Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 35 in total

  1. Ahmadian M, Samah AA
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(7):4005-13.
    PMID: 23991945
    BACKGROUND: Although breast cancer is a major public health worry among Asian women, adherence to screening for the disease remains an obstacle to its prevention. A variety of psycho-social and cultural factors predispose women to delay or avoidance of screening for breast cancer symptoms at the early stages when cure is most likely to be successful. Yet few interventions implemented to date to address this condition in this region have drawn on health behavior theory.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reviews the existing literature on several cognitive theories and models associated with breast cancer screening, with an emphasis on the work that has been done in relation to Asian women. To conduct this review, a number of electronic databases were searched with context-appropriate inclusion criteria.

    RESULTS: Little empirical work was found that specifically addressed the applicability of health theories in promoting adherence to the current breast cancer prevention programs Among Asian women. However, a few studies were found that addressed individual cognitive factors that are likely to encourage women's motivation to protect themselves against breast cancer in this region of the world. The findings suggest that multi-level, socio-cultural interventions that focus on cognitive factors have much promise with this issue.

    CONCLUSIONS: Interventions are needed that effectively and efficiently target the personal motivation of at-risk Asian women to seek out and engage in breast cancer prevention. Concerning implications, personal motivation to seek out and engage in individual preventive actions for breast cancer prevention among Asian women is a timely, high priority target with practical implications for community development and health promotion. Further studies using qualitative, anthropologic approaches shaped for implementation in multi-ethnic Asian settings are needed to inform and guide these interventions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  2. Al-Dubai SA, Qureshi AM, Saif-Ali R, Ganasegeran K, Alwan MR, Hadi JI
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(10):2531-8.
    PMID: 22320951
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess awareness and knowledge of breast cancer and mammography among Malaysian women in Shah Alam.

    METHODS: This cross sectional study was conducted among 250 Malaysian women. Data were collected using a self administrated questionnaire which included questions on socio-demographic data, knowledge of breast cancer and awareness of mammography.

    RESULTS: Mean age of respondents was 28 ± 9.2 with 69.2% aged 18 to 29 years. The majority had heard about breast cancer (81.2%) and indicated books, magazines and brochures as their source of information (55.2%). However, most did not know about signs and symptoms of breast cancer and many of its risk factors. On multivariate analysis, significant predictors of breast cancer knowledge were age, race, marital status, level of education, occupation, family size and family history of other cancers (p<0.05). Fifty percent of women were aware of mammography, significant predictors being age, occupation, marital status and knowledge of breast cancer (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: Most women were aware of breast cancer. However, the knowledge about signs and symptoms of breast cancer and awareness of mammography were inadequate. It is recommended that the level of knowledge should be raised among Malaysian women, particularly in the less educated young.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  3. Mahmood MI, Shah SA, Ahmad N, Rosli NM
    J Cancer Educ, 2018 04;33(2):269-277.
    PMID: 27448613 DOI: 10.1007/s13187-016-1081-7
    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the construct validity of a newly developed cancer screening perception scale as a measure of the perception of cancer screening in general among high-risk but healthy asymptomatic groups.The cancer screening perception scale (CSPS) was developed based on extensive literature reviews guided by The Health Belief Model. Fifty-five written items were initially pooled, reviewed by experts for face validity, pretested by 25 healthcare workers and translated into Malay using simple back translation. The scale was then distributed to 300 respondents from two health clinics for construct validation purposes. The obtained data were analyzed using the varimax rotation method for exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The data was submitted for further confirmatory factor analysis using AMOS software.Based on EFA, the results produced five constructs as predicted: perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, and cues for action. Two items with low factor loading and unrelated to the recovered domains were removed. Perceived barriers and cues for action had three and two sub-domains respectively which were further confirmed to fit the measurement and structural models. CFA demonstrated the scale fitted GFI = 0.936, CFI = 0.935, RMSEA = 0.076, NORMEDCHISQ = 2.162. The scale discriminated between the domains. Cronbach's alpha for perceived severity, perceived susceptibility, perceived benefits, perceived barrier, and cues for action were 0.907, 0.877, 0.940, 0.864 and 0.938, respectively.The cancer screening perception scale with its promising psychometric properties is now available to measure risks to high-risk but healthy, asymptomatic groups aged 18 and above and can also be used for larger scale study purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  4. Al-Naggar RA, Al-Kubaisy W, Yap BW, Bobryshev YV, Osman MT
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2015;16(2):667-74.
    PMID: 25684505
    BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignancy in Malaysia, where data are limited regarding knowledge and barriers in regard to CRC and screening tests. The aim of the study was to assess these parameters among Malaysians.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaires were distributed in the Umra Private Hospital in Selangor. The questionnaire had four parts and covered social-demographic questions, respondent knowledge about CRC and colorectal tests, attitude towards CRC and respondentaction regarding CRC. More than half of Malay participants (total n=187) were female (57.2%) and 36.9% of them were working as professionals.

