Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 61 in total

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  1. Zahedi M, Vellayan S, Jeffery J, Krishnasamy M
    Vet Parasitol, 1986 Jun;21(2):135-7.
    PMID: 3739206
    A case of double infection with Brugia pahangi and Dirofilaria immitis in a clouded leopard, Neofelis nebulosa, is presented. A brief review of filarial infections in both man and wild animals, and their medical importance is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/complications; Elephantiasis, Filarial/veterinary*
  2. Abdul Rahman R, Hwen-Yee C, Noordin R
    Filaria journal, 2007;6:10.
    PMID: 17961264
    Anti-filarial IgG4 antibody has been shown to be a good marker for detection of lymphatic filaria infection. Previous studies demonstrated that anti-filarial IgG4 assay using BmR1 recombinant antigen was highly specific and sensitive for detection of brugian filariasis. For bancroftian filariasis, an equivalent assay employing recombinant antigen expressed from the ORF of SXP1 gene has been reported. In order to detect infections by all species of lymphatic filarial, BmR1 and BmSXP recombinant antigens were employed in the development of a pan LF-ELISA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial
  3. Noordin R, Abdullah KA, Azahri NA, Ramachandran CP
    PMID: 10928359
    Western blot analysis of infective larvae (L3) antigen of Brugia malayi were performed on 200 sera from six groups of individuals: 36 samples from B. malayi microfilaremic individuals; 10 samples from individuals with elephantiasis; 50 and 20 samples from amicrofilaremic individuals in a B. malayi endemic area with no anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies (towards microfilaria and adult worm antigens) and samples with high titres of the anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies respectively; 50 samples from non-endemic normals and 34 samples from geohelminth-infected individuals. After protein transfer, PVDF membrane strips were successively incubated with blocking solution, human sera, monoclonal anti-human IgG4 antibody-HRP and developed with luminol chemiluminescence substrate. 28/36 (78%), 1/10 (10%) and 16/20(80%) of sera from individuals with microfilariae, elephantiasis and amicrofilaremic individuals with high titers of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies respectively recognized L3 antigenic epitopes; the dominant and consistent antigenic bands were of approximately MW 43 kDa, 14 kDa, 15 kDa and 59 kDa. The rest of the sera were unreactive. This study showed that microfilaremics may or may not mount a notable antibody response to somatic L3 antigens, thus lending evidence that antibody response to this antigen is not protective against establishment of Brugia malayi infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/immunology*; Elephantiasis, Filarial/parasitology; Elephantiasis, Filarial/prevention & control
  4. Yadav M
    PMID: 2609207
    Serum IgG levels and complement C3 levels were assayed on Day 0, 1, 3-4, 7 and 56-70 post-treatment with diethylcarbamizine citrate (DEC) in a series to 26 patients with Brugia malayi infection and 6 volunteers without infection. On treatment, the microfilariae were cleared from the blood within 24 hours. The eosinophils decreased dramatically on Day 1 post-treatment but increased rapidly by Day 4 to 7 and then dropped to normal levels in 45 days. The serum IgG mean levels decreased briefly following treatment with DEC but then returned to original levels. However, the complement C3 levels gradually increased over the 2 months period of study reaching statistical significance levels (p less than 0.01) in patients with initial high blood microfilariae. The observation suggests that Brugia malayi infection probably induces a high rate of synthesis of complement C3 and this process continued in the post-treatment phase. Since, DEC treatment did not cause a decrease in complement C3 with the elimination of blood microfilariae, it would appear that the complement C3 is consumed following antibody attachment to the microfilariae as they enter the blood circulation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood; Elephantiasis, Filarial/drug therapy*; Elephantiasis, Filarial/immunology
  5. Noordin R, Yunus MH, Robinson K, Won KY, Babu S, Fischer PU, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2018 12;99(6):1587-1590.
