Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 75 in total

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  1. ISBN: 978-983-3433-95-7
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  2. Koh KC, Lee WY, Eh ZW, Ismail NJ, Tee PS, Othman A, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Jun;68(3):249-52.
    PMID: 23749016
    Efavirenz is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with other drugs for the treatment of patients with HIV infection. Efavirenz has been reported to cause a positive urine cannabis test reaction which may create problems between HIV-infected patients on Efavirenz and law enforcement agencies. Doctors are at loss whether to issue documents certifying the potential false positive urine cannabis test with Efavirenz to patients. We investigated if the urine of HIV-infected patients on Efavirenz caused a positive urine cannabis test using the AxSYM Cannabinoids Assay®. Urine samples from 51 eligible patients on Efavirenz were tested for cannabis. All tested negative except for one who had used cannabis the day before. Efavirenz does not cause false positive urine cannabis test with the AxSYM Cannabinoids Assay®. Certification documents from doctors are therefore unnecessary.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  3. Culbert GJ, Bazazi AR, Waluyo A, Murni A, Muchransyah AP, Iriyanti M, et al.
    AIDS Behav, 2016 05;20(5):1026-38.
    PMID: 26400080 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-015-1198-4
    Negative attitudes toward HIV medications may restrict utilization of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Indonesian prisons where many people living with HIV (PLH) are diagnosed and first offered ART. This mixed-method study examines the influence of medication attitudes on ART utilization among HIV-infected Indonesian prisoners. Randomly-selected HIV-infected male prisoners (n = 102) completed face-to-face in-depth interviews and structured surveys assessing ART attitudes. Results show that although half of participants utilized ART, a quarter of those meeting ART eligibility guidelines did not. Participants not utilizing ART endorsed greater concerns about ART efficacy, safety, and adverse effects, and more certainty that ART should be deferred in PLH who feel healthy. In multivariate analyses, ART utilization was independently associated with more positive ART attitudes (AOR = 1.09, 95 % CI 1.03-1.16, p = 0.002) and higher internalized HIV stigma (AOR = 1.03, 95 % CI 1.00-1.07, p = 0.016). Social marketing of ART is needed to counteract negative ART attitudes that limit ART utilization among Indonesian prisoners.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/psychology; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/utilization*
  4. Tan WC, Chan LC
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2011 Oct;66(4):383-4.
    PMID: 22299569
    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is strongly associated with Human Herpes Virus 8 (HHV8) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection (HIV). It was the first malignancy to be linked with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). We report a case of Kaposi's sarcoma in a newly diagnosed retroviral homosexual patient with CD4 count of 21. He had multiple firm discrete violaceous plaques and nodules scattered over the face, scalp, hard palate, trunk and genitalia. Biopsy of a skin nodule over the trunk and a biopsy of a lesion from the gastric mucosa confirmed Kaposi's sarcoma. He was started on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and cryotherapy (liquid nitrogen) was given for the lesions over the skin. He responded well to treatment. Liquid nitrogen is a useful adjuvant treatment for Kaposi's sarcoma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  5. Lubis R, Bulgiba AM
    JUMMEC, 2014;17(1):18-22.
    MyJurnal
    Initiation of Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) depends on clinical or immunological criteria. Clinical criteria include the presence of opportunistic infections, categorized by the WHO as stage 3 and 4. Immunological criteria are based on CD4 cell count. The WHO guidelines have changed frequently. All patients with CD4 cell count less than 200 cells/µl and symptomatic HIV or late disease or severe recurrent HIV illnesses or patients with AIDS or tumor at any CD4 count, should start therapy. WHO guidelines in 2013 recommended initiating HAART at CD4 counts less than 500 cells/µl. HAART is usually initiated when CD4 is less than 200 cell/µl because HIV infected patients present at a late stage. Research on factors responsible for this is sorely needed so that interventions can be targeted at this group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  6. Awi NJ, Teow SY
    J Pathog, 2018;2018:8724549.
    PMID: 29973995 DOI: 10.1155/2018/8724549
    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases are on the rise globally. To date, there is still no effective measure to eradicate the causative agent, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is being used in HIV/AIDS management, but it results in long-term medication and has major drawbacks such as multiple side effects, high cost, and increasing the generation rate of escape mutants. In addition, HAART does not control HIV-related complications, and hence more medications and further management are required. With this, other alternatives are urgently needed. In the past, small-molecule inhibitors have shown potent antiviral effects, and some of them are now being evaluated in clinical trials. The challenges in developing these small molecules for clinical use include the off-target effect, poor stability, and low bioavailability. On the other hand, antibody-mediated therapy has emerged as an important therapeutic modality for anti-HIV therapeutics development. Many antiviral antibodies, namely, broad neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) against multiple strains of HIV, have shown promising effects in vitro and in animal studies; further studies are ongoing in clinical trials to evaluate their uses in clinical applications. This short review aims to discuss the current development of therapeutic antibodies against HIV and the challenges in adopting them for clinical use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  7. Abdulrahman SA, Ganasegeran K, Rampal L, Martins OF
    AIDS Rev, 2019;21(1):28-39.
    PMID: 30899114 DOI: 10.24875/AIDSRev.19000037
    Successful HIV treatment is contingent on sustained high levels of treatment adherence. Several barriers to optimal adherence have been documented. In this article, we first review the global burden of non-adherence among HIV/AIDS positive individuals on a public health scale. Second, we synthesized available evidence from different study designs and stratified across the European, African, and Asian literature to determine the factors influencing adherence to scheduled clinic appointments and medication non-adherence. Third, we discuss common measurement techniques that quantify the magnitude of non-adherence, their relative advantages and limitations in current practice. From January to May 2018, we reviewed guidelines, standard operating procedures, journal articles, and book chapters on treatment adherence among HIV patients receiving adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) globally. We searched PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews with the search terms "adherence," "adherence behavior," "medication adherence," and "HIV patients," or "HIV/AIDS," and "Antiretroviral Therapy" or "ART" or "ARVs" or "highly active ART " from 2000 to 2017. We also identified articles through searches of authors' files and previous research on HIV. We included only papers published in English in this review. We then generated a final list of reference on the basis of originality and the broad scope of this review. We found rich literature evidence of research findings and best practice recommendations on the importance of adherence in HIV/AIDS management, a general understanding of factors associated with non-adherence and approaches to investigating non-adherence behavior among different populations. We observed significant contextual differences exist with regard to barriers and burden of non-adherence among these populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  8. Chow YW, Leong CL, Chow HL, Hooi LS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Mar;62(1):78-80.
    PMID: 17682581
    Exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may lead to adverse effects related to mitochondrial toxicity such as lactic acidosis. We describe two cases of severe lactic acidosis in HIV-positive patients to illustrate the clinical symptoms and abnormal laboratory results associated with this condition. There is a lack of awareness about the risk factors for developing severe lactic acidosis and recognition of its onset with dire consequences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects*
  9. Wong NS, Reidpath DD, Wong KH, Lee SS
    J. Infect., 2015 Jun;70(6):676-8.
    PMID: 25452038 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinf.2014.10.012
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*
  10. Sudjaritruk T, Aurpibul L, Ly PS, Le TPK, Bunupuradah T, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2017 Jul;61(1):91-98.
    PMID: 28343759 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2017.01.014
    PURPOSE: To assess the incidence and predictors of postsuppression virologic rebound (VR) among adolescents on stable combination antiretroviral therapy in Asia.

