Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 498 in total

  1. Tan HL, Koh KC
    Malays Fam Physician, 2008;3(2):96-7.
    PMID: 25606125 MyJurnal
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections*
  2. Ei, K.S., Shoesmith, W.D.
    In this study parallel scales were constructed to use to measure the levels of HIV-related stigma towards
    people living with HIV (PLHIV) in populations with different backgrounds in Sabah. The study also
    explored the components of stigma within the population. We found that there were three principle
    components of HIV related stigma: “Interpersonal distancing,” “Shame and blame,” and “Positive
    opinions about PLHIV”. The scales constructed showed adequate internal consistency (Cronbach’s
    Alpha of 0.69 to 0.85) in all samples. The medical students and people with more knowledge about HIV
    had significantly lower levels of all three factors of personal stigma. Regarding HIV-related knowledge,
    the non-medical university students and the rural community group were found to have poor knowledge
    of HIV transmission and prevention. This scale can be used by researchers or public health officials
    who wish to study HIV related stigma or to evaluate the impact of stigma interventions in the local
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections*
  3. Ismail T, Lee C
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Mar;66(1):76-82.
    PMID: 23765154 MyJurnal
    Opportunistic pneumonias are major causes of morbidity and mortality in HIV infected individuals. The majority of new HIV infections in Malaysia are adults aged 20 to 39 years old and many are unaware of their HIV status until they present with an opportunistic infection. HIV associated opportunistic pneumonias can progress rapidly without appropriate therapy. Therefore a proper diagnostic evaluation is vital and prompt empiric treatment of the suspected diagnosis should be commenced while waiting for the results of the diagnostic studies. Tuberculosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) and recurrent bacterial pneumonias are common causes of AIDS-defining diseases and are discussed in this article.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections*
  4. J Sykepleien, 1993 Jan 19;81(1):20.
    PMID: 8466793
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  5. Root R
    Med Anthropol Q, 2006 Sep;20(3):321-44.
    PMID: 16937620
    Minah Karan, the stigmatizing label appended to Malay factory women in the 1980s, signaled a dangerous female sexuality that risked spreading beyond the factory gates and infecting Malaysia's idea(l)s of its traditional kampung culture. This article narrates how Minah Karan, as the former antihero of development, was reconstituted in the 1990s, with the government's labeling of factories as "high-risk settings" for HIV/AIDS. This is an ethnoetiology based not on any evidential epidemiological data but on the racial and gendered "mixing" that transpires behind factory walls: a fear that the "mixing of the sexes" means ipso facto "sexual mixing" among the races. The article demonstrates how importation of the high-risk label articulates at the local level the new and contested linkages, economic, religious, and scientific, constitutive of globalization. The pragmatic nature and imperatives of this high-risk process are discerned in factory women's accounts of how they negotiate the interactional imperatives of factory work, because transnational structures of productivity violate the social boundaries that have long connoted political stability, moral integrity, ethnic community, and individual safety. The article concludes by questioning whether ethnoetiologies, especially when they concern sexual networks, become social etiologies, because this would locate ethnoetiologies as central to conventional public health praxis rather than as ethnographic exotica in the margins.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/ethnology*; HIV Infections/transmission
  6. Kamarulzaman A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Mar;60(1):1-4.
    PMID: 16250272
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology*; HIV Infections/prevention & control; HIV Infections/transmission
  7. Paranthaman V, Yip HL, Ker HB
    Malays Fam Physician, 2015;10(1):44-6.
    PMID: 26425294 MyJurnal
    This case study demonstrates a 36-year-old ex-intravenous drug user (IVDU) who had been initially tested positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) twice using Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) method (Particle agglutination, PA done), but a year later he was tested HIV-negative. The patient was asymptomatic for HIV and T helper cells (CD4) count remained stable throughout this period. In light of this case, there may be a need to retest by molecular methods for high risk category patients who were initially diagnosed HIV-positive, but later showing an unexpected clinical course, such as a rising or stable CD4 titre over the years.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections*
  8. Berry J
    Posit Aware, ;25(6):22-3.
    PMID: 24847583
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/therapy*
  9. Abdul Wahab A, Rahman MM, Mohammad M, Hussin S
    Pak J Med Sci, 2013 May;29(3):856-8.
    PMID: 24353643
    Syphilis and HIV co-infection are indeed dangerous combinations. The present communication describes three different cases of syphilis and HIV co-infection in young men. The first case is a 25-year-old medical graduate with a primary and secondary syphilis lesions at time of presentation. The second case is a 24-year-old government officer with right eye posterior uveitis where the serology tests for syphilis were reactive. His HIV tests were also positive. The final case is a 25-year-old homosexual who was admitted to the medical ward because of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. The HIV and syphilis serology tests were noted to be positive.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections*
  10. Koh KC, Lee WY, Eh ZW, Ismail NJ, Tee PS, Othman A, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Jun;68(3):249-52.
