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  1. Okomoda VT, Aminath L, Oladimeji SA, Abol-Munafi AB, Korede AI, Ikhwanuddin M, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 02 12;10(1):2425.
    PMID: 32051528 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-59389-2
    This study investigated the use of electric-shock in inducing triploidy in African catfish Clarias gariepinus. To achieve this, three voltages (9, 12, 21 V) were applied for different durations (3, 5, 10 min). The shock was initiated approximately three minutes after fertilization followed by incubation in ambient temperature. After incubation, hatchability and survival rates were determined while ploidy status of the treatment fishes was confirmed in one-month-old fingerlings using the exclusive triploid range of the erythrocyte major axis previously reported for the same species (11.9-14.9 μm) and by cytogenetic analysis of the chromosome. The results showed triploidy were achieved in 10 to 85% of the treatment groups. A consistent trend of decrease in hatchability and an increase in triploidy rate was observed with increased electroporation voltages and shock durations. The mean erythrocyte major axis length of triploid progenies (3n = 84) was observed to be between 11.3-14.6 μm and was higher than the range of 7.0-10.5 μm recorded for diploid progenies (2n = 56). It was concluded that electric shock can be used to induce triploidy in African catfish C. gariepinus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Erythrocytes/cytology
  2. Alomari YM, Sheikh Abdullah SN, Zaharatul Azma R, Omar K
    Comput Math Methods Med, 2014;2014:979302.
    PMID: 24803955 DOI: 10.1155/2014/979302
    Segmentation and counting of blood cells are considered as an important step that helps to extract features to diagnose some specific diseases like malaria or leukemia. The manual counting of white blood cells (WBCs) and red blood cells (RBCs) in microscopic images is an extremely tedious, time consuming, and inaccurate process. Automatic analysis will allow hematologist experts to perform faster and more accurately. The proposed method uses an iterative structured circle detection algorithm for the segmentation and counting of WBCs and RBCs. The separation of WBCs from RBCs was achieved by thresholding, and specific preprocessing steps were developed for each cell type. Counting was performed for each image using the proposed method based on modified circle detection, which automatically counted the cells. Several modifications were made to the basic (RCD) algorithm to solve the initialization problem, detecting irregular circles (cells), selecting the optimal circle from the candidate circles, determining the number of iterations in a fully dynamic way to enhance algorithm detection, and running time. The validation method used to determine segmentation accuracy was a quantitative analysis that included Precision, Recall, and F-measurement tests. The average accuracy of the proposed method was 95.3% for RBCs and 98.4% for WBCs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Erythrocytes/cytology*
  3. D'Souza UJ, Zain A, Raju S
    Mutat Res, 2005 Mar 7;581(1-2):187-90.
    PMID: 15725618
    The genotoxic effect of the herbicide paraquat was studied in rat bone-marrow by means of the micronucleus assay. Paraquat at dose levels of 6, 15 and 30 mg/kg body weight was given to rats in a single application via the dermal route. Marrow was collected at 24, 48 and 72 h after the application. The micronucleus assay was done as recommended by standard procedures. Paraquat gave rise to an increase in the number of micronuclei in a dose-dependent manner. The number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes showed a maximum at 48 h and the toxicity was further prolonged, as there was no complete recovery at 72 h. These findings suggest a genotoxic effect of paraquat even after exposure via dermal application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Erythrocytes/cytology
  4. Eichbaum Q, Smid WM, Crookes R, Naim N, Mendrone A, Marques JF, et al.
    J Clin Apher, 2015 Aug;30(4):238-46.
    PMID: 25346394 DOI: 10.1002/jca.21368
    At the combined American Society for Apheresis (ASFA) Annual Meeting/World Apheresis Association (WAA) Congress in San Francisco, California, in April of 2014, the opening session highlighted the status of apheresis outside of the United States. The organizers invited physicians active in apheresis in countries not usually represented at such international gatherings to give them a forum to share their experiences, challenges, and expectations in their respective countries with regard to both donor and therapeutic apheresis. Apheresis technology is expensive as well as technically and medically demanding, and low and median income countries have different experiences to share with the rest of the world. Apheresis procedures also require resources taken for granted in the developed world, such as reliable electrical power, that can be unpredictable in parts of the developing world. On the other hand, it was obvious that there are significant disparities in access to apheresis within the same country (such as in Brazil), as well as between neighboring nations in Africa and South America. A common trend in the presentations from Brazil, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nigeria, and South Africa, was the need for more and better physicians and practitioners' training in the indications of the various apheresis modalities and patient oversight during the procedures. As ASFA and WAA continue to work together, and globalization allows for increased knowledge-sharing, improved access to apheresis procedures performed by qualified personnel with safety and high-quality standards will be increasingly available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Erythrocytes/cytology