    METHODS: Perinatally HIV-infected Asian adolescents (10-19 years) with documented virologic suppression (two consecutive viral loads [VLs] <400 copies/mL ≥6 months apart) were included. Baseline was the date of the first VL <400 copies/mL at age ≥10 years or the 10th birthday for those with prior suppression. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify predictors of postsuppression VR (VL >1,000 copies/mL).

    RESULTS: Of 1,379 eligible adolescents, 47% were males. At baseline, 22% were receiving protease inhibitor-containing regimens; median CD4 cell count (interquartile range [IQR]) was 685 (448-937) cells/mm3; 2% had preadolescent virologic failure (VF) before subsequent suppression. During adolescence, 180 individuals (13%) experienced postsuppression VR at a rate of 3.4 (95% confidence interval: 2.9-3.9) per 100 person-years, which was consistent over time. Median time to VR during adolescence (IQR) was 3.3 (2.1-4.8) years. Wasting (weight-for-age z-score

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*
  11. Boettiger DC, Aurpibul L, Hudaya DM, Fong SM, Lumbiganon P, Saphonn V, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2016 May;35(5):e144-51.
    PMID: 26835972 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001074
    BACKGROUND: Information on antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in HIV-infected children with severe malnutrition (SM) is lacking. We investigated long-term ART outcomes in this population.

    METHODS: Children enrolled in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database who had SM (weight-for-height or body mass index-for-age Z score less than -3) at ART initiation were analyzed. Generalized estimating equations were used to investigate poor weight recovery (weight-for-age Z score less than -3) and poor CD4% recovery (CD4% <25), and competing risk regression was used to analyze mortality and toxicity-associated treatment modification.

