Displaying all 9 publications

  1. Lewthwaite P, Begum A, Ooi MH, Faragher B, Lai BF, Sandaradura I, et al.
    Bull World Health Organ, 2010 Aug 01;88(8):584-92.
    PMID: 20680123 DOI: 10.2471/BLT.09.071357
    OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple tool for assessing the severity of disability resulting from Japanese encephalitis and whether, as a result, a child is likely to be dependent.

    METHODS: A new outcome score based on a 15-item questionnaire was developed after a literature review, examination of current assessment tools, discussion with experts and a pilot study. The score was used to evaluate 100 children in Malaysia (56 Japanese encephalitis patients, 2 patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology and 42 controls) and 95 in India (36 Japanese encephalitis patients, 41 patients with encephalitis of unknown etiology and 18 controls). Inter- and intra-observer variability in the outcome score was determined and the score was compared with full clinical assessment.

    FINDINGS: There was good inter-observer agreement on using the new score to identify likely dependency (Kappa = 0.942 for Malaysian children; Kappa = 0.786 for Indian children) and good intra-observer agreement (Kappa = 1.000 and 0.902, respectively). In addition, agreement between the new score and clinical assessment was also good (Kappa = 0.906 and 0.762, respectively). The sensitivity and specificity of the new score for identifying children likely to be dependent were 100% and 98.4% in Malaysia and 100% and 93.8% in India. Positive and negative predictive values were 84.2% and 100% in Malaysia and 65.6% and 100% in India.

    CONCLUSION: The new tool for assessing disability in children after Japanese encephalitis was simple to use and scores correlated well with clinical assessment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis/physiopathology*
  2. Lam SK, Chua KB
    Clin Infect Dis, 2002 May 1;34 Suppl 2:S48-51.
    PMID: 11938496 DOI: 10.1086/338818
    Emerging infectious diseases involving zoonosis have become important global health problems. The 1998 outbreak of severe febrile encephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia caused by a newly emergent paramyxovirus, Nipah virus, is a good example. This disease has the potential to spread to other countries through infected animals and can cause considerable economic loss. The clinical presentation includes segmental myoclonus, areflexia, hypertension, and tachycardia, and histologic evidence includes endothelial damage and vasculitis of the brain and other major organs. Magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated the presence of discrete high-signal-intensity lesions disseminated throughout the brain. Nipah virus causes syncytial formation in Vero cells and is antigenically related to Hendra virus. The Island flying fox (Pteropus hypomelanus; the fruit bat) is a likely reservoir of this virus. The outbreak in Malaysia was controlled through the culling of >1 million pigs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis/physiopathology
  3. Tan CY, Ahmad SB, Goh KJ, Latif LA, Shahrizaila N
    Neurol India, 2018 9 21;66(5):1475-1480.
    PMID: 30233023 DOI: 10.4103/0028-3886.241342
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis/physiopathology
  4. Low JM
    Med J Malaysia, 2017 10;72(5):306-307.
    PMID: 29197887 MyJurnal
    Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis is an immune mediated condition, which remains relatively unknown in Malaysia outside tertiary hospitals with neurology unit. It is often misdiagnosed as a psychiatric illness before definitive treatment is instituted. We report here an 18-year-old man who initially presented to the psychiatry unit before he was subsequently diagnosed as having anti-NMDAR encephalitis. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis in the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/physiopathology*
  5. Fong CY, Aung HWW, Khairani A, Gan CS, Shahrizaila N, Goh KJ
    Brain Dev, 2018 Jun;40(6):507-511.
    PMID: 29459060 DOI: 10.1016/j.braindev.2018.02.001
    Bickerstaff's brainstem encephalitis (BBE) is a rare immune-mediated disorder characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and disturbance of consciousness, which may overlap with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) if there is additional limb weakness. We report a 7-month-old boy presented with ophthalmoplegia followed by a rapidly ascending paralysis of all four limbs and disturbance of consciousness. The initial impression was BBE with overlapping GBS. This was supported by sequential nerve conduction study (NCS) findings compatible with an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). He received intravenous pulse methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapharesis with complete clinical recovery after 6 weeks of illness and improved NCS findings from week 16. This is the first case of paediatric BBE with overlapping GBS with an AIDP subtype of GBS. It expands the clinical spectrum of this condition in children. Our case highlights the importance of sequential NCS in paediatric BBE with overlapping GBS for accurate electrophysiological diagnosis and prognosis particularly if the first NCS findings are not informative.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis/physiopathology
  6. Lim JA, Lee ST, Moon J, Jun JS, Kim TJ, Shin YW, et al.
    Ann Neurol, 2019 03;85(3):352-358.
    PMID: 30675918 DOI: 10.1002/ana.25421
    OBJECTIVE: There is no scale for rating the severity of autoimmune encephalitis (AE). In this study, we aimed to develop a novel scale for rating severity in patients with diverse AE syndromes and to verify the reliability and validity of the developed scale.

