Knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance patterns of bacteria is a valuable guide to empirical antimicrobial therapy. This paper reports the resistance patterns of more than 36,000 bacteria isolated between August 1991 and July 1992 in six Malaysian hospitals and discusses the implications of the results. A customized menu driven software programme was developed to analyse the results. Generally, resistance to the commonly used antibiotics like ampicillin, cloxacillin, cephalosporins, gentamicin, cotrimoxazole and tetracycline was high. Some differences in resistance rate amongst the six hospitals were also noted. Continuous surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in hospitals is encouraged for the effective control of the emergence of antimicrobial resistance.
INTRODUCTION: Maternal mortality and morbidity from eclampsia continues to be seen around the globe. Local Key Performance Index on recurrence of eclamptic fits did not meet targets, thus this raised the issue whether the care provided adhered to the standard management for eclampsia.
METHODS: This clinical audit was conducted to assess and improve the quality of the service being offered to patient, particularly in managing eclampsia cases. It was conducted according to the audit cycle. It begins with the development of 12 standardized criteria for eclampsia management. First audit was conducted by retrospectively reviewing eclampsia cases from year 2008 till 2012. Strategies for changes were formulated and implemented following the results of the first audit. Second audit was conducted six months after the changes.
RESULTS: The overall incidence rate of eclampsia was 9.17 per 10,000 deliveries. A first seizure occurred during the antepartum period in 52.9% of cases (n=27), intrapartum in 24% (n=11) and postpartum in 21% of cases (n=13). Suboptimal care was mainly on delay of activation of Red Alert system and no treatment for uncontrolled blood pressure. Several strategies were implemented, mainly on improving working knowledge of the staffs and reengineering hospital Red Alert system. Positive achievements observed during the second audit, shown by a reduction in the number of patients with recurrence eclamptic fits and perinatal mortality rate.
CONCLUSION: Conducting an audit is essential to evaluate local performance against the standardized criteria. Improvement can be achieved with inexpensive solutions and attainable within a short period of time.
Study site: Sultan Abdul Halim Hospital, Sungai Petani, Kedah, Malaysia
Objectives: To assess the feasibility of a computer-based Standard Gamble (SG) visual prop whilst measuring utilities of different asthma health states at the same time.
Methods: Twenty adult asthma patients literate in either Malay or English language were conveniently sampled from a public hospital in Penang, Malaysia. They were interviewed by two trained interviewers using a bilingual script. Each patient was requested to value the given health states using Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) prior to SG exercise. There were three chronic health states (C1-C3) for 10 years, three temporary states (T1-T3) for 3 months, and two anchor states (healthy and dead). During the SG exercise, the visual prop was fully operated by the interviewers. The probability of being in a worse state was changed in a ‘ping-pong’ fashion until the indifference point was reached.
Results: All patients understood the SG exercise and rated SG easier than VAS. Around 85% (n=17) completed SG within 30 minutes. There was 90% (n=18) who ranked T3 as the worst temporary health state during VAS. Two patients provided logical inconsistency data in SG. The preferences by SG were higher than VAS. Preferences were also higher in temporary states measured by chained SG than other states by conventional SG. The mean utilities for C1=0.56 (SD 0.38), C2=0.47 (SD 0.33), C3=0.53 (SD 0.38), T1=0.65 (SD 0.31), T2=0.53 (SD 0.35), and T3=0.38 (SD 0.38).
Conclusions: The SG methods including the props are feasible for utilities measurement in asthma, based on the agreements achieved with other studies on the pattern of utilities measured in this preliminary study.
PURPOSE: Extravasation with intravenous chemotherapy is a common complication of chemotherapy which carries the risk of devastating complications. This study aims to determine the rate of extravasation with intravenous chemotherapy in a major hospital where chemotherapy is delivered in various departments other than the oncology department.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients who underwent intravenous chemotherapy in the oncology department and surgical wards in Penang General hospital from 1st February 2008 till 31st June 2008 were recruited retrospectively for this study to look at the rate of extravasation.
RESULTS: A total of 602 patients underwent intravenous chemotherapy during this period. Fifty patients received chemotherapy in the general surgical ward while another 552 patients received chemotherapy in the oncology department. There were 5 cases of extravasation giving an overall extravasation rate of 0.8% (5/602). however, 4 of these cases occurred in the general surgical ward giving it a rate of 8% (4/50).
CONCLUSION: The rate of extravasation in our hospital was 0.8%. however, this rate can be significantly increased if it is not done under a specialized unit delivering intravenous chemotherapy on a regular basis. Preventive steps including a standard chemotherapy delivery protocol, staff and patient education must be put in place in all units delivering intravenous chemotherapy.
OBJECTIVE: Various techniques and instruments have been developed to provide safe and secure closure of laparoscopic wounds. Herein we describe a simple method to close laparoscopic supraumbilical wounds with the aid of a laparoscopic port.
METHOD: This was a retrospective review of prospective data, which were from 151 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstone disease from December 2009 to December 2010 in Sultanah Bahiyah Hospital. A senior consultant hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) surgeon and two HPB trainee surgeons performed the operations. Postoperatively, all patients were followed up at 4 weeks.