    RESULTS: The majority of the participants (93.6%) never had a CRC screening test. The study found that only 10.2% of the study participants did not consider that their chances of getting CRC were high. A high percentage of the participants (43.3%) believed that they would have good chance of survival if the cancer would be found early. About one third of the respondents did not want to do screening because of fear of cancer, and concerns of embarrassment during the procedure adversely affected attitude to CRC screening as well. Age, gender, income, family history of CRC, vegetable intake and physical activity were found to be significant determinants of knowledge on CRC.

    CONCLUSIONS: The major barriers identified towards CRC screening identified in our study were fear of pain and embarrassment. The findings have implications for understanding of similarities and differences in attitude to CRC amongst elderly patients in other cultural/ geographic regions.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  5. Che CC, Coomarasamy JD, Suppayah B
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(17):7175-80.
    PMID: 25227810
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia, about one in 19 women being at risk. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and practice of breast self-examination (BSE), as well as knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer amongst female adolescents in Malaysia. Subsequently, relationships between demographic characteristics and knowledge level of BSE, risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practice were assessed.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross sectional survey was conducted using a sample of 500 Malaysian adolescents from the age of 15 to 19 years. A self-administered questionnaire was used to gather socio- demographic characteristics, knowledge of BSE, knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer and BSE practices.

    RESULTS: The findings of this study indicated that female adolescents in Malaysia demonstrated an inadequate knowledge level of BSE and risk factors for breast cancer. Only 27.8% of female adolescents performed BSE regularly. BSE practice, knowledge of BSE and knowledge of risk factors for breast cancer showed significant positive relationships.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study highlighted the importance of planning and implementing breast health education programs for female students in secondary schools in Malaysia. It will also provide the health care providers an avenue to stress on the importance of imparting breast health education to adolescents.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology
  6. Htay MNN, Donnelly M, Schliemann D, Loh SY, Dahlui M, Ibrahim Tamin NSB, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2020 Jan 01;21(1):217-223.
    PMID: 31983187 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.1.217
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women in Malaysia, and the incidence of 31.1 per 100,000 population is comparatively higher than other Southeast Asian countries. Diagnosis tends to occur at later stages which may be due, partly, to inadequate knowledge about warning signs and symptoms. Therefore, this study investigated the validity and reliability of a UK-developed measure in the context of assessing women's awareness of breast cancer in Malaysia.

    AIMS: This study aimed to translate, adapt and validate the internationally recognised Breast Cancer Awareness Measure (B-CAM) into the Malay language.

    METHODS: The original B-CAM (Cancer Research UK) was forward and backward translated and content validation was ascertained. Face validity (n=30), test-retest reliability (n=50) and the internal consistency of the B-CAM-M (M for Malay language) were assessed in a community sample of adults (n=251) in 2018.

    RESULTS: The translated B-CAM-M was validated by an expert panel. The Item-Content Validity Index ranged from .83 to 1.00. The results from the survey (n=251) indicated that the B-CAM-M was well received by Malay-speaking women across the main ethnic groups (85 Malay, 84 Chinese and 82 Indian adults). Cronbach alpha scores for the knowledge about breast cancer symptoms (0.83) and the barriers to healthcare seeking items (0.75) were high. Test-retest reliability (separated by 2-week-interval) with 50 randomly selected participants from the community survey produced intra-class correlations ranging from 0.39 to 0.69.