    METHODS: The key items were generated by a panel of experts and selected according to content validity ratios. The developed scale was initially applied to 50 patients with AE (development cohort) to evaluate its acceptability, reproducibility, internal consistency, and construct validity. Then, the scale was applied to another independent cohort (validation cohort, n = 38).

    RESULTS: A new scale consisting of 9 items (seizure, memory dysfunction, psychiatric symptoms, consciousness, language problems, dyskinesia/dystonia, gait instability and ataxia, brainstem dysfunction, and weakness) was developed. Each item was assigned a value of up to 3 points. The total score could therefore range from 0 to 27. We named the scale the Clinical Assessment Scale in Autoimmune Encephalitis (CASE). The new scale showed excellent interobserver (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.97) and intraobserver (ICC = 0.96) reliability for total scores, was highly correlated with modified Rankin scale (r = 0.86, p

    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis/physiopathology*; Limbic Encephalitis/physiopathology; Anti-N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor Encephalitis/physiopathology
  7. Wolf NI, Toro C, Kister I, Latif KA, Leventer R, Pizzino A, et al.
    Neurology, 2015 Jan 20;84(3):226-30.
    PMID: 25527264 DOI: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000001157
    To describe the expanding clinical spectrum of a recently described hereditary leukoencephalopathy, hypomyelination with brainstem and spinal cord involvement and leg spasticity, which is caused by mutations in the aspartyl tRNA-synthetase encoding gene DARS, including patients with an adolescent onset.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis/physiopathology*
  8. Shahrizaila N, Yuki N
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2013 May;84(5):576-83.
    PMID: 22984203 DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2012-302824
    In the 1950s, Bickerstaff and Fisher independently described cases with a unique presentation of ophthalmoplegia and ataxia. The neurological features were typically preceded by an antecedent infection and the majority of patients made a spontaneous recovery. In the cases with Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis, there was associated altered consciousness and in some, hyperreflexia, in support of a central pathology whereas in Fisher syndrome, patients were areflexic in keeping with a peripheral aetiology. However, both authors recognised certain similarities to Guillain-Barré syndrome such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy and cerebrospinal fluid albuminocytological dissociation. The discovery of immunoglobulin G anti-GQ1b antibodies in patients with Fisher syndrome and later in Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis was crucial in providing the necessary evidence to conclude that both conditions were in fact part of the same spectrum of disease by virtue of their common clinical and immunological profiles. Following this, other neurological presentations that share anti-GQ1b antibodies emerged in the literature. These include acute ophthalmoparesis and acute ataxic neuropathy, which represent the less extensive spectrum of the disease whereas pharyngeal-cervical-brachial weakness and Fisher syndrome overlap with Guillain-Barré syndrome represent the more extensive end of the spectrum. The conditions can be referred to as the 'anti-GQ1b antibody syndrome'. In this review, we look back at the historical descriptions and describe how our understanding of Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis has evolved from their initial descriptions more than half a century ago.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis/physiopathology*
  9. Lim CC, Lee WL, Leo YS, Lee KE, Chan KP, Ling AE, et al.
    J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry, 2003 Jan;74(1):131-3.
    PMID: 12486285
    The Nipah virus is a newly identified paramyxovirus responsible for an outbreak of fatal encephalitis in Malaysia and Singapore. This paper reports the follow up clinical and magnetic resonance imaging findings in 22 affected subjects. Of 13 patients with encephalitis, one died, one was lost to follow up, and seven recovered. Among the four remaining patients, one had residual sixth nerve palsy, another suffered from severe clinical depression, and a third patient had evidence of retinal artery occlusion. One patient with delayed onset Horner syndrome had a single lesion in the cervical spinal cord. The brain magnetic resonance findings were stable or improved in nine patients over 18 months of follow up. Among a second group of nine asymptomatic seropositive abattoir workers, magnetic resonance examination in seven subjects revealed discrete small lesions in the brain; similar to those detected in encephalitis patients. These findings suggest that in addition to encephalitis, the newly discovered Nipah virus affects the spinal cord and the retina. Late clinical and radiological findings can occur in Nipah virus infections as with other paramyxoviruses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Encephalitis/physiopathology*
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