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  1. Hiil JL, Kan SK, Parmar SS, Chan MK, Mak JW, Lim PK, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1988 May;38(3):582-8.
    PMID: 3275137
    Mass drug administration via 3 modes of delivery reduced the incidence and prevalence rates and intensity of Brugia malayi infection in 3 rural villages in the Bengkoka Peninsula, Sabah, in 1982-1983. A dosage of 6 mg diethylcarbamazine citrate (DEC-C)/kg body weight was administered either daily or weekly (total of 6 doses, 36 mg/kg body weight), and impact on B. malayi cases were comparable in the 3 villages. A total of 384 people participated in the DEC-C regimens, and all pregnant women and children under 2 years were excluded from the study. Bekessy's method of estimation of incidence and recovery rates was applied to data on B. malayi microfilaremia before drug administration. Treatment with DEC-C by any of the 3 modes of delivery drastically reduced the number of episodes of patent microfilaremia, incidence and prevalence, and median microfilarial density. Reduction was sustained for at least 18 to 24 months after treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology
  2. Al-Abd NM, Nor ZM, Ahmed A, Al-Adhroey AH, Mansor M, Kassim M
    Parasit Vectors, 2014;7:545.
    PMID: 25428558 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-014-0545-z
    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a major cause of permanent disability in many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the world. Malaysia is one of the countries in which LF is an endemic disease. Five rounds of the mass drug administration (MDA) program have been conducted in Malaysia as part of the Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF) by year 2020. This study investigated the level of awareness of LF and the MDA program in a population living in an endemic area of the country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology*
  3. Soeyoko SS
    PMID: 7973941
    Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori are the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis in Indonesia but in some endemic areas, B malayi is more commonly found. Diagnosis of filariasis is normally based on clinical, parasitological and immunological examinations but those methods have limitations. The discovery of monoclonal antibodies is expected to provide a new dimension to the efforts in the development of specific and sensitive immunological tests for the various stages of filariasis infection. This preliminary report, using monoclonal antibodies and dot-blot assay in human lymphatic filariasis showed that 75% of sera from microfilaremic patients with clinical signs, 40% of sera from amicrofilaraemic patients with clinical signs, 88.8% of sera from microfilaremic patients without clinical signs and 19.6% of sera from amicrofilaremic patients without clinical signs have circulating antigens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology
  4. Noordin R, Yunus MH, Robinson K, Won KY, Babu S, Fischer PU, et al.
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2018 12;99(6):1587-1590.
    PMID: 30350768 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.18-0566
    At the end phase of the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, antibody testing may have a role in decision-making for bancroftian filariasis-endemic areas. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of BLF Rapid™, a prototype immunochromatographic IgG4-based test using BmSXP recombinant protein, for detection of bancroftian filariasis. The test was evaluated using 258 serum samples, comprising 96 samples tested at Universiti Sains Malaysia (in-house) and 162 samples tested independently at three international laboratories in the USA and India, and two laboratories in Malaysia. The independent testing involved 99 samples from Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaria or antigen positive individuals and 63 samples from people who were healthy or had other infections. The in-house evaluation showed 100% diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. The independent evaluations showed a diagnostic sensitivity of 84-100% and 100% specificity (excluding non-lymphatic filarial infections). BLF Rapid has potential as a surveillance diagnostic tool to make "Transmission Assessment Survey"-stopping decisions and conduct post-elimination surveillance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology
  5. Noordin R, Mohd Zain SN, Yunus MH, Sahimin N
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2017 08 01;111(8):370-372.
    PMID: 29206992 DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trx062
    Background: Malaysia aims to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) by the year 2020, thus the potential threat of LF from migrant workers needs to be investigated.

    Methods: Brugian and bancroftian filariasis among 484 migrant workers from six countries were investigated using rapid tests based on detection of specific IgG4 antibodies against BmR1 (Brugia Rapid) and BmSXP recombinant antigens.

    Results: The seroprevalence of brugian filariasis was very low; however, bancroftian filariasis was notable among workers from India, Nepal and Myanmar.