    CONCLUSION: The Malay-version, the B-CAM-M, is a culturally acceptable, valid and reliable assessment tool with which to measure breast cancer awareness among Malay-speaking women.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  7. Naing C, Jun YK, Yee WM, Waqiyuddin SJ, Lui LC, Shaung OY, et al.
    Eur J Cancer Prev, 2014 Mar;23(2):71-5.
    PMID: 23722440 DOI: 10.1097/CEJ.0b013e328362e9b4
    The aims of the study were (i) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of colorectal cancer (CRC), (ii) to explore the willingness of the study population to take a screening test for CRC, and (iii) to identify factors affecting the willingness to take a screening test for CRC. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a semiurban town in Malaysia using a pretested structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were determined for all important variables. A binary logistic regression model was introduced to identify independent predictors of the willingness to take a screening test. Factors influencing willingness were explored according to the constructs of the health belief model. Of the 256 respondents who had heard about CRC, the majority were aware of altered bowel habits (67.3%) or the presence of blood in stool or rectal bleeding (63.4%) as the warning symptoms. Although 38% of the respondents knew of colonoscopy as the screening test, 22% were not aware of any screening test for CRC. A majority (77.4%) showed willingness to take a screening test for CRC. In the multivariate analysis, 'having family or friends with history of CRC' and 'self-perceived risk' were the two significant variables for predicting the acceptance of CRC screening among the study population. Findings suggested that the respondents' knowledge of the CRC screening test was inadequate, albeit a high proportion expressed their intention to take screening tests. Health education on the CRC addressing available screening tests and the benefits of early screening for CRC should be scaled up.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  8. Romli R, Shahabudin S, Saddki N, Mokhtar N
    Med J Malaysia, 2019 02;74(1):8-14.
    PMID: 30846655
    INTRODUCTION: Cervical cancer is among the most common cancers in women worldwide. The Pap smear test is the primary screening procedure used to detect abnormal cells that may develop into cancer.

    OBJECTIVES: This study analysed the knowledge, attitudes and practices of working women in Kedah state, Malaysia, about cervical cancer and Pap smear tests and the associations of knowledge, attitudes and practices with socio-demographic factors.

    METHODS: This cross-sectional questionnaire study analysed knowledge, attitudes and practices among 210 female entrepreneurs who received funding from Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia (AIM) in Kedah state. Women were included if they were married or previously married, aged 20-65 years and had not been diagnosed with cervical cancer.

    RESULTS: Most subjects could not recall common symptoms of cervical cancer, such as bleeding between periods, and did not know or were unsure of the suitable age for Pap smear tests and the interval between tests. Although most subjects agreed that Pap smear tests were necessary, some gave priority to other issues. About half (55.2%) had undergone Pap smear tests, but only 38.6% had been tested within the previous five years. Use of hormonal contraceptives, higher knowledge score, and higher attitude score were associated with Pap smear testing within the previous 5 years.

    CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge regarding cervical cancer and Pap smear testing and attitudes toward testing were poor among most participants. These factors were significantly associated with lack of actual testing.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  9. Schliemann D, Su TT, Paramasivam D, Treanor C, Dahlui M, Loh SY, et al.
    J Glob Oncol, 2019 04;5:1-20.
    PMID: 30969807 DOI: 10.1200/JGO.19.00011
    PURPOSE: The main objective of this systematic review was to identify whether mass and small media interventions improve knowledge and attitudes about cancer, cancer screening rates, and early detection of cancer in Asia.

    METHODS: The review was conducted according to a predefined protocol. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar were searched in September 2017, and data extraction and rating of methodologic study quality (according to Joanna Briggs Institute rating procedures) were performed independently by reviewers.

    RESULTS: Twenty-two studies (reported across 24 papers) met the inclusion criteria. Most studies (n = 21) were conducted in high or upper-middle income countries; targeted breast (n = 11), cervical (n = 7), colorectal (n = 3), or oral (n = 2) cancer; and used small media either alone (n = 15) or in combination with mass media and other components (n = 5). Studies regarding cancer screening uptake were of medium to high quality and mainly reported positive outcomes for cervical cancer and mixed results for breast and colorectal cancer. The methodologic strength of research that investigated change in cancer-related knowledge and the cost effectiveness of interventions, respectively, were weak and inconclusive.