    PMID: 23749016
    Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with other drugs for the treatment of patients with HIV infection. Efavirenz has been reported to cause a positive urine cannabis test reaction which may create problems between HIV-infected patients on Efavirenz and law enforcement agencies. Doctors are at loss whether to issue documents certifying the potential false positive urine cannabis test with Efavirenz to patients. We investigated if the urine of HIV-infected patients on Efavirenz caused a positive urine cannabis test using the AxSYM Cannabinoids Assay®. Urine samples from 51 eligible patients on Efavirenz were tested for cannabis. All tested negative except for one who had used cannabis the day before. Efavirenz does not cause false positive urine cannabis test with the AxSYM Cannabinoids Assay®. Certification documents from doctors are therefore unnecessary.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections*
  11. Chokephaibulkit K, Kariminia A, Oberdorfer P, Nallusamy R, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2014 Mar;33(3):291-4.
    PMID: 23942457 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0b013e3182a18223
    More perinatally HIV-infected children in Asia are reaching adolescence.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy*; HIV Infections/immunology; HIV Infections/mortality; HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  12. Ng KP, Saw TL, Baki A, He J, Singh N, Lyles CM
    Int J STD AIDS, 1999 Jun;10(6):401-4.
    PMID: 10414883
    Hema-Strip HIV-1/2 is a one-step rapid test for the detection of anti-HIV-1/2 antibodies in whole blood. The test requires no expensive equipment and the results are available within 10-15 min. Using 72 known HIV-1 positive samples and 780 high-risk prisoners, the sensitivity and specificity of Hema-Strip HIV-1/2 was found to be comparable to microparticle enzyme immunoassay (MEIA). The data also indicated that Hema-Strip HIV-1/2 is an effective alternate testing system to conventional ELISA where the use of ELISA is not suitable and the result of the HIV testing is needed urgently.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/blood; HIV Infections/diagnosis; HIV Infections/immunology*; HIV Infections/virology
  13. Wkly. Epidemiol. Rec., 1993 Dec 10;68(50):371-5.
    PMID: 8305295
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/diagnosis; HIV Infections/epidemiology; HIV Infections/prevention & control*; HIV Infections/transmission
  14. Jagdagsuren D, Hayashida T, Takano M, Gombo E, Zayasaikhan S, Kanayama N, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(12):e0189605.
    PMID: 29244859 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189605
    OBJECTIVE: Our previous 2005-2009 molecular epidemiological study in Mongolia identified a hot spot of HIV-1 transmission in men who have sex with men (MSM). To control the infection, we collaborated with NGOs to promote safer sex and HIV testing since mid-2010. In this study, we carried out the second molecular epidemiological survey between 2010 and 2016 to determine the status of HIV-1 infection in Mongolia.

    METHODS: The study included 143 new cases of HIV-1 infection. Viral RNA was extracted from stocked plasma samples and sequenced for the pol and the env regions using the Sanger method. Near-full length sequencing using MiSeq was performed in 3 patients who were suspected to be infected with recombinant HIV-1. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method and Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method.

    RESULTS: MSM was the main transmission route in the previous and current studies. However, heterosexual route showed a significant increase in recent years. Phylogenetic analysis documented three taxa; Mongolian B, Korean B, and CRF51_01B, though the former two were also observed in the previous study. CRF51_01B, which originated from Singapore and Malaysia, was confirmed by near-full length sequencing. Although these strains were mainly detected in MSM, they were also found in increasing numbers of heterosexual males and females. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis estimated transmission of CRF51_01B into Mongolia around early 2000s. An extended Bayesian skyline plot showed a rapid increase in the effective population size of Mongolian B cluster around 2004 and that of CRF51_01B cluster around 2011.

    CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 infection might expand to the general population in Mongolia. Our study documented a new cluster of HIV-1 transmission, enhancing our understanding of the epidemiological status of HIV-1 in Mongolia.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/genetics*; HIV Infections/epidemiology*; HIV Infections/transmission; HIV Infections/virology
