INTRODUCTION: A study published in 2001 predicted a 30-50% increase in Singapore hip fracture incidence rates over the ensuing 30 years. To test that prediction, we examined the incidence of hip fracture in Singapore from 2000 to 2017.
METHODS: We carried out a population-based study of hip fractures among Singapore residents aged ≥ 50 years. National medical insurance claims data were used to identify admissions with a primary discharge diagnosis of hip fracture. Age-adjusted rates, based on the age distribution of the Singapore population of 2000, were analyzed separately by sex and ethnicity (Chinese, Malay, or Indian).
RESULTS: Over the 18-year study period, 36,082 first hip fractures were recorded. Total hip fracture admissions increased from 1487 to 2729 fractures/year in the years 2000 to 2017. Despite this absolute increase, age-adjusted fracture rates declined, with an average annual change of - 4.3 (95% CI - 5.0, - 3.5) and - 1.1 (95% CI - 1.7, - 0.5) fractures/100,000/year for women and men respectively. Chinese women had 1.4- and 1.9-fold higher age-adjusted rates than Malay and Indian women: 264 (95% CI 260, 267) versus 185 (95% CI 176, 193) and 141 (95% CI 132, 150) fractures/100,000/year, respectively. Despite their higher fracture rates, Chinese women were the only ethnic group exhibiting a decline, most evident in those ≥ 85 years, in age-adjusted fracture rate of - 5.3 (95% CI - 6.0, - 4.5) fractures/100,000/year.
CONCLUSION: Although the absolute number of fractures increased, steep drops in elderly Chinese women drove a reduction in overall age-adjusted hip fracture rates. Increases in the older population will lead to a rise in total number of hip fractures, requiring budgetary planning and new preventive strategies.
OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to explore the occurrence of anxiety, depression and to identify the factors associated with hospital readmission among older patients after AECOPD discharge.
METHODS: A multicentre prospective study was conducted in Malaysia (from 1st September 2012 till 31st September 2013) among older patients (≥60 years) hospitalised for AECOPD. Anxiety and depression were assessed on discharge using previously validated questionnaires, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7 and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15), respectively. Patients were followed up for a period of 3 months after discharge.
RESULTS: A total of 81 patients with a median age of 72 years (IQR 66.40-78.00) were recruited. Anxiety was observed in 34.57% while 38.27% had depression. Both anxiety and depression were detected in 25.93% of the patients. A history of frequent AECOPD admissions was found to be associated with developing depressive symptoms, while anxiety scores were associated with severe dyspnoea. Severe depression was more commonly identified among patients aged 60-75 and in those with a history of tuberculosis. A high readmission rate (40.74%) during the 3-month period was noticed. History of frequent AECOPD admissions (OR = 2.87; 95% CI 1.05-7.85, P = 0.040) and ischemic heart disease (IHD) (OR = 4.04; 95% CI 1.1-14.6, P = 0.032) were identified as the factors associated with the risk of hospital readmission.
CONCLUSIONS: Anxiety and depression were found to be relatively common among older patients with AECOPD. IHD and history of frequent COPD hospitalisation were associated with short-term readmission among the elderly.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the demographic features, clinical characteristics, management and outcomes of adults with an ED diagnosis of asthma who presented to an ED in the Asia Pacific region with a principal symptom of dyspnea.
METHODS: Planned sub-study of patients with an ED diagnosis of asthma identified in the Asia, Australia and New Zealand Dyspnoea in Emergency Departments (AANZDEM) study. AANZDEM was a prospective cohort study conducted in 46 EDs in Australia, New Zealand, Singapore, Hong Kong and Malaysia over three 72 hour periods in May, August and October 2014. Primary outcomes were patient epidemiology, clinical features, treatment and outcomes (hospital length of stay (LOS) and mortality).
RESULTS: Of the 3044 patients with dyspnea, 387 (12.7%) patients had an ED diagnosis of asthma. The median age was 45 years, 60.1% were female, 16.1% were active or recent smokers and 30.4% arrived by ambulance. Inhaled bronchodilator therapy was initiated in 88.1% of patients, and 66.9% received both inhaled bronchodilators and systemic corticosteroids. After treatment in the ED, 65.4% were discharged. No death was reported.
CONCLUSION: Asthma is common among patients presenting with a principal symptom of dyspnea in the ED of the Asia Pacific region. There was a suboptimal adherence to international guidelines on investigations and treatments of acute asthma exacerbations presenting an opportunity to improve the efficiency of care.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the rate, factors, and medications associated with ADR-related hospitalisations among HF patients.
SETTING: Two government hospitals in Dubai, United Arab Emirates.
METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study. Consecutive adult HF patients who were admitted between December 2011 and November 2012 to the cardiology units were included in this study. The circumstances of their admission were analysed.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ADRs-related admissions of HF patients to cardiology units were identified and further assessed for their nature, causality, and preventability.
RESULTS: Of 511 admissions, 34 were due to ADR-related hospitalisation (6.65, 95 % confidence interval 4.8-8.5 %). Number of medications taken by HF patients was the only predictors of ADR-related hospitalisations, where higher number of medications was associated with the odd ratio of 1.11 (95 % CI, 1.03-1.20, P = 0.005). More than one-third of ADR-related hospitalisations (35 %) were preventable The most frequent drugs causing ADR-related hospitalisation were diuretics (32 %), followed by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (15 %), thiazolidinediones (9 %), anticoagulants (9 %), antiplatelets (6 %), and aldosterone blockers (6 %).
CONCLUSION: ADR-related hospitalisations account for 6.7 % of admissions of HF patients to cardiac units, one-third of which are preventable. Number of medications taken by HF patients is the only predictors of ADR-related hospitalisations. Diuretic induced volume depletion, and sodium and water retention caused by thiazolidinediones and NSAIDs medications are the major causes of ADR-related hospitalisations of HF patients.