    CONCLUSION: Evidence indicated that small media campaigns seemed to be effective in terms of increasing screening uptake in Asia, in particular cervical cancer screening. Because of the limited number of studies in Asia, it was not possible to be certain about the effectiveness of mass media in improving screening uptake and the effectiveness of campaigns in improving cancer-related knowledge.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  10. Mohamad M, Kok HS
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2019 May 25;20(5):1427-1432.
    PMID: 31127903
    Objective: This study aims to investigate the public pattern in seeking breast cancer screening information in
    Malaysia using Google Trends. Methods: The Google Trends database was evaluated for the relative Internet search
    popularity of breast cancer and screening-related search terms from 2007 to 2018. Results: Result showed downward
    trends in breast cancer search, whereas mammogram and tomosynthesis search fluctuated consistently. A significant
    increment was found during Pink October month. Breast cancer search term achieved the highest popularity in the east
    coast of Malaysia with [x2 (5, N=661) = 110.93, P<0.05], whereas mammogram attained the highest search volume in
    central Malaysia [x2 (4, N=67) = 18.90, P<0.05]. The cross-correlation for breast cancer was moderate among northern
    Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak (0.3 ≤ rs ≤ 0.7). Conclusion: Public interest trend in breast cancer screening is strongly
    correlated with the breast cancer awareness campaign, Pink October. Breast cancer screening should be promoted in
    the rural areas in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology
  11. Shah SA, Mahmood MI, Ahmad N
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2020 Nov 01;21(11):3137-3144.
    PMID: 33247668 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2020.21.11.3137
    BACKGROUND: The recent data shows reduced uptake on cancer screening where the Perception towards cancer screening by the public is one of the favorable factor might influence the screening uptake. Therefore, this study aims to determine the predictors of poor cancer screening perceptions among the population in Johor, Malaysia.

    METHODS: This was a cross sectional study of 1,312 respondents selected using a multistage design. Questionnaires relating to the demographic characteristics, socioeconomic profiles, social and physical environment, knowledge and perception of cancer screening were gathered. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the variables and their association with poor perceptions of cancer screening.

    RESULTS: Overall, 871(66.4%) respondents had poor perceptions of cancer screenings; 68.4% among males and 64.4% among females. In the multivariable analysis in the category of income, the bottom 40% and lower middle 40%, had not subscribed to health insurance, had poor social support, absence of any family history of cancer or comorbid illnesses, no previous attendance for cancer screening and poor knowledge of cancer, all of which were associated with their poor cancer screening perceptions.

    CONCLUSION: One way of developing cancer screening services to detect cancer in its early stage could include efforts to reach people with less awareness about cancer screening tests, lower socioeconomic status, and inadequate social support. Particular consideration should be taken to locate those who never had health insurance or attended cancer screening tests to provide the appropriate resources.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  12. Chan MW, Chean KY, Kader Maideen SF, Kow FP
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Nov 01;22(11):3475-3482.
    PMID: 34837902 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.11.3475
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women in Malaysia. A major challenge for CRC screening programs is to improve the screening participation rates. In Malaysia, the most critical barrier to the uptake of CRC screening is the lack of patient awareness. This study aimed to determine the intention and the uptake of CRC screening, and to explore the related motivators and barriers after raising awareness with a brief health education.

    METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in a government health clinic of Penang from March to August 2019. Asymptomatic clinic attendees aged 50-75 years who had no prior awareness of CRC screening were recruited by systematic random sampling technique. Participants first received a standardised one to one health education, followed by an interview using a standardised questionnaire to assess their CRC screening intention and the relevant motivators and barriers. A submission of a sample for immunochemical faecal occult blood test (iFOBT) was considered as an uptake of the CRC screening.

    RESULTS: A total of 546 participants participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 62.8 (SD=6.36). Majority of them were females (57.3%), Chinese (78.6%), who had attained primary or higher education (92.0%) and had comorbidities (87.0%).  After a brief health education, 231 participants (42.3%) agreed to undergo iFOBT. The actual screening uptake rate in this study was 28%. Perceived benefit of the test (84.4%) was the most common motivators, while self-perceived non-vulnerability was the biggest impediment to CRC screening intention. Physicians' recommendation was the perceived most effective way in raising CRC awareness.

