Two members of a troop of wild Macaca irus in Malaysia have been tentatively identified as hybrids of M. irus and M. nemestrina. Mechanisms prohibiting such hybridization in the natural habitat may have broken down under heavy predation pressure which finally resulted in the local extermination of M. nemestrinia.
In this study, we have reported two direct observations of individuals from a one-male group of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) being killed by clouded leopards (Neofelis diardi) in the riverine forest along the Menanggul river, a tributary of the Kinabatangan river in Sabah, Malaysia. One of the two individuals was an infant female and the other was a juvenile female. Based on literature reviews and the observations reported here, we suggest that clouded leopard and crocodile might be significant potential predators of proboscis monkeys of any age or sex and that predation threats elicit the monkeys' anti-predator strategies. Moreover, the observations of the monkeys' behaviour when the group is attacked by a predator suggest that the adult males in one-male groups play an important role as protectors.
A study on insect succession of monkey carcass in a forested area in Ulu Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia was conducted from 9 May to 18 June 2007. The third instar of the housefly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) were only found on dry stage of a decomposed (Day-33) monkey carcass (Macaca fascicularis Raffles). This observation revealed that M. domestica maggots were found together with other muscid fly maggots, Hydrotaea (=Ophyra) spinigera (Stein) (Diptera: Muscidae) on dry stage of a carcass. However, the role of M. domestica on forensic entomological study remains unknown. This study recorded the first finding of M. domestica maggots on primate carcass in Malaysia.
Myospila pudica pudica (Stein, 1915) (Diptera: Muscidae) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia during a forensic entomological study conducted at a forested area of Forensic Science Simulation Site, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. This species can be differentiated from other species of its genus by having R1 setulose on dorsal surface and R4+5 more or less setulose dorsally and ventrally. The legs, including tarsi, are testaceous yellow and palpi blackish. Lateral and ventral surface of scutellum bare below the level of bristles and the third antennal segment is brownish yellow. Other features including the diverging of inner margin of lower squama from scutellum margin. This is also the first report on the occurence of M. pudica pudica (Stein, 1915) on animal carcass.
A quotidian-type parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi, has been found as a natural infection in man. The infection was acquired by a white male during a short visit to peninsular Malaysia. This occurrence constitutes the first proof that simian malaria is a true zoonosis.
Anopheles leucosphyrus, an important vector of human malaria in Sarawak, Borneo, was shown to be infected with Plasmodium inui in Malaya by the inoculation of sporozoites into an uninfected rhesus monkey. The mosquito was caught while biting a man, thus demonstrating that it would be possible for a monkey infection to be transmitted to man in nature.
Free-living animals must make dietary choices in terms of chemical and physical properties, depending on their digestive physiology and availability of food resources. Here we comprehensively evaluated the dietary choices of proboscis monkeys (Nasalis larvatus) consuming young leaves. We analysed the data for leaf toughness and digestibility measured by an in vitro gas production method, in addition to previously reported data on nutrient composition. Leaf toughness, in general, negatively correlated with the crude protein content, one of the most important nutritional factors affecting food selection by leaf-eating primates. This result suggests that leaf toughness assessed by oral sensation might be a proximate cue for its protein content. We confirmed the importance of the leaf chemical properties in terms of preference shown by N. larvatus; leaves with high protein content and low neutral detergent fibre levels were preferred to those of the common plant species. We also found that these preferred leaves were less tough and more digestible than the alternatives. Our in vitro results also suggested that N. larvatus were little affected by secondary plant compounds. However, the spatial distribution pattern of plant species was the strongest factor explaining the selection of the preferred leaf species.
Eleven pairs of schistosomes, indistinguishable from the classical Schistosoma japonicum, were found in a monkey (Macaca fascicularis) taken near Ranau in North Borneo. The new locality is within the recorded range of the species which extends from Japan, China, Taiwan, and Philippines through Southeast Asia to the Celebes.
The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is the predominant species causing human malaria infection, including hospitalisations for severe disease and death, in Malaysian Borneo. By contrast, there have been only a few case reports of knowlesi malaria from Indonesian Borneo. This situation seems paradoxical since both regions share the same natural macaque hosts and Anopheles mosquito vectors, and therefore have a similar epidemiologically estimated risk of infection. To determine whether there is a true cross-border disparity in P. knowlesi prevalence, we conducted a community-based malaria screening study using PCR in Kapuas Hulu District, West Kalimantan. Blood samples were taken between April and September 2019 from 1000 people aged 6 months to 85 years attending health care facilities at 27 study sites within or close to jungle areas. There were 16 Plasmodium positive samples by PCR, five human malarias (two Plasmodium vivax, two Plasmodium ovale and one Plasmodium malariae) and 11 in which no species could be definitively identified. These data suggest that, if present, simian malarias including P. knowlesi are rare in the Kapuas Hulu District of West Kalimantan, Indonesian Borneo compared to geographically adjacent areas of Malaysian Borneo. The reason for this discrepancy, if confirmed in other epidemiologically similar regions of Indonesian Borneo, warrants further studies targeting possible cross-border differences in human activities in forested areas, together with more detailed surveys to complement the limited data relating to monkey hosts and Anopheles mosquito vectors in Indonesian Borneo.