    PMID: 30350768 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0566
    At the end phase of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, antibody testing may have a role in decision-making for bancroftian filariasis-endemic areas. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of BLF Rapid™, a prototype immunochromatographic IgG4-based test using BmSXP recombinant protein, for detection of bancroftian filariasis. The test was evaluated using 258 serum samples, comprising 96 samples tested at Universiti Sains Malaysia (in-house) and 162 samples tested independently at three international laboratories in the USA and India, and two laboratories in Malaysia. The independent testing involved 99 samples from Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria or antigen positive individuals and 63 samples from people who were healthy or had other infections. The in-house evaluation showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The independent evaluations showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 84-100% and 100% specificity (excluding non-lymphatic filarial infections). BLF Rapid has potential as a surveillance diagnostic tool to make "Transmission Assessment Survey"-stopping decisions and conduct post-elimination surveillance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis*; Elephantiasis, Filarial/immunology; Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology; Elephantiasis, Filarial/parasitology
  6. Mak JW, Choong MF, Lam PL, Suresh K
    Acta Trop, 1990 May;47(4):223-6.
    PMID: 1973024
    The leaf-monkeys, Presbytis cristata and Presbytis melalophos, experimentally infected with subperiodic Brugia malayi, have been used for studies on the pathoimmunology of the infection and the screening of potential filaricides during the last 6-8 years, and considerable information on the pattern of microfilaraemia and adult worm recoveries have been obtained. The prepatent periods in 97 P. cristata and 45 P. melalophos, each infected with about 200 infective larvae, were similar, these being approximately 70 and 68 days respectively. Although all infected animals became microfilaraemic, the peak geometric mean count was much higher in P. cristata than in P. melalophos, this being 182.0 and 65.8 per ml blood respectively. Mean adult worm recovery expressed as the percentage of the infective dose was 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Most worms were recovered from the sacral nodes/thoracic duct or inguinal lymph nodes in these animals. In view of the higher worm recovery and the higher peak microfilaraemia attained, it is concluded that P. cristata is a better model for the infection than P. melalophos.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/parasitology*
  7. Mak JW, Lam PL, Rain AN, Suresh K
    J. Helminthol., 1987 Dec;61(4):311-4.
    PMID: 3437112
    Four Presbytis cristata were treated with oral ivermectin at the same time as the subcutaneous inoculation of 100 infective larvae monthly for three months. Two animals given 0.2 mg/kg monthly and two others given 0.3 mg/kg monthly as well as three control animals became patent for microfilaraemia. However, only 1% of the infective dose was recovered as adult worms from animals in the higher drug dosage group compared to 8.2% and 6.2% in the lower dosage and control groups respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/prevention & control*
  8. Tan LH, Fong MY, Mahmud R, Muslim A, Lau YL, Kamarulzaman A
    Parasitol Int, 2011 Jan;60(1):111-3.
    PMID: 20951228 DOI: 10.1016/j.parint.2010.09.010
    Five local Malaysian patients with clinical manifestations consistent with lymphatic filariasis were referred to our medical centre between 2003 and 2006. Although no microfilariae (mf) were detected in their nocturnal blood samples, all were diagnosed to have lymphatic filariasis on the basis of clinical findings and positive serology results. PCR on their blood samples revealed that two of the patients were infected with Brugia pahangi, an animal filarial worm hitherto not known to cause human disease in the natural environment. All the patients were successfully treated with anti-filarial drugs: four patients were treated with a combination of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole, and one with doxycycline. Four of them were residents of Petaling Jaya, a residential suburbia located 10 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The fifth patient was a frequent visitor of the suburbia. This suburbia has no history or record of B. malayi infection. The most likely vector of the worm was Armigeres subalbatus as extensive entomological surveys within the suburbia revealed only adult females of this mosquito species were infected with B. pahangi larvae. Wild monkeys caught in the suburbia were free from B. pahangi mf, but domestic cats were mf positive. This suggests that infected cats might be the source of the zoonotic infection in the suburbia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis; Elephantiasis, Filarial/drug therapy; Elephantiasis, Filarial/parasitology*
  9. Rahmah N, Anuar AK, Karim R, Mehdi R, Sinniah B, Omar AW
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1994 Nov 30;205(1):202-7.
