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  1. Dhami S, Nurmatov U, Arasi S, Khan T, Asaria M, Zaman H, et al.
    Allergy, 2017 Nov;72(11):1597-1631.
    PMID: 28493631 DOI: 10.1111/all.13201
    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. To inform the development of clinical recommendations, we undertook a systematic review to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, and safety of AIT in the management of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    METHODS: We searched nine international biomedical databases for published, in-progress, and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened by two reviewers against predefined eligibility criteria and critically appraised using established instruments. Our primary outcomes of interest were symptom, medication, and combined symptom and medication scores. Secondary outcomes of interest included cost-effectiveness and safety. Data were descriptively summarized and then quantitatively synthesized using random-effects meta-analyses.

    RESULTS: We identified 5960 studies of which 160 studies satisfied our eligibility criteria. There was a substantial body of evidence demonstrating significant reductions in standardized mean differences (SMD) of symptom (SMD -0.53, 95% CI -0.63, -0.42), medication (SMD -0.37, 95% CI -0.49, -0.26), and combined symptom and medication (SMD -0.49, 95% CI -0.69, -0.30) scores while on treatment that were robust to prespecified sensitivity analyses. There was in comparison a more modest body of evidence on effectiveness post-discontinuation of AIT, suggesting a benefit in relation to symptom scores.

    CONCLUSIONS: AIT is effective in improving symptom, medication, and combined symptom and medication scores in patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis while on treatment, and there is some evidence suggesting that these benefits are maintained in relation to symptom scores after discontinuation of therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Desensitization, Immunologic/methods*
  2. Sulaiman N, Othman AZ, Shahril NS, Abdul Rashid AM, Md Noh MSF
    SAGE Open Med Case Rep, 2017;5:2050313X17749080.
    PMID: 29318019 DOI: 10.1177/2050313X17749080
    Over the years, allopurinol has been widely used as the preferred choice of urate lowering therapy in patients with gout. However, its role in patients with renal impairment is limited; and adverse reactions are well documented. Febuxostat, a newer oral non-purine xanthine oxidase inhibitor has been proven in several trials to be more effective and tolerable compared to allopurinol and may be used in patients with renal impairment. Here, we describe a case of successful febuxostat desensitization in a patient with a history of allopurinol- and febuxostat-induced adverse cutaneous reaction, as well as the protocol utilized.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desensitization, Immunologic
  3. Joo Chan C, Richardo T, Lim RLH
    Int. Rev. Immunol., 2018;37(6):279-290.
    PMID: 30638084 DOI: 10.1080/08830185.2018.1509967
    Peanut allergy is a hypersensitivity reaction with symptoms varying from mild to severe anaphylaxis, tends to be lifelong and very few are able to outgrow this allergy. The prevalence of peanut allergy is highest among the Western countries and over the past decade, a 3.5 fold increase in prevalence of peanut allergy was reported among children in the United States. Increasing prevalence has also been observed among the Asian countries. As with other food allergies, peanut allergy reduces quality of life for the affected individuals and the social and economy burden of healthcare for peanut allergy is substantial. To date, there is no effective treatment for peanut allergy and disease management is by avoidance or relieve of symptoms via administration of epinephrine. Peanut allergy is a type-1 hypersensitivity reaction due to specific IgE production by activated T-helper type 2 (TH2) cells. Studies on various immunotherapy routes such as oral immunotherapy (OIT), sublingual immunotherapy and epicutaneous immunotherapy trials using peanut have shown the ability to induce desensitisation, shifting the allergen-specific cytokine production away from a TH2 respond. In the recent years, lactic acid bacteria probiotics have been reported to down-regulate allergy due to its inherent immunomodulatory properties. Wild-type probiotic in combination with peanut proteins or recombinant probiotics harbouring peanut allergens have been explored for OIT due to its ability to down-regulate allergen-specific-IgE production and the TH2 responses, while increasing the beneficiary population of TH1 regulatory T cells (Treg). This review discusses the current strategies in immunotherapy for peanut allergy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desensitization, Immunologic/methods; Desensitization, Immunologic/trends*
  4. Salleh Hudin N, Teyssier A, Aerts J, Fairhurst GD, Strubbe D, White J, et al.
    Biol Open, 2018 Jun 15;7(6).
    PMID: 29632231 DOI: 10.1242/bio.031849
    While urbanization exposes individuals to novel challenges, urban areas may also constitute stable environments in which seasonal fluctuations are buffered. Baseline and stress-induced plasma corticosterone (cort) levels are often found to be similar in urban and rural populations. Here we aimed to disentangle two possible mechanisms underlying such pattern: (i) urban environments are no more stressful or urban birds have a better ability to habituate to stressors; or (ii) urban birds developed desensitized stress responses. We exposed wild-caught urban and rural house sparrows (Passer domesticus) to combined captivity and diet treatments (urban versus rural diet) and measured corticosterone levels both in natural tail feathers and in regrown homologous ones (cortf). Urban and rural house sparrows showed similar cortf levels in the wild and in response to novel stressors caused by the experiment, supporting the growing notion that urban environments are no more stressful during the non-breeding season than are rural ones. Still, juveniles and males originating from urban populations showed the highest cortf levels in regrown feathers. We did not find evidence that cortf was consistent within individuals across moults. Our study stresses the need for incorporating both intrinsic and environmental factors for the interpretation of variation in cortf between populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desensitization, Immunologic
  5. Ferguson GC, Nunn AJ, Fox W, Miller AB, Robinson DK, Tall R
    Tubercle, 1971 Sep;52(3):166-81.
    PMID: 4106401
    Matched MeSH terms: Desensitization, Immunologic
  6. Chan SL, Ong TC, Gao YF, Tiong YS, Wang de Y, Chew FT, et al.
    J. Immunol., 2008 Aug 15;181(4):2586-96.
    PMID: 18684949
    A high incidence of sensitization to Blomia tropicalis, the predominant house dust mite species in tropical regions, is strongly associated with allergic diseases in Singapore, Malaysia, and Brazil. IgE binding to the group 5 allergen, Blo t 5, is found to be the most prevalent among all B. tropicalis allergens. The NMR structure of Blo t 5 determined represents a novel helical bundle structure consisting of three antiparallel alpha-helices. Based on the structure and sequence alignment with other known group 5 dust mite allergens, surface-exposed charged residues have been identified for site-directed mutagenesis and IgE binding assays. Four charged residues, Glu76, Asp81, Glu86, and Glu91 at around the turn region connecting helices alpha2 and alpha3 have been identified to be involved in the IgE binding. Using overlapping peptides, we have confirmed that these charged residues are located on a major putative linear IgE epitope of Blo t 5 from residues 76-91 comprising the sequence ELKRTDLNILERFNYE. Triple and quadruple mutants have been generated and found to exhibit significantly lower IgE binding and reduced responses in skin prick tests. The mutants induced similar PBMC proliferation as the wild-type protein but with reduced Th2:Th1 cytokines ratio. Mass screening on a quadruple mutant showed a 40% reduction in IgE binding in 35 of 42 sera of atopic individuals. Findings in this study further stressed the importance of surface-charged residues on IgE binding and have implications in the cross-reactivity and use of Blo t 5 mutants as a hypoallergen for immunotherapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Desensitization, Immunologic
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