RESULTS: All patients successfully underwent closure of the supraumbilical wound with the assistance of a 5mm laparoscopic port. None of the patients had incisional hernia on follow up.
CONCLUSION: Port assisted closure of supraumbilical laparoscopic wounds is a feasible and safe technique.
Study site: Sultanah Bahiyah Hospital, Kedah
We report a case of a diabetic patient with an infected leg wound leading to septicemia and abscess formation in the contra-lateral leg due to Streptococcus canis. This organism belongs to the Lancefield group G and is more commonly found in dogs. It is often mistaken for Streptococcus dysgalactiae which is a human strain of streptococci. Infections in humans are not common and usually involve infected wounds or ulcers and the surrounding soft tissue. In most reported cases, patients had close contact with domestic dogs and a pre-existing wound as a portal of entry. Our patient recovered after surgical debridement and drainage of abscess together with antibiotics. This organism is sensitive to common antibiotics like penicillin, amoxycillin, cephalosporins and erythromycin. The incidence of infections due to Streptococcus canis may be under-reported as laboratories may just report an isolate as group G streptococcus. Susceptible patients with wounds or ulcers should be counselled on proper wound care and advised to avoid or minimise contact with the family dog.
Study site: Hospital Raja Permaisuri Bainun, Ipoh, Perak
Orbital compartment syndrome (OCS) is a visual threatening ocular emergency. We report a 50-year-old male with acute presentation of OCS, a rare manifestation of idiopathic orbital inflammatory disease. At presentation, high intraocular pressure was reduced by prompt lateral canthotomy and cantholysis. The disease responded to systemic steroids and treatment resulted in good visual outcome. Detail evaluation and early detection and treatment are mandatory to prevent permanent vision loss.
Keywords: Sarawak General Hospital
Endocrinologists and other clinicians who provide care to diabetic patients have ideal teaching opportunities to connect and deliver tobacco cessation interventions in diabetes care. This study aimed to develop, validate and measure the reliability of a new tool that would be used to evaluate physicians’ attitudes and practices regarding tobacco cessation counselling in patients with diabetes, as well as barriers to deliver tobacco cessation counselling in their clinics.
This study was conducted from March till December 2012 in the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. A standardised, 22-item, self-administered questionnaire was developed to determine (i) physicians’ attitudes and practices regarding tobacco cessation counselling in patients with diabetes, and (ii) barriers in delivering tobacco cessation counselling in their clinics. Face and content validity were assessed. Six pharmacists, whom were faculty members with experience and expertise in research and in the development of surveys, reviewed the questionnaire to assess its content validity.Reliability test was run along to check whether the new tool questions are correlated with one another adequatly or no.
Reliability test for the tool was pretested on a sample of 25 physicians physicians who ran the endocrine clinic at Hospital Pulau Pinang, Malaysia. Reliability analyses for the attitude domain and practice domain were 0.710 and 0.720, respectively.
The questionnaire was valid and reliable to be use for the evaluation of physician’s barriers, attitude and practice regarding tobacco cessation counselling in the diabetics clinics.
INTRODUCTION: T-piece resuscitator (TPR) has many advantages compared to self-inflating bag (SIB). Early Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) during newborn resuscitation (NR) with TPR at delivery can reduce intubation rate.
METHODS: We speculated that the intubation rate at delivery room was high because SIB had always been used during NR and this can be improved with TPR. Intubation rate of newborn <24 hours of life was deemed high if >50%. An audit was carried out in June 2010 to verify this problem using a check sheet.
RESULTS: 25 neonates without major congenital anomalies who required NR with SIB at delivery were included. Intubation rate of babies <24 hours of life when SIB was used was 68%. Post-intervention audit (August to November 2010) on 25 newborns showed that the intubation rate within 24 hours dropped to 8% when TPR was used. Proportion of intubated babies reduced from 48.3% (2008-2009) to 35.1% (2011-2012), odds ratio 0.58 (95% CI 0.49-0.68). Proportion of neonates on CPAP increased from 63.5% (2008-2009) to 81.0% (2011-2012), odds ratio 2.44 (95% CI 2.03-2.93). Mean ventilation days fell to below 4 days after 2010. Since then, all delivery standbys were accompanied by TPR and it was used for all NR regardless of settings. There was decline in intubation rate secondary to early provision of CPAP with TPR during NR. Mean ventilation days, mortality and length of NICU stay were reduced.
CONCLUSION: This practice should be adopted by all hospitals in the country to achieve Millennium Development Goal 4 (2/3 decline of under 5 mortality rate) by 2015.
Study site: Hospital Tuanku Jaafar, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia
58 cases of sputum smear negative pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) were reported to Kinta Health Department between January and June 2011. It was found that 47 cases (81%) were sputum smear negative cases. Six cases (10.3%) were actually sputum smear positive but were wrongly reported as smear negative. Five cases (8.6%) were misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. Majority of these patients (82.7%) sought consultation and treatment after two weeks of having cough. Only 6.9% sought treatment for cough that was less than two weeks old. Accurate diagnosis of PTB is crucial and the Perak State Health Department needs to quickly adopt steps to improve the situation.