    RESULTS: Three hundred fifty-five (11.9%) of 2993 children starting ART had SM. Their median weight-for-age Z score increased from -5.6 at ART initiation to -2.3 after 36 months. Not using trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis at baseline was associated with poor weight recovery [odds ratio: 2.49 vs. using; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.66-3.74; P < 0.001]. Median CD4% increased from 3.0 at ART initiation to 27.2 after 36 months, and 56 (15.3%) children died during follow-up. More profound SM was associated with poor CD4% recovery (odds ratio: 1.78 for Z score less than -4.5 vs. -3.5 to less than -3.0; 95% CI: 1.08-2.92; P = 0.023) and mortality (hazard ratio: 2.57 for Z score less than -4.5 vs. -3.5 to less than -3.0; 95% CI: 1.24-5.33; P = 0.011). Twenty-two toxicity-associated ART modifications occurred at a rate of 2.4 per 100 patient-years, and rates did not differ by malnutrition severity.

    CONCLUSION: Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole prophylaxis is important for the recovery of weight-for-age in severely malnourished children starting ART. The extent of SM does not impede weight-for-age recovery or antiretroviral tolerability, but CD4% response is compromised in children with a very low weight-for-height/body mass index-for-age Z score, which may contribute to their high rate of mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*
  12. Bulgiba A, Mohammed UY, Chik Z, Lee C, Peramalah D
    Prev Med, 2013;57 Suppl:S34-6.
    PMID: 23313585 DOI: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2013.01.002
    The aim of the study was to determine how well self-reported adherence fares compared to therapeutic drug monitoring in monitoring HAART adherence.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods*; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/psychology
  13. Syed IA, Sulaiman SA, Hassali MA, Syed SH, Shan LH, Lee CK
    J. Med. Virol., 2016 May;88(5):790-7.
    PMID: 26399724 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24389
    Suboptimal viral suppression and CD4 response to antiretroviral treatment (HAART) is known to cause poor outcomes with the increase cost of treatment. We aimed to assess factors associated with such control among HIV/AIDS patients in Malaysia. Four hundred and six HIV/AIDS patients, using Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) for at least the past three months, treated as outpatients at medication therapy adherence clinics (MTAC) were recruited. CD4 cell counts, viral load readings along with co-variants such as socio-demographic factors, adverse drug reactions, comorbidities, and medication record were obtained. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS(®) ) version 18 and STATA IC(®) version 12 were used for data analysis. CD4 counts were found highest among those within the age category 41-50 years (390.43 ± 272.28), female (402.64 ± 276.14), other ethnicities (400.20 ± 278.04), and participants with no formal education (414.87 ± 290.90). Patients experiencing adverse effects had a 2.28 (95%CI:1.25-4.18) fold greater risk of poor CD4 control, while patients with comorbidities had 2.46 (95%CI:1.02-5.91) fold greater risk of mild viral suppression. Adverse drug reactions, co-morbidities were found to be significantly associated with poor immunological and virological outcomes in HIV/AIDS patients. However, a comprehensive evaluation is needed to better understand other confounders.
    Study site: Medication therapy adherence clinic, Hospital Sungai Buloh, Selangor, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  14. Moy FS, Fahey P, Nik Yusoff NK, Razali KA, Nallusamy R, TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database (TApHOD)
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2015 Feb;51(2):204-8.
    PMID: 25142757 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.12712
    To describe outcome and examine factors associated with mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in Malaysia after anti-retroviral therapy (ART).
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects*; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods; Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/mortality
  15. Wittawatmongkol O, Mohamed TJ, Le TP, Ung V, Maleesatharn A, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Virus Erad, 2015;1(3):192-195.
    PMID: 27076917
    After a median of 115.9 months of follow-up, 90% of 206 HIV-1-infected children in a cohort in Asia who initiated antiretroviral treatment (ART) with mono or dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were alive and had comparable immunological and virological outcomes as compared to the 1,915 children who had started with highly active antiretroviral regimens. However, these children had higher rates of treatment-related adverse events, opportunistic infections, and cumulative mortality, and were more likely to require protease inhibitor-containing regimens or other more novel ART-based regimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  16. Akmal Hisham, Devananthan Ilenghoven, Wan Syazli Wan Ahmad Kamal, Salina Ibrahim, Shah Jumaat Mohd Yussof
    MyJurnal
    The emergence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has revolutionized the prognosis of HIV-infected patients. However, the extended use of HAART is associated with a disfiguring complication termed lipodystrophy, a disorder of body fat maldistribution causing peripheral fat loss (lipoatrophy) and central fat accumulation (lipohypertrophy). Lipoatrophy commonly affects the face, legs, buttocks and arm, whilst lipohypertrophy frequently favours the abdomen, breast and dorsocervical region. To our knowledge, we present only the second documented case in the literature of a labia majora lipohypertrophy in a HIV-positive patient receiving long-term HAART. The severity of labial abnormality caused significant physical and functional morbidities. Labiaplasty with dermolipectomy of the labia majora and excisional lipectomy of the mons pubis was successfully performed. At a 6-month follow-up, patient had no recurrence with resolution of symptoms and resumption of normal activities of daily living (ADL).
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  17. Tang ASO, Teh YC, Chea CY, Yeo ST, Chua HH
    Oxf Med Case Reports, 2018 Dec;2018(12):omy107.
    PMID: 30487992 DOI: 10.1093/omcr/omy107
    We present a case of disseminated Kaposi's sarcoma with both cutaneous and extracutaneous involvement in an HIV-infected patient with a relatively high CD4 count of 369 cell/mm3. He developed chronic diarrhea, constitutional symptoms, worsening bilateral pleural effusion with respiratory distress, and progression of skin lesions distributed over his chest and extremities. The temporal relationship between rapid clinical progression and initiation of HAART suggested the possibility of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, which eventually resulted in the death of this patient.
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  18. Akmal Hisham, Devananthan Ilenghoven, Wan Syazli Wan Ahmad Kamal, Salina Ibrahim, Shah Jumaat Mohd Yussof
    The emergence of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has revolutionized the prognosis of HIV-infected patients. However, the extended use of HAART is associated with a disfiguring complication termed lipodystrophy, a disorder of body fat maldistribution causing peripheral fat loss (lipoatrophy) and central fat accumulation (lipohypertrophy). Lipoatrophy commonly affects the face, legs, buttocks and arm, whilst lipohypertrophy frequently favours the abdomen, breast and dorsocervical region. To our knowledge, we present only the second documented case in the literature of a labia majora lipohypertrophy in a HIV-positive patient receiving long-term HAART. The severity of labial abnormality caused significant physical and functional morbidities. Labiaplasty with dermolipectomy of the labia majora and excisional lipectomy of the mons pubis was successfully performed. At a 6-month follow-up, patient had no recurrence with resolution of symptoms and resumption of normal activities of daily living (ADL).
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  19. Marsilla MM, Khairunisa AA, Azyani Y, Petrick P
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Aug;41(2):223-227.
    PMID: 31427560
    INTRODUCTION: Histoplasmosis can present in a myriad of clinical manifestations, which often makes its diagnosis difficult and occasionally, deceptive.