    PMID: 7999024
    Sera from fifty subjects with different presentations of Brugian filariasis and from common soil-transmitted helminth infections were tested for specific anti-filarial IgG and its subclasses. Anti-filarial IgG, IgG1 and IgG3 showed cross-reactivities with soil-transmitted helminthic infections and no significant differences in optical densities among the various groups of filarial patients. In comparison with other groups of subjects, IgG4-ELISA of sera from microfilaraemic patients and some previously microfilaraemic patients showed a significant increase in optical density readings, while IgG2-ELISA showed elevated optical density readings in sera of patients with chronic elephantiasis. Therefore IgG2-ELISA is potentially useful in the diagnosis of brugian chronic elephantiasis while IgG4-ELISA may be beneficial for follow-up diagnosis of treated microfilaraemic patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood; Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis*; Elephantiasis, Filarial/immunology
  10. Noordin R, Mohd Zain SN, Yunus MH, Sahimin N
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2017 08 01;111(8):370-372.
    PMID: 29206992 DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trx062
    Background: Malaysia aims to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) by the year 2020, thus the potential threat of LF from migrant workers needs to be investigated.

    Methods: Brugian and bancroftian filariasis among 484 migrant workers from six countries were investigated using rapid tests based on detection of specific IgG4 antibodies against BmR1 (Brugia Rapid) and BmSXP recombinant antigens.

    Results: The seroprevalence of brugian filariasis was very low; however, bancroftian filariasis was notable among workers from India, Nepal and Myanmar.

    Conclusion: Malaysia is not endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti, but harbors the vectors for the parasite, thus the results showed that migrant workers should be monitored for this infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood; Elephantiasis, Filarial/immunology; Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology*
  11. Rahumatullah A, Lim TS, Yunus MH, Noordin R
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2019 08;101(2):436-440.
    PMID: 31162018 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.19-0034
    Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-borne parasitic disease responsible for morbidity and disability that affects 1.2 billion people worldwide, mainly the poor communities. Currently, filarial antigen testing is the method of choice for the detection of bancroftian filariasis, and to date, there are two commonly used tests. In the present study, a recently reported recombinant monoclonal antibody (5B) specific to BmSXP filarial antigen was used in developing an ELISA for the detection of circulating filarial antigen in sera of patients with bancroftian filariasis. The performance of the ELISA was evaluated using 124 serum samples. The ELISA was positive with all sera from microfilaremic bancroftian filariasis patients (n = 34). It also showed 100% diagnostic specificity when tested with sera from 50 healthy individuals and 40 patients with other parasitic diseases. The developed assay using the novel 5B recombinant monoclonal antibody could potentially be a promising alternative antigen detection test for bancroftian filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood; Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis*; Elephantiasis, Filarial/immunology
  12. Cox-Singh J, Pomrehn AS, Rahman HA, Zakaria R, Miller AO, Singh B
    Int J Parasitol, 1999 May;29(5):717-21.
    PMID: 10404266
    In the absence of a suitable Brugia malayi antigen detection assay, PCR remains one of the more sensitive alternatives to Giemsa-stained thick blood films for B. malayi detection. The need for refrigerated storage and transportation of blood has limited the use of PCR for large-scale epidemiology studies in remote endemic areas. Here we report simple finger-prick blood-spot collection, a one-tube DNA template extraction method and the development of a B. malayi-specific nested PCR assay. The assay was tested on 145 field samples and was positive for all 30 microscopy-positive samples and for an additional 13 samples which were microscopy-negative.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood; Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology; Elephantiasis, Filarial/parasitology*
  13. Mak JW
    Trop Biomed, 2004 Dec;21(2):27-38.
    PMID: 16493396
    Diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC) has been used for treatment and control of lymphatic filariasis since the 1950s. Although this remarkable drug is still useful and modified strategies in its usage have been developed, a number of newer antifilarial compounds are now available. Numerous field trials evaluating their efficacy in the control of lymphatic filariasis have been conducted. In particular, ivermectin (IVM), albendazole (ALB), and DEC have been tested singly and in combinations and the results of such field studies should be evaluated. While most of the studies were based on efficacy in the clearance of microfilaraemia, a few clinical trials evaluated the adulticidal activity of these compounds. Some antibiotics are effective in killing Wolbachia bacteria symbionts of filarial worms, but their role in the chemotherapy of lymphatic filariasis is still undefined. This review of randomised controlled field studies and randomised controlled clinical trials with these compounds will summarise the findings and give recommendations on their appropriate use for the control and treatment of lymphatic filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial
  14. Rahmah N, Anuar AK, A'shikin AN, Lim BH, Mehdi R, Abdullah B, et al.
    Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 1998 Sep 29;250(3):586-8.
