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  1. Asif M, Iqbal MA, Hussein MA, Oon CE, Haque RA, Khadeer Ahamed MB, et al.
    Eur J Med Chem, 2016 Jan 27;108:177-187.
    PMID: 26649905 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.11.034
    The current mechanistic study was conducted to explore the effects of increased lipophilicity of binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes on cytotoxicity. Two new silver(I)-N-Heterocyclic Carbene (NHC) complexes (3 and 4), having lypophilic terminal alkyl chains (Octyl and Decyl), were derived from meta-xylyl linked bis-benzimidazolium salts (1 and 2). Each of the synthesized compounds was characterized by microanalysis and spectroscopic techniques. The complexes were tested for their cytotoxicity against a panel of human cancer c as well normal cell lines using MTT assay. Based on MTT assay results, complex 4 was found to be selectively toxic towards human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT 116). Complex 4 was further studied in detail to explore the mechanism of cell death and findings of the study revealed that complex 4 has promising pro-apoptotic and anti-metastatic activities against HCT 116 cells. Furthermore, it showed pronounced cytostatic effects in HCT 116 multicellular spheroid model. Hence, binuclear silver(I)-NHC complexes with longer terminal aliphatic chains have worth to be further studied against human colon cancer for the purpose of drug development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology*
  2. Kim RP, Bihud V, Bin Mohamad K, Leong KH, Bin Mohamad J, Bin Ahmad F, et al.
    Molecules, 2012 Dec 21;18(1):128-39.
    PMID: 23344192 DOI: 10.3390/molecules18010128
    Eleven compounds:goniomicin A (1), goniomicin B (2), goniomicin C (3), goniomicin D (4), tapisoidin (5), goniothalamin (6), 9-deoxygoniopypyrone (7), pterodondiol (8), liriodenine (9), benzamide (10) and cinnamic acid (11), were isolated from the stem bark of Goniothalamus tapisoides. All compounds were identified by spectroscopic analysis and, for known compounds, by comparison with published data. Goniothalamin (6) exhibited mild cytotoxic activity towards a colon cancer cell line (HT-29), with an IC(50)value of 64.17 ± 5.60 µM. Goniomicin B (2) give the highest antioxidant activity in the DPPH assay among all compounds tested, with an IC(50) of 0.207 µM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology
  3. Asekunowo PO, Haque RA, Razali MR, Avicor SW, Wajidi MFF
    Eur J Med Chem, 2018 Apr 25;150:601-615.
    PMID: 29550733 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.03.029
    A series of four benzimidazolium based nitrile-functionalized mononuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene and binuclear-Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (Ag(I)-NHC) hexafluorophosphate complexes (5b-8b) were synthesized by reacting the corresponding hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) with Ag2O in acetonitrile, respectively. These compounds were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, UV-visible spectroscopic techniques, elemental analyses and molar conductivity. Additionally, 8b was structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial evaluation was conducted for all the compounds against two standard bacteria; gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains. Most of the Ag(I)-NHC complexes (5b-8b) showed moderate to good antibacterial activity with MIC values in the range of 12.5-100 μg/mL. Especially, compound 8b exhibited promising anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity with a low MIC value (12.5 μg/mL). However, all the hexafluorophosphate salts (1b-4b) were inactive against the bacteria strains. The preliminary interactive investigation revealed that the most active compound, 8b, could effectively intercalate into DNA to form 8b-DNA complex which shows a better binding ability for DNA (Kb = 3.627 × 106) than the complexes 5b-7b (2.177 × 106, 8.672 × 105 and 6.665 × 105, respectively). Nuclease activity of the complexes on plasmid DNA and Aedes albopictus genomic DNA was time-dependent, although minimal. The complexes were larvicidal to the mosquito, with 5b, 6b and 8b being highly active. Developmental progression from the larval to the adult stage was affected by the complexes, progressively being toxic to the insect's development with increasing concentration. These indicate the potential use of these complexes as control agents against bacteria and the dengue mosquito Ae. albopictus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology
  4. Butt ARS, Abbasi MA, Aziz-Ur-Rehman, Siddiqui SZ, Raza H, Hassan M, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2019 05;86:459-472.
    PMID: 30772647 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.01.036
    The present research was designed for the selective synthesis of novel bi-heterocyclic acetamides, 9a-n, and their tyrosinase inhibition to overwhelm the problem of melanogenesis. The structures of newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by spectral techniques such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and EI-MS along with elemental analysis. The inhibitory effects of these bi-heterocyclic acetamides (9a-n) were evaluated against tyrosinase and all these molecules were recognized as potent inhibitors relative to the standard used. The Kinetics mechanism was analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots which explored that compound, 9h, inhibited tyrosinase competitively by forming an enzyme-inhibitor complex. The inhibition constants Ki calculated from Dixon plots for this compound was 0.0027 µM. The computational study was coherent with the experimental records and these ligands exhibited good binding energy values (kcal/mol). The hemolytic analysis revealed their mild cytotoxicity towards red blood cell membranes and hence, these molecules can be pondered as nontoxic medicinal scaffolds for skin pigmentation and related disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology*
  5. Haque RA, Choo SY, Budagumpi S, Iqbal MA, Al-Ashraf Abdullah A
    Eur J Med Chem, 2015 Jan 27;90:82-92.
    PMID: 25461313 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2014.11.005
    A series of benzimidazole-based N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) proligands {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (1/4), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium bromide/hexafluorophosphate (2/5) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazolium-1-ylmethylbenzene dibromide/dihexafluorophosphate (3/6)} has been synthesized by the successive N-alkylation method. Ag complexes {1-benzyl-3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (7), 1,3-bis(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidenesilver(I) hexafluorophosphate (8) and 1,3-bis(3-(2-methylbenzyl)-benzimidazol-2-ylidene)-1-ylmethylbenzene disilver(I) dihexafluorophosphate (9)} of NHC ligands have been synthesized by the treatment of benzimidazolium salts with Ag2O at mild reaction conditions. Both, NHC proligands and Ag-NHC complexes have been characterized by (1)H and (13)C{(1)H} NMR and FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis technique. Additionally, the structure of the NHC proligand 5 and the mononuclear Ag complexes 7 and 8 has been elucidated by the single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Both the complexes exhibit the same general structural motif with linear coordination geometry around the Ag centre having two NHC ligands. Preliminary in vitro antibacterial potentials of reported compounds against a Gram negative (Escherichia coli) and a Gram positive (Bacillus subtilis) bacteria evidenced the higher activity of mononuclear silver(I) complexes. The anticancer studies against the human derived colorectal cancer (HCT 116) and colorectal adenocarcinoma (HT29) cell lines using the MTT assay method, revealed the higher activity of Ag-NHC complexes. The benzimidazolium salts 4-6 and Ag-NHC complexes 7-9 displayed the following IC50 values against the HCT 116 and HT29 cell lines, respectively, 31.8 ± 1.9, 15.2 ± 1.5, 4.8 ± 0.6, 10.5 ± 1.0, 18.7 ± 1.6, 1.20 ± 0.3 and 245.0 ± 4.6, 8.7 ± 0.8, 146.1 ± 3.1, 7.6 ± 0.7, 5.5 ± 0.8, 103.0 ± 2.3 μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Heterocyclic Compounds/pharmacology*
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