    CASE REPORT: We describe a case of a 33 years old gentleman who was clinically diagnosed as acute appendicitis at initial presentation in view of a one-week history of fever, right lower quadrant abdominal pain- and guarding at right iliac fossa. He had thrombocytopenia and lymphopenia on presentation. Mesenteric lymphadenitis and small bowel lesion were found intraoperatively, which was respectively biopsied and resected. Histopathological result confirms disseminated histoplasmosis. Retroviral screen was positive. He was treated with amphotericin B for one week, subsequently switched to oral itraconazole, followed by initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

    DISCUSSION: This case illustrates the various nature of histoplasmosis presentation. A high index of suspicion is needed to clinch the diagnosis and subsequently institute prompt treatment as disseminated disease can be fatal if left untreated in an immunosuppressed host.

    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active
  20. Mendelsohn JB, Schilperoord M, Spiegel P, Balasundaram S, Radhakrishnan A, Lee CK, et al.
    AIDS Behav, 2014 Feb;18(2):323-34.
    PMID: 23748862 DOI: 10.1007/s10461-013-0494-0
    In response to an absence of studies among refugees and host communities accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in urban settings, our objective was to compare adherence and virological outcomes among clients attending a public clinic in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adult clients (≥18 years). Data sources included a structured questionnaire that measured self-reported adherence, a pharmacy-based measure of HAART prescription refills over the previous 24 months, and HIV viral loads. The primary outcome was unsuppressed viral load (≥40 copies/mL). Among a sample of 153 refugees and 148 host community clients, refugees were younger (median age 35 [interquartile range, IQR 31, 39] vs 40 years [IQR 35, 48], p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*
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