    CONCLUSION: Participants prefer physicians to provide health education. Standardised brief health education is inadequate to stimulate CRC screening adherence. Future interventions will require in-depth understanding of patients' beliefs, risk perception, and affective responses.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  13. Samah AA, Ahmadian M
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(21):9499-503.
    PMID: 25422246
    This study aimed to examine the relationship between body image satisfaction and breast self-screening behavior and intentions. The sample for this cross-sectional study consisted of 842 female university students who were recruited from a number of public and private universities. Data were obtained between the months of November and December, 2013, using multistage random cluster sampling. Main research variables were breast cancer screening behavior and intentions, demographic factors, and the total scores on each of the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBSRQ-Appearance Scales) subscales. Results of multivariate analysis showed that having higher satisfaction and more positive evaluation of appearance were related to having performed breast self-examination more frequently in the last year and intending to perform breast self-examination more frequently in the next year. Longitudinal research can potentially provide detailed information about overall body image satisfaction and breast cancer screening behavior among various communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  14. Yusof A, Chia YC, Hasni YM
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(19):8095-9.
    PMID: 25338990
    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, over half a million women died of breast cancer in 2011 alone. Mammography screening is associated with a reduction of 20 to 35% in breast cancer mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the awareness and practice of mammography screening and predictors of its uptake in Malaysian women attending a primary care clinic.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out among women aged 40 to 74 years attending a primary care clinic in Selangor, Malaysia. An assisted structured questionnaire included questions on socio-demography, source of information and level of knowledge. An adapted version of the revised Champion Health Belief Model Scale plus other associated factors for mammography screening up-take were also included as part of the questionnaire. Predictors for mammography screening uptake were only determined in those who were aware about mammography screening. Significant predictors were determined by logistic regression.

    RESULTS: 447 women were recruited for this study; 99.1% of them (n: 411) were aware about breast cancer. Only 50.1% (n: 206) had knowledge about mammography screening. Prevalence of clinical breast-examination (CBE) was 23.3% (n: 104) and mammography screening up-take was 13.2% (n: 59). The predictors for the latter were those who have had clinical breast-examination (aOR=17.58, 95%CI: 7.68-39.82) and those aged between 50 to 59 years (aOR=3.94, 95%CI: 1.61-9.66) as well as those aged 60 years and above (aOR=6.91, 95%CI: 2.28-20.94). Good knowledge and positive beliefs about mammography screening were not associated with mammography screening uptake.

    CONCLUSIONS: Half of our Malaysian women were aware about mammography screening. However, the uptake of mammography was low. Previous CBE and older age were significant predictors of mammography screening uptake. Increasing CBE services may increase compliance with guidelines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  15. Subramanian P, Oranye NO, Masri AM, Taib NA, Ahmad N
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2013;14(11):6783-90.
    PMID: 24377606
    BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the commonest type of cancer among women, and in Malaysia 50-60% of the new cases are being detected at late stages. Do age, education level, income, ethnicity, relationship with breast cancer patients and knowledge of breast cancer risk factors influence breast screening practices? This study revealed interesting but significant differences.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and early detection measures among women in a high risk group.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross sectional survey of one hundred and thirty one women relatives of breast cancer patients was carried out. Participants were selected through purposive sampling, during hospital visits. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.

    RESULTS: The majority of the respondents (71%) had poor knowledge of the risk factors for breast cancer. Income, relationship with a patient and practise of breast cancer screening predicted performance of mammography, R2=0.467, F=12.568, p<0.0001.

    CONCLUSIONS: The finding shows inadequate knowledge of breast cancer risk factors and poor cancer screening practise among women with family history of breast cancer. Poor knowledge and practise of breast screening are likely to lead to late stage presentation of breast cancer disease. Some important predictors of breast cancer screening behaviour among women with positive family history of breast cancer were identified. An understanding of the strengths and significance of the association between these factors and breast screening behaviour is vital for developing more targeted breast health promotion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  16. Al-Naggar RA, Al-Naggar DH
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2012;13(1):243-6.
    PMID: 22502677
    OBJECTIVE: While the relatively common nature of female breast cancer has resulted in a high level of general awareness, male breast cancer is still comparatively unknown to the general public and to healthcare professionals. The objective of this study is to explore the perceptions and opinions about male breast cancer and male breast self-examination among male university students.

    METHODOLOGY: In-depth interviews were conducted among 36 male university students from the Management and Science University, Malaysia, selected by simple random sampling. The themes of the interview were: knowledge of male breast cancer and male breast self-examination, sources of knowledge and attitudes towards male BSE. The data obtained were classified into various categories and analyzed manually.

    RESULTS: The majority of participants mentioned that there is a low possibility for males to get breast cancer. They also believed that the cause of breast cancer among men is due to the carcinogens from cigarettes. The majority of participants mentioned that they know about breast self-examination from the mass media and that the presence of a lump in the breast is the main symptom of breast cancer in men. The majority of participants mentioned that they encourage their family members to practice breast self-examination but considered that BSE is not important for men because they have a low probability of getting breast cancer.

    CONCLUSIONS: Misconceptions regarding male breast cancer and breast self-examination among men still exist among male university students. Therefore special attention should be given to educate men about male breast cancer and male BSE.