    PMID: 9784388
    Western blot analyses were performed on 444 serum specimens: 40 sera from microfilaraemic individuals, 10 sera from elephantiasis patients, 24 treated individuals, 50 sera from residents of endemic areas without anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies (endemic normals), 20 sera from amicrofilaraemic individuals with high anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies, 200 sera from healthy city-dwellers (non-endemic samples), and 100 sera from soil-transmitted helminth-infected individuals. Phast electrophoresis system was used to electrophorese Brugia malayi soluble adult worm antigen on 10-15% SDS-PAGE gradient gels followed by electrophoretic transfer onto PVDF membranes. Membrane strips were then successively incubated with blocking solution, human sera, and monoclonal anti-human IgG4 antibody-HRP, with adequate washings done in between each incubation step. Luminol chemiluminescence detection was then used to develop the blots. An antigenic band with the MW of approximately 37 kDa was found to be consistently present in the Western blots of all microfilaraemic sera, all amicrofilaraemic sera with high titres of anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies, some treated patients, and some elephantiasis patients. The antigen did not occur in immunoblots of individuals with other helminthic infections, normal endemic individuals, and city dwellers. Therefore the B. malayi antigen of with the MW of approximately 37 kDa demonstrated specific reactions with sera of B. malayi-infected individuals and thus may be useful for diagnostic application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood; Elephantiasis, Filarial/immunology*
  15. Choong MF, Mak JW
    PMID: 1948274
    Hematological changes were monitored in the leaf-monkey, Presbytis cristata, infected experimentally with 200 subperiodic Brugia malayi infective larvae. Prepatent periods were 54-86 days and peak microfilarial geometric mean counts (GMCs) were 1324 per ml blood. Total leukocyte and differential counts were measured at pre-infection, and then at weakly intervals before and during patency. Blood eosinophil level increased to about thrice the initial level at 3 weeks post-infection and this was maintained for the next 13 weeks before it started to rise again, increasing to more than 5 times the initial level at 20 weeks post-infection. The observed pattern of eosinophilia is probably related to the level of microfilaremia and the destruction of microfilariae in the spleen. There was no significant change in the total leukocyte counts during the period of observation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood*; Elephantiasis, Filarial/parasitology
  16. Hiil JL, Kan SK, Parmar SS, Chan MK, Mak JW, Lim PK, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1988 May;38(3):582-8.
    PMID: 3275137
    Mass drug administration via 3 modes of delivery reduced the incidence and prevalence rates and intensity of Brugia malayi infection in 3 rural villages in the Bengkoka Peninsula, Sabah, in 1982-1983. A dosage of 6 mg diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC-C)/kg body weight was administered either daily or weekly (total of 6 doses, 36 mg/kg body weight), and impact on B. malayi cases were comparable in the 3 villages. A total of 384 people participated in the DEC-C regimens, and all pregnant women and children under 2 years were excluded from the study. Bekessy's method of estimation of incidence and recovery rates was applied to data on B. malayi microfilaremia before drug administration. Treatment with DEC-C by any of the 3 modes of delivery drastically reduced the number of episodes of patent microfilaremia, incidence and prevalence, and median microfilarial density. Reduction was sustained for at least 18 to 24 months after treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/drug therapy*; Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology
  17. Mak JW, Choong MF, Suresh K, Lam PL
    Parasitol Res, 1990;76(8):689-91.