    Conclusion: Malaysia is not endemic for Wuchereria bancrofti, but harbors the vectors for the parasite, thus the results showed that migrant workers should be monitored for this infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology*
  6. Cox-Singh J, Pomrehn AS, Rahman HA, Zakaria R, Miller AO, Singh B
    Int J Parasitol, 1999 May;29(5):717-21.
    PMID: 10404266
    In the absence of a suitable Brugia malayi antigen detection assay, PCR remains one of the more sensitive alternatives to Giemsa-stained thick blood films for B. malayi detection. The need for refrigerated storage and transportation of blood has limited the use of PCR for large-scale epidemiology studies in remote endemic areas. Here we report simple finger-prick blood-spot collection, a one-tube DNA template extraction method and the development of a B. malayi-specific nested PCR assay. The assay was tested on 145 field samples and was positive for all 30 microscopy-positive samples and for an additional 13 samples which were microscopy-negative.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology
  7. Rahmah N, Lim BH, Azian H, Ramelah TS, Rohana AR
    Trop Med Int Health, 2003 Feb;8(2):158-63.
    PMID: 12581442
    Brugian filariasis infects 13 million people in Asia. The routine prevalence survey method using night thick blood smear is not sensitive enough to reflect the actual infection prevalence. In 1997-2001, only three microfilaraemic cases (of 5601 individuals screened; 0.05%) were reported in Pasir Mas, a district in Kelantan (Malaysia), which shares a border with Thailand. We therefore investigated the infection prevalence in this district by employing a sensitive and specific serological assay (Brugia-Elisa). This test is based on detection of specific IgG4 antibody against a Brugia malayi recombinant antigen. A total of 5138 children, aged 7-12 years, from 16 primary schools, were tested. Eighteen pupils in eight schools, located in five subdistricts, tested positive, giving an overall prevalence rate of 0.35%. Infection in these children is significant as they represent more recent cases. These subdistricts should be included in the national filariasis elimination programme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology*
  8. Wan Sulaiman WA, Kamtchum-Tatuene J, Mohamed MH, Ramachandran V, Ching SM, Sazlly Lim SM, et al.
    Indian J. Med. Res., 2019 06;149(6):706-714.
    PMID: 31496523 DOI: 10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_454_17
    Onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis (LF) are human filarial diseases belonging to the group of neglected tropical diseases, leading to permanent and long-term disability in infected individuals in the endemic countries such as Africa and India. Microfilaricidal drugs such as ivermectin and albendazole have been used as the standard therapy in filariasis, although their efficacy in eliminating the diseases is not fully established. Anti-Wolbachia therapy employs antibiotics and is a promising approach showing potent macrofilaricidal activity and also prevents embryogenesis. This has translated to clinical benefits resulting in successful eradication of microfilarial burden, thus averting the risk of adverse events from target species as well as those due to co-infection with loiasis. Doxycycline shows potential as an anti-Wolbachia treatment, leading to the death of adult parasitic worms. It is readily available, cheap and safe to use in adult non-pregnant patients. Besides doxycycline, several other potential antibiotics are also being investigated for the treatment of LF and onchocerciasis. This review aims to discuss and summarise recent developments in the use of anti-Wolbachia drugs to treat onchocerciasis and LF.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology
  9. Noordin R, Muhi J, Md Idris Z, Arifin N, Kiyu A
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Mar;29(1):191-6.
    PMID: 22543621 MyJurnal
    The detection rates of brugian filariasis in three regions of Sarawak namely Central, North and South after three courses of mass drug administration (MDA) from year 2004 to 2006 was investigated. A recombinant BmR1 antigen-based IgG4 detection test, named Brugia Rapid and night blood smear for microfilaria (mf) detection were used. All three regions recorded a sharp fall in mf positive rates after a year post-MDA. Meanwhile Brugia Rapid positive rates declined more gradually to 3.8% and 5.6% of the pre-MDA levels in the Central and North regions, respectively. This study showed that in filariasis endemic areas in Sarawak, anti-filarial IgG4 antibodies to BmR1, as detected by the Brugia Rapid test, were positive for one to two years after mf disappearance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology
  10. Chang MS, Ho BC, Chan KL
    Trop. Med. Parasitol., 1991 Jun;42(2):95-102.
    PMID: 1680246
    A control programme against subperiodic brugian filariasis was implemented in three villages, (Kg. Ampungan, Kg. Sebangkoi and Kg. Sebamban) in Sarawak, Malaysia. In Kampong Ampungan, the mass administration of diethylcarbamazine (DEC-citrate) combined with residual house spraying of pirimiphos-methyl reduced microfilarial rate to 8% of the pre-treatment level and microfilarial density (MfD50) to 44% of the pre-treatment level over a period of four years. In Kampong Sebangkoi and Kampong Sebamban, where only mass DEC therapy was applied, the microfilarial rate and MfD50 declined distinctly in the second blood survey but increased gradually in two subsequent follow-up blood surveys. In Kg, Ampungan, we observed a significant reduction of infective biting rate (88.3%), infection rate (62.5%) and transmission potential (88.1%) of Mansonia bonneae at the fourth spray round. The corresponding reduction rates in Kg. Sebangkoi and Kg. Sebamban were 35.3%, 26.7%, 42.2% and 24%, 30.8% and 15.4% respectively. The biting density of the vector was reduced by 79.8% indoors and 31.8% outdoors at the sprayed village, while only a slight decrease in densities (17.9% indoors and 12.4% outdoors) was observed at the unsprayed village. Bioassay tests revealed that pirimiphos-methyl had a substantial fumigant effect on the vector. The integrated control measure in controlling subperiodic brugian filariasis is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Elephantiasis, Filarial/epidemiology
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