    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  17. Harmy MY, Norwati D, Noor NM, Amry AR
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(8):1957-60.
    PMID: 22292632
    Colorectal cancer is the commonest cancer among males and the third commonest cancer among women in Malaysia. However, almost 80% of patients sought treatment for cancer only when they were already in late stage due to lack of awareness. Hence, the objectives of this study were to determine the knowledge and attitude of colorectal cancer screening among moderate risk patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted between August 2009 till April 2010 in 44 health clinics with Family Medicine Specialists in West Malaysia. Stratified multistage random sampling was applied and a validated Malay version of the questionnaire with the Cronbach' alpha of 0.65 to 0.82 was used. Data were entered using SPSS 12.0 and analysed with STATA 8.0. A total of 1,905 (93.8%) patients responded. The mean (SD) knowledge and attitude score among moderate risk patients were 69.5 (6.11%) and 66.5 (7.07%), whereas, the percentages for good knowledge and attitude were 4.1% and 3.3% respectively. Less than 1% had undergone colorectal cancer screening and the main reasons were not bothered, busy and embarrassment. The majority of patients who had moderate risk for colorectal cancer had extremely low knowledge and attitude towards colorectal cancer screening. As a result, the majority did not undergo any form of colorectal cancer screening.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  18. Kanaga KC, Nithiya J, Shatirah MF
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(8):1965-7.
    PMID: 22292634
    Breast cancer is the most frequently occurring cancer in women globally and early detection increases the survival rate of patients. Therefore, this study was done to determine factors which influence the awareness of breast cancer and practice of screening procedures. A cross-sectional study was performed on 125 women aged 19-60 years in urban and rural areas in Malaysia using a validated questionnaire covering knowledge of breast cancer and screening practices. A total of 99.2% respondents knew that breast cancer is the leading cancer with a mean knowledge of 67.3 ± 15.3% for urban and 50.2 ± 14.7% for rural women Mann Whitney U showed rural women had significantly less awareness compared to urban women (p< 0.05). Spearman correlation test showed a significant positive relationship between education and awareness (p< 0.05). Regarding awareness of the screening methods, 92.8%, 50.4% and 47.2% of respondents correctly answered questions on capability of BSE, CBE and mammography, respectively. In conclusion, the study showed awareness of breast cancer and practice of screening procedures increases with higher education and urban living. Therefore, there is an urgent need for an intensive breast cancer awareness campaign and availablity of screening centres prioritized in rural areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology
  19. Farooqui M, Hassali MA, Knight A, Shafie AA, Farooqui MA, Saleem F, et al.
    BMC Public Health, 2013;13:48.
    PMID: 23331785 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-48
    Despite the existence of different screening methods, the response to cancer screening is poor among Malaysians. The current study aims to examine cancer patients' perceptions of cancer screening and early diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
  20. Wong YL, Chinna K, Mariapun J, Wong LP, Khoo EM, Low WY, et al.
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S24-6.
    PMID: 23318158 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.01.004
    OBJECTIVES: To identify the correlates between risk perceptions and cervical cancer screening among urban Malaysian women.
    METHOD: A cross-sectional household survey was conducted among 231 women in Petaling Jaya city in 2007. The association of risk perceptions of cervical cancer and screening practice was analyzed using Poisson regression.
    RESULTS: 56% of the respondents ever had a Pap smear test. Knowledge of signs and symptoms (aPR=1.11, 95% CI=1.03-1.19), age (aPR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01-1.03), number of pregnancies (aPR=1.06, 95% CI=1.01-1.11), marital status, education level and religion were found to be significant correlates of Pap smear screening. Respondents who were never married were less likely to have had a Pap smear. Those who had no education or primary education were less likely to have had a Pap smear compared to those with degree qualification. The prevalence of screening was significantly higher among Christians and others (aPR=1.35; 95% CI=1.01-1.81) and Buddhists (aPR=1.38; 95% CI=1.03-1.84), compared to Muslims.
    CONCLUSION: Eliminating anecdotal beliefs as risks via targeted knowledge on established risk factors and culturally sensitive screening processes are strategic for increasing and sustaining uptake of Pap smear screening versus current opportunistic screening practices.
    KEYWORDS: Cervical cancer; Malaysia; Pap smear; Risk perception; Screening; Targeted knowledge
    Matched MeSH terms: Early Detection of Cancer/psychology*
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