METHODS: A systematic review was conducted by searching PubMed, EMBASE and Google scholar databases to identify all relevant papers published in English from 2003 to 2012, using the following keywords: end stage, terminal, chronic, renal, kidney, risk factors, Arab, North Africa and Libya.
RESULTS: In 2003, the reported incidence of ESKD and prevalence of dialysis-treated ESKD in Libya were the same at 200 per million population (pmp). In 2007, the prevalence of dialysis-treated ESKD was 350 pmp, but the true incidence of ESKD was not available. The most recent published WHO data in 2012 showed the incidence of dialysis-treated ESKD had risen to 282 pmp and the prevalence of dialysis-treated ESKD had reached 624 pmp. The leading causes of ESKD were diabetic kidney disease (26.5 %), chronic glomerulonephritis (21.1 %), hypertensive nephropathy (14.6 %) and congenital/hereditary disease (12.3 %). The total number of dialysis centers was 40 with 61 nephrologists. Nephrologist/internist to patient ratio was 1:40, and nurse to patient ratio was 1:3.7. Only 135 living-related kidney transplants had been performed between 2004 and 2007. There were no published data on most macroeconomic and renal service factors.
CONCLUSIONS: ESKD is a major public health problem in Libya with diabetic kidney disease and chronic glomerulonephritis being the leading causes. The most frequent co-morbidities were hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome. In addition to provision of RRT, preventive strategies are also urgently needed for a holistic integrated renal care system.
METHODS: Renal registries reporting on patients starting RRT per million population for ESRD by PRD from 2005 to 2014, were identified by internet search and literature review. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of the time trends was computed using Joinpoint regression.
RESULTS: There was a significant decrease in the incidence of RRT for ESRD due to diabetes mellitus (DM) in Europe (AAPC = -0.9; 95%CI -1.3; -0.5) and to hypertension/renal vascular disease (HT/RVD) in Australia (AAPC = -1.8; 95%CI -3.3; -0.3), Canada (AAPC = -2.9; 95%CI -4.4; -1.5) and Europe (AAPC = -1.1; 95%CI -2.1; -0.0). A decrease or stabilization was observed for glomerulonephritis in all regions and for autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in all regions except for Malaysia and the Republic of Korea. An increase of 5.2-16.3% was observed for DM, HT/RVD and ADPKD in Malaysia and the Republic of Korea.
CONCLUSION: Large international differences exist in the trends in incidence of RRT by primary renal disease. Mapping of these international trends is the first step in defining the causes and successful preventative measures of CKD.