    PMID: 2251244
    Presbytis cristata monkeys infected through the inoculation of between 200 and 400 subperiodic Brugia malayi infective larvae (L3) in the right thigh, in both thighs or in the dorsum of the right foot were followed up for varying periods of up to about 8 months after infection. All 148 inoculated animals became patent, with mean prepatent periods being between 66 and 76 days. In animals injected in the thigh, the patterns of microfilaraemia were similar, there being a rapid rise in the geometric mean counts (GMCs) of microfilariae during the first 10-12 weeks of patency, which then plateaued at levels of greater than 1000/ml. Adult worm recovery, expressed as the percentage of the infective dose, was significantly higher in animals injected with 100 L3 in each thigh, being 9.4% as compared with 2.8%-4.8% in other groups. It is therefore recommended that animals should be injected with 100 L3 in each thigh and that the testing of potential filaricides in this model be carried out during the phase of rapid increase in microfilaraemia to ensure that any microfilaricidal effect can easily be detected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/blood; Elephantiasis, Filarial/parasitology*
  18. Al-Abd NM, Nor ZM, Ahmed A, Al-Adhroey AH, Mansor M, Kassim M
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:545.
    PMID: 25428558 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-014-0545-z
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major cause of permanent disability in many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Malaysia is one of the countries in which LF is an endemic disease. Five rounds of the mass drug administration (MDA) program have been conducted in Malaysia as part of the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) by year 2020. This study investigated the level of awareness of LF and the MDA program in a population living in an endemic area of the country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/drug therapy; Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology*
  19. Norsyahida A, Riazi M, Sadjjadi SM, Muhammad Hafiznur Y, Low HC, Zeehaida M, et al.
    Parasite Immunol., 2013 May-Jun;35(5-6):174-9.
    PMID: 23448095 DOI: 10.1111/pim.12029
    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were developed for the detection of IgG, IgG4 and IgE antibodies against Strongyloides stercoralis. A commercial ELISA (IVD Research, USA) was also used, and the sensitivities and specificities of the four assays were determined. Serum samples from 26 patients with S. stercoralis infection and 55 patients with other infections or no infection were analysed. Sensitivities of the IgG4 , IgG, IgE and IgG (IVD) assays were 76.9%, 84.6%, 7.7% and 84.6%, respectively, while the specificities were 92.7%, 81.8%, 100% and 83.6%, respectively. If filariasis samples were excluded, the specificities of the IgG4 -ELISA and both IgG-ELISAs increased to 100% and 98%, respectively. A significant positive correlation was observed between IgG- and IgG4 -ELISAs (r = 0.4828; P = 0.0125). IgG- and IgG- (IVD) ELISAs (r = 0.309) were positively correlated, but was not significant (P = 0.124). Meanwhile there was no correlation between IgG4 - and IgG- (IVD) ELISAs (r = 0.0042; P = 0.8294). Sera from brugian filariasis patients showed weak, positive correlation between the titres of antifilarial IgG4 and the optical densities of anti-Strongyloides IgG4 -ELISA (r = 0.4544, P = 0.0294). In conclusion, the detection of both anti-Strongyloides IgG4 and IgG antibodies could improve the serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Furthermore, patients from lymphatic filariasis endemic areas who are serologically diagnosed with strongyloidiasis should also be tested for filariasis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/diagnosis; Elephantiasis, Filarial/immunology*
  20. Chang MS
    Ann Trop Med Parasitol, 2002 Dec;96 Suppl 2:S71-6.
    PMID: 12625920
    An estimated 13 million people in the Oriental Region have brugian filariasis. The filarial parasites that cause this disease exist in periodic and sub-periodic forms and are transmitted by four genera of mosquito: Anopheles, Mansonia and, less frequently, Coquillettidia and Ochlerotatus. In most endemic countries, control of the disease has been entirely based on chemotherapy, although house-spraying and use of insecticide-treated bednets can be quite effective against the vectors of nocturnally periodic Brugia malayi and B. timori. The vector-control methods that may be applied against the Mansonia mosquitoes that transmit the parasites causing sub-periodic brugian filariasis are reviewed here. Most of the conventional methods for controlling the immature, aquatic stages of mosquitoes have proved unsatisfactory against Mansonia. The reason is that, unlike the those of other genera, the larvae and pupae of Mansonia spp. are relatively immobile and obtain air not at the water surface but from the underwater roots, stems and leaves of floating plants to which the larvae and pupae attach. Removal of host plants can be very effective in reducing Mansonia productivity, whereas large-scale use of herbicides is restricted by the potential adverse effects on the ecosystem. Environmental management in water-development projects remains the best option.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/prevention & control*; Elephantiasis, Filarial/transmission
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