantial.

    CONCLUSIONS: Simulated exposure of Fuji IX to the oral environment resulted in an exchange of Ca from the bathing solutions into Fuji IX to replace any Sr which was lost to the GIC. Fluorine loss from the GIC followed previously described patterns. The possible clinical significance of this exchange was discussed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Cements/chemistry*
  4. Abdullah D, Ford TR, Papaioannou S, Nicholson J, McDonald F
    Biomaterials, 2002 Oct;23(19):4001-10.
    PMID: 12162333
    Biocompatibility of two variants of accelerated Portland cement (APC) were investigated in vitro by observing the cytomorphology of SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells in the presence of test materials and the effect of these materials on the expression of markers of bone remodelling. Glass ionomer cement (GIC), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and unmodified Portland cement (RC) were used for comparison. A direct contact assay was undertaken in four samples of each test material, collected at 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Cell morphology was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and scored. Culture media were collected for cytokine quantification using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). On SEM evaluation, healthy SaOS-2 cells were found adhering onto the surfaces of APC variant, RC and MTA. In contrast, rounded and dying cells were observed on GIC. Using ELISA, levels of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-18 and OC were significantly higher in APC variants compared with controls and GIC (p<0.01), but these levels of cytokines were not statistically significant compared with MTA. The results of this study provide evidence that both APC variants are non-toxic and may have potential to promote bone healing. Further development of APC is indicated to produce a viable dental restorative material and possibly a material for orthopaedic
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Cements/chemistry*
  5. Mustafa AA, Matinlinna JP, Razak AA, Hussin AS
    J Investig Clin Dent, 2015 Aug;6(3):161-9.
    PMID: 24415731 DOI: 10.1111/jicd.12083
    AIM: To evaluate in vitro the effect of different concentrations of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) in experimental silane-based primers on shear bond strength of orthodontic adhesives.

    METHODS: Different volume percentages of HEMA were tested in four experimental silane-based primer solutions (additions of HEMA: 0, 5.0 vol%, 25.0 vol% and 50.0 vol%). An experimental silane blend (primer) of 1.0 vol% 3-isocyanatopropyltrimethoxysilane (ICMS) + 0.5% bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl) ethane (BTSE) was prepared and used. The experimental primers together with the control group were applied onto acid-etched premolars for attachment of orthodontic brackets. After artificial aging by thermocycling the shear-bond strength was measured. The fractured surfaces of all specimens were examined under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the failure mode on the enamel surface.

    RESULTS: The experimental primers showed the highest shear-bond strength of 21.15 MPa (SD ± 2.70 MPa) and with 25 vol% showed a highly significant increase (P < 0.05) in bond strength. The SEM images showed full penetration of adhesive agents when using silane-based primers. In addition, the SEM images suggested that the predominant failure type was not necessarily the same as for the failure propagation.

    CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study suggested that nonacidic silane-based primers with HEMA addition might be an alternative to for use as adhesion promoting primers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Cements/chemistry*
  6. Chew KK, Low KL, Sharif Zein SH, McPhail DS, Gerhardt LC, Roether JA, et al.
    J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 2011 Apr;4(3):331-9.
    PMID: 21316621 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2010.10.013
    This paper presents the development of novel alternative injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) composites for orthopaedic applications. The new CPC composites comprise β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) and di-calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA) mixed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and incorporated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) or functionalized MWCNTs (MWCNTs-OH and MWCNTs-COOH). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), compressive strength tests, injectability tests, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction were used to evaluate the properties of the final products. Compressive strength tests and SEM observations demonstrated particularly that the concomitant admixture of BSA and MWCNT improved the mechanical properties, resulting in stronger CPC composites. The presence of MWCNTs and BSA influenced the morphology of the hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals in the CPC matrix. BSA was found to act as a promoter of HA growth when bounded to the surface of CPC grains. MWCNT-OH-containing composites exhibited the highest compressive strengths (16.3 MPa), being in the range of values for trabecular bone (2-12 MPa).
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Cements/chemistry*
  7. Al-Makramani BMA, Razak AAA, Abu-Hassan MI
    J Prosthodont, 2008 Feb;17(2):120-124.
    PMID: 18047490 DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-849X.2007.00270.x
    PURPOSE: The current study investigated the effect of different luting agents on the fracture resistance of Procera AllCeram copings.

    METHODS: Six master dies were duplicated from the prepared maxillary first premolar tooth using nonprecious metal alloy (Wiron 99). Thirty copings (Procera AllCeram) of 0.6-mm thickness were manufactured. Three types of luting media were used: zinc phosphate cement (Elite), glass ionomer cement (Fuji I), and dual-cured composite resin cement (Panavia F). Ten copings were cemented with each type. Two master dies were used for each group, and each of them was used to lute five copings. All groups were cemented according to manufacturer's instructions and received a static load of 5 kg during cementation. After 24 hours of distilled water storage at 37 degrees C, the copings were vertically compressed using a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min.

    RESULTS: ANOVA revealed significant differences in the load at fracture among the three groups (p < 0.001). The fracture strength results showed that the mean fracture strength of zinc phosphate cement (Elite), glass ionomer cement (Fuji I), and resin luting cement (Panavia F) were 1091.9 N, 784.8 N, and 1953.5 N, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Different luting agents have an influence on the fracture resistance of Procera AllCeram copings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Cements/chemistry*
  8. Tapsir Z, Aly Ahmed HM, Luddin N, Husein A
    J Contemp Dent Pract, 2013 Jan 1;14(1):47-50.
    PMID: 23579892
    To evaluate and compare the microleakage of various restorative materials used as coronal barriers between endodontic appointments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Cements/chemistry
  9. Chin ZW, Chong WS, Mani SA
    Oral Health Prev Dent, 2016;14(2):125-35.
    PMID: 26525124 DOI: 10.3290/j.ohpd.a34999
    PURPOSE: To assess the knowledge, attitude and utilisation regarding fissure sealants (FS) and preventive resin restorations (PRR) among Malaysian dentists.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire consisting of 35 questions was distributed by mail or an online survey to 425 registered dentists selected according to place of work by stratified random sampling.

    RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three dentists responded to the survey. A positive attitude towards FS and PRR was noted among most Malaysian dentists. About half of the respondents used FS/PRR occasionally (48.4%), while few (13.7%) applied them routinely. The majority of the dentists agreed that minimally invasive dentistry is important and FS are effective in caries prevention, using them on high caries-risk individuals. Most of the dentists used pumice or paste to clean teeth before placing FS/PRR. A significant number of dentists used a bonding agent prior to placing FS. Although only 57.5% dentists were aware of guidelines for FS use, most dentists agreed that guidelines are important.

    CONCLUSION: Although there was a positive attitude towards FS/PRR, few dentists applied them routinely. Some of the steps undertaken for placement of FS and PRR were outdated. Updating local guidelines for dentists to ensure uniform practice of FS and PRR is justified.

    Matched MeSH terms: Dental Cements/chemistry
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