  5. Ooi LG, Bhat R, Rosma A, Yuen KH, Liong MT
    J Dairy Sci, 2010 Oct;93(10):4535-44.
    PMID: 20854987 DOI: 10.3168/jds.2010-3330
    This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, and parallel-design study was conducted to investigate the effect of a synbiotic product containing Lactobacillus gasseri [corrected] CHO-220 and inulin on the irregularity in shape of red blood cells (RBC) in hypercholesterolemic subjects. The subjects (n=32) were randomly allocated to 2 groups, a treatment group (synbiotic product) and a control group (placebo), and received 4 capsules of either synbiotic or placebo daily for 12 wk. Morphological representation via scanning electron microscopy showed that the occurrence of spur RBC was improved upon supplementation of the synbiotic. In addition, the supplementation of synbiotic reduced the cholesterol:phospholipids ratio of the RBC membrane by 47.02% over 12 wk, whereas the control showed insignificant changes. Our present study also showed that supplementation of the synbiotic reduced the concentration of saturated fatty acids (SFA), increased unsaturated fatty acids (UFA), and increased the ratio of UFA:SFA over 12 wk, whereas the control showed inconspicuous changes. The alteration of RBC membrane was assessed using fluorescence anisotropy (FAn) and fluorescence probes with different affinities for varying sections of the membrane phospholipid bilayer. A noticeable decrease in FAn of three fluorescent probes was observed in the synbiotic group compared with the control over 12 wk, indicative of increased membrane fluidity and reduced cholesterol enrichment in the RBC membrane.
    Matched MeSH terms: Erythrocytes/cytology*
  6. Pourshahrestani S, Kadri NA, Zeimaran E, Gargiulo N, Samuel S, Naveen SV, et al.
    Biomed Mater, 2018 02 08;13(2):025020.
    PMID: 29148431 DOI: 10.1088/1748-605X/aa9b3e
    Mesoporous bioactive glass containing 1% Ga2O3 (1%Ga-MBG) is attractive for hemorrhage control because of its surface chemistry which can promote blood-clotting. The present study compares this proprietary inorganic coagulation accelerator with two commercial hemostats, CeloxTM (CX) and QuikClot Advanced Clotting Sponge PlusTM (ACS+). The results indicate that the number of adherent platelets were higher on the 1%Ga-MBG and CX surfaces than ACS+ whereas a greater contact activation was seen on 1%Ga-MBG and ACS+ surfaces than CX. 1%Ga-MBG not only resulted in larger platelet aggregates and more extensive platelet pseudopodia compared to CX and ACS+ but also significantly accelerated the intrinsic pathways of the clotting cascade. In vitro thrombin generation assays also showed that CX and ACS+ induced low levels of thrombin formation while 1%Ga-MBG had significantly higher values. 1%Ga-MBG formed a larger red blood cell aggregate than both CX and ACS+. Direct exposure of 1%Ga-MBG to fibroblast cells increased cell viability after 3 days relative to CX and ACS+, inferring excellent cytocompatibility. The results of this study promote 1%Ga-MBG as a promising hemostat compared to the commercially available products as it possesses essential factors required for coagulation activation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Erythrocytes/cytology
  7. Mustaffa KMF, Storm J, Whittaker M, Szestak T, Craig AG
    Malar J, 2017 07 05;16(1):279.
    PMID: 28679447 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-017-1930-9
    BACKGROUND: Sequestration of parasitized red blood cells from the peripheral circulation during an infection with Plasmodium falciparum is caused by an interaction between the parasite protein PfEMP1 and receptors on the surface of host endothelial cells, known as cytoadherence. Several lines of evidence point to a link between the pathology of severe malaria and cytoadherence, therefore blocking adhesion receptors involved in this process could be a good target to inhibit pRBC sequestration and prevent disease. In a malaria endemic setting this is likely to be used as an adjunct therapy by reversing existing cytoadherence. Two well-characterized parasite lines plus three recently derived patient isolates were tested for their cytoadherence to purified receptors (CD36 and ICAM-1) as well as endothelial cells. Monoclonal antibodies against human CD36 and ICAM-1 were used to inhibit and reverse infected erythrocyte binding in static and flow-based adhesion assays.

