STUDY DESIGN: Experimental.
SAMPLE POPULATION: Fourteen equine cadaver limbs/horses.
METHODS: Simulated fractures were repaired with 2 lag screws under 4-Nm insertion torque (linear repair). Computed tomography (CT) imaging was performed with the leg unloaded and loaded to forces generated while walking. The fracture repair was revised to include 3 lag screws placed with the same insertion torque (triangular repair) prior to CT. The width of the fracture gap was assessed qualitatively by 2 observers and graded on the basis of gap measurements relative to the average voxel size at dorsal, mid, and palmar P1 sites. Interobserver agreement was assessed with Cohen's κ. The effect of repair type, loading condition, and measurement site on fracture gap grades was evaluated by using Kendall's τ-b correlation coefficients and paired nonparametric tests. Significance was set at P ≤ .05.
RESULTS: Agreement between loading and fracture gap widening was fair in triangular (κ = 0.53) and excellent in linear (κ = 0.81) repairs. Loading resulted in fracture gap distraction in linear repairs (Plinear = .008). Triangular repairs reduced fractures better irrespective of loading (Punloaded = .003; Ploaded
Materials and Methods: A total of 15 ejaculates from three healthy stallions were collected and cryopreserved in the same environment. Each semen sample collected was divided into four equal parts and processed. All samples were analyzed before and after freezing for motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, and morphology. Furthermore, twenty mares were inseminated using post-thawed semen.
Results: There were no differences observed among all extenders in all the parameters before freezing. Sperm cryopreserved using HF-20 showed better motility, viability, and plasma membrane integrity than Tris extender. The Tris extender showed the most inferior quality of post-thawed semen between all the extenders. HF-20, INRA Freeze®, and EquiPlus Freeze® extenders revealed the same capacity of semen preservation in vitro and in vivo.
Conclusion: HF-20 extender has the same quality as INRA Freeze® and EquiPlus Freeze® that can be considered as one of the best extenders for the semen cryopreservation in horses. In contrast, Tris extender needs some degree of improvement.
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the clinical features of the thoracolumbar region associated with BP in horses and to use some of the clinical features to classify equine BP.
METHODS: Twenty-four horses comprised of 14 with BP and 10 apparently healthy horses were assessed for clinical abnormality that best differentiate BP from normal horses. The horses were then graded (0-5) using the degree of pain response, muscular hypertonicity, thoracolumbar joint stiffness and overall physical dysfunction of the horse.
RESULTS: The common clinical features that significantly differentiate horses with BP from non-BP were longissimus dorsi spasm at palpation (78.6%), paravertebral muscle stiffness (64.3%), resist lateral bending (64.3%), and poor hindlimb impulsion (85.7%). There were significantly (p < 0.05) higher scores for pain response to palpation, muscular hypertonicity, thoracolumbar joint stiffness and physical dysfunction among horses with BP in relation to non-BP. A significant relationship exists between all the graded abnormalities. Based on the cumulative score, horses with BP were categorized into mild, mild-moderate, moderate and severe cases.
CONCLUSIONS: BP in horse can be differentiated by severity of pain response to back palpation, back muscle hypertonicity, thoracolumbar joint stiffness, physical dysfunctions and their cumulative grading score is useful in the assessment and categorization of BP in horses.
METHODS: Twenty six donkey cadavers of mixed, age, sex and use presented for reasons unrelated to disease of the guttural pouch were subjected to carotid and cerebral angiography using rotational angiography. Rotational angiographic and 3 dimensional multiplanar reconstructive (3D-MPR) findings were verified with an arterial latex casting technique followed by dissection and photography.
RESULTS: The following variations of the carotid arterial tree were identified:  the internal carotid and occipital arteries shared a common trunk,  the linguofacial trunk originated from the common carotid artery causing the common carotid artery to terminate as four branches,  the external carotid artery was reduced in length before giving rise to the linguofacial trunk, mimicking the appearance of the common carotid artery terminating in four branches,  the internal carotid artery originated at a more caudal position from the common carotid artery termination.
CONCLUSION: Veterinarians should be aware that considerable variation exists in the carotid arterial tree of donkeys and that this variation may differ markedly from that described in the horse.
Materials and Methods: The compilation of data was based on signalment, case history, duration of clinical signs, anatomical location of the pain, method of diagnosis, type of EBD, treatment, and outcome. The diagnosis of EBD was based on a history of poor performance, clinical examination findings, radiography, and, where applicable, necropsy.
Results: A total of 181 diagnosed cases of EBDs were identified. The age of horses ranged from 5 to 22 years. The EBD cases were more prevalent in male than female horses and predominantly in geldings (60.77%). Thoroughbred, Arab, Polo pony, and Warmblood also recorded the most EBD cases among breeds. The discipline of horses tended to influence the development of EBDs, with patrolling horses recording the highest frequency. Most EBD cases were of the primary type (92.27%), with the main causes being soft-tissue lesions (57.48%), vertebral lesions (18.56%), tack-associated problems (16.77%), and neurological lesions (7.19%). The common treatments employed were administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents, 1 to 3-month rest, warm and cold compression therapy, massage therapy, exercise adjustment, as well as correction of ill-saddle fit.
Conclusion: Most EBDs in this study were associated with soft-tissue lesions. Among vertebral lesions, kissing spines were the most common cause of EBDs in horses in Malaysia.