  15. Saeidi A, Ellegård R, Yong YK, Tan HY, Velu V, Ussher JE, et al.
    J. Leukoc. Biol., 2016 Aug;100(2):305-14.
    PMID: 27256572 DOI: 10.1189/jlb.4RU0216-084R
    MAIT cells represent an evolutionarily conserved, MR1-restricted, innate-like cell subset that express high levels of CD161; have a canonical semi-invariant TCR iVα7.2; and may have an important role in mucosal immunity against various bacterial and fungal pathogens. Mature MAIT cells are CD161(hi)PLZF(hi)IL-18Rα(+)iVα7.2(+)γδ-CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells and occur in the peripheral blood, liver, and mucosa of humans. MAIT cells are activated by a metabolic precursor of riboflavin synthesis presented by MR1 and, therefore, respond to many bacteria and some fungi. Despite their broad antibacterial properties, their functional role in persistent viral infections is poorly understood. Although there is an increasing line of evidence portraying the depletion of MAIT cells in HIV disease, the magnitude and the potential mechanisms underlying such depletion remain unclear. Recent studies suggest that MAIT cells are vulnerable to immune exhaustion as a consequence of HIV and hepatitis C virus infections and HIV/tuberculosis coinfections. HIV infection also appears to cause functional depletion of MAIT cells resulting from abnormal expression of T-bet and EOMES, and effective ART is unable to completely salvage functional MAIT cell loss. Depletion and exhaustion of peripheral MAIT cells may affect mucosal immunity and could increase susceptibility to opportunistic infections during HIV infection. Here, we review some of the important mechanisms associated with depletion and functional loss of MAIT cells and also suggest potential immunotherapeutic strategies to restore MAIT cell functions, including the use of IL-7 to restore effector functions in HIV disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/immunology*; HIV Infections/virology
  16. Larney S, Mathers BM, Poteat T, Kamarulzaman A, Degenhardt L
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2015 Jun 1;69 Suppl 2:S100-9.
    PMID: 25978476 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000623
    Women and girls who use and inject drugs are a critical population at risk of HIV. In this article, we review data on the epidemiology of drug use and injection among women globally and HIV prevalence among women and girls who use and inject drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/etiology*; HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  17. Ng KT, Ng KY, Chen JH, Ng OT, Kamarulzaman A, Tee KK
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2014 Sep 15;59(6):910-1.
    PMID: 24944233 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu480
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/epidemiology; HIV Infections/transmission*
  18. Choi P, Kavasery R, Desai MM, Govindasamy S, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Int J STD AIDS, 2010 Jun;21(6):416-23.
    PMID: 20606222 DOI: 10.1258/ijsa.2009.009180
    HIV-infected prisoners face an inordinate number of community re-entry challenges. In 2007, 102 HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia were surveyed anonymously within six months prior to release to assess the prevalence and correlates of community re-entry challenges. Staying out of prison (60.8%), remaining off drugs (39.2%), finding employment (35.3%) and obtaining HIV care (32.4%) were the re-entry challenges reported most frequently. Global stigma, negative self-image and public attitudes-related stigma were independently associated with challenges to obtaining HIV care. In multivariate analyses, those with previous incarcerations (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-7.6), higher HIV-related symptoms (AOR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-4.1) and higher public attitudes-related stigma (AOR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.1) had a significantly higher likelihood of identifying more re-entry challenges. Targeted interventions, such as effective drug treatment, HIV care and public awareness campaigns, are crucial for stemming the HIV epidemic and improving health outcomes among HIV-infected prisoners in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/drug therapy; HIV Infections/epidemiology*
  19. Mapanga KG, Mapanga MB
    Clin Nurse Spec, ;22(5):226-30.
    PMID: 18753880 DOI: 10.1097/01.NUR.0000325367.54044.d5
    In Africa, there is an overwhelming and increasing prevalence of illnesses such as HIV and AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. This constitutes a "burden of disease" facing Africa. Nursing must evolve accordingly to the changing needs of clients, many of whom have chronic illnesses. In achieving desirable outcomes, it is essential to adopt and adapt the clinical nurse specialist (CNS) role so that expert and specialist practice is available to clients in a cost-effective manner. The role of the CNS singles out clinical responsibilities in a hospital setting so that nurse administrators can concentrate on the provision of resources. A CNS position in the hospital structure would offer a clinical career pathway for advanced practice nurses who wish to remain "by-the-bedside." Regional initiatives are already beginning to show a need for master's-prepared, advanced practice nurses in the clinical areas so as to reduce maternal mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/nursing*; HIV Infections/epidemiology
  20. Ng KP, He J, Saw TL, Lyles CM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2000 Mar;55(1):58-64.
    PMID: 11072492 MyJurnal
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a RNA virus transmitted enterically. A study of anti-HEV antibodies in 145 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected subjects found that 14.4% of them were reactive to anti-HEV antibodies. Anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM was detected in 10.3% and 4.1% of the subjects respectively. Prevalence of anti-HEV (either IgG or IgM) was similar across all adult ages (p = 0.154), between the three ethnic groups (p = 0.378), and across risk groups (p = 0.120). The results showed that HEV infection in subjects recruited in this study was most likely transmitted via faecal-route.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/immunology*; HIV Infections/virology*
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