    RESULTS: Anti-ICAM-1 and CD36 monoclonal antibodies were able to inhibit and reverse P. falciparum binding of lab and recently adapted patient isolates in vitro. However, reversal of binding was incomplete and varied in its efficiency between parasite isolates.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results show that, as a proof of concept, disturbing existing ligand-receptor interactions is possible and could have potential therapeutic value for severe malaria. The variation seen in the degree of reversing existing binding with different parasite isolates and the incomplete nature of reversal, despite the use of high affinity inhibitors, suggest that anti-adhesion approaches as adjunct therapies for severe malaria may not be effective, and the focus may need to be on inhibitory approaches such as vaccines.

    Matched MeSH terms: Erythrocytes/cytology
  8. Lee KS, Cox-Singh J, Singh B
    Malar J, 2009 Apr 21;8:73.
    PMID: 19383118 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-8-73
    BACKGROUND: Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, are more common than previously thought. They have been detected by molecular detection methods in various countries in Southeast Asia, where they were initially diagnosed by microscopy mainly as Plasmodium malariae and at times, as Plasmodium falciparum. There is a paucity of information on the morphology of P. knowlesi parasites and proportion of each erythrocytic stage in naturally acquired human infections. Therefore, detailed descriptions of the morphological characteristics and differential counts of the erythrocytic stages of P. knowlesi parasites in human infections were made, photographs were taken, and morphological features were compared with those of P. malariae and P. falciparum.

    METHODS: Thick and thin blood films were made prior to administration of anti-malarial treatment in patients who were subsequently confirmed as having single species knowlesi infections by PCR assays. Giemsa-stained blood films, prepared from 10 randomly selected patients with a parasitaemia ranging from 610 to 236,000 parasites per microl blood, were examined.

    RESULTS: The P. knowlesi infection was highly synchronous in only one patient, where 97% of the parasites were at the late trophozoite stage. Early, late and mature trophozoites and schizonts were observed in films from all patients except three; where schizonts and early trophozoites were absent in two and one patient, respectively. Gametocytes were observed in four patients, comprising only between 1.2 to 2.8% of infected erythrocytes. The early trophozoites of P. knowlesi morphologically resemble those of P. falciparum. The late and mature trophozoites, schizonts and gametocytes appear very similar to those of P. malariae. Careful examinations revealed that some minor morphological differences existed between P. knowlesi and P. malariae. These include trophozoites of knowlesi with double chromatin dots and at times with two or three parasites per erythrocyte and mature schizonts of P. knowlesi having 16 merozoites, compared with 12 for P. malariae.

    CONCLUSION: Plasmodium knowlesi infections in humans are not highly synchronous. The morphological resemblance of early trophozoites of P. knowlesi to P. falciparum and later erythrocytic stages to P. malariae makes it extremely difficult to identify P. knowlesi infections by microscopy alone.

    Matched MeSH terms: Erythrocytes/cytology
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