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  1. Kua CH, Mak VSL, Huey Lee SW
    J Am Med Dir Assoc, 2019 03;20(3):362-372.e11.
    PMID: 30581126 DOI: 10.1016/j.jamda.2018.10.026
    OBJECTIVES: Deprescribing is effective in addressing concerns relating to polypharmacy in residents of nursing homes. However, the clinical outcomes of deprescribing interventions among residents in nursing homes are not well understood. We evaluated the impact of deprescribing interventions by health care professionals on clinical outcomes among the older residents in nursing homes.

    DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. CINAHL, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library were searched from inception until September 2017; manual searches of reference lists of systematic reviews identified in the electronic search; and online trial registries for unpublished, ongoing, or planned trials. (PROSPERO CRD42016050028).

    SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Randomized controlled trials in a nursing home setting that included participants of at least 60 years of age.

    MEASURES: Falls, all-cause mortality, hospitalization, and potentially inappropriate medication were assessed in the meta-analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 41 randomized clinical studies (18,408 residents) that examined deprescribing (defined as either medication discontinuation, substitution, or reduction) in nursing were identified. Deprescribing interventions significantly reduced the number of residents with potentially inappropriate medications by 59% (odds ratio [OR] 0.41, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.89). In subgroup analysis, medication review-directed deprescribing interventions reduced all-cause mortality by 26% (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.65-0.84), as well as the number of fallers by 24% (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.62-0.93).

    CONCLUSIONS: Compared to other deprescribing interventions, medication review-directed deprescribing had significant benefits on older residents in nursing homes. Further research is required to elicit other clinical benefits of medication review-directed deprescribing practice.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control*
  2. Lee FY, Chan HK, Wong HS
    Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf, 2019 05;28(5):760-761.
    PMID: 30919516 DOI: 10.1002/pds.4780
    Matched MeSH terms: Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control*
  3. Haseeb A, Winit-Watjana W, Bakhsh AR, Elrggal ME, Hadi MA, Mously AA, et al.
    BMJ Open, 2016 06 16;6(6):e011401.
    PMID: 27311911 DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2016-011401
    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of a pharmacist-led educational intervention to reduce the use of high-risk abbreviations (HRAs) by healthcare professionals.

    DESIGN: Quasi-experimental study consisting of a single group before-and-after study design.

    SETTING: A public emergency hospital in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

    PARTICIPANTS: 660 (preintervention) and then 498 (postintervention) handwritten physician orders, medication administration records (MRAs) and pharmacy dispensing sheets of 482 and 388 patients, respectively, from emergency wards, inpatient settings and the pharmacy department were reviewed.

    INTERVENTION: The intervention consisted of a series of interactive lectures delivered by an experienced clinical pharmacist to all hospital staff members and dissemination of educational tools (flash cards, printed list of HRAs, awareness posters) designed in line with the recommendations of the Institute for Safe Medical Practices and the US Food and Drug Administration. The duration of intervention was from April to May 2011.

    MAIN OUTCOME: Reduction in the incidence of HRAs use from the preintervention to postintervention study period.

    FINDINGS: The five most common abbreviations recorded prior to the interventions were 'IJ for injection' (28.6%), 'SC for subcutaneous' (17.4%), drug name and dose running together (9.7%), 'OD for once daily' (5.8%) and 'D/C for discharge' (4.3%). The incidence of the use of HRAs was highest in discharge prescriptions and dispensing records (72.7%) followed by prescriptions from in-patient wards (47.3%). After the intervention, the overall incidence of HRA was significantly reduced by 52% (ie, 53.6% vs 25.5%; p=0.001). In addition, there was a statistically significant reduction in the incidence of HRAs across all three settings: the pharmacy department (72.7% vs 39.3%), inpatient settings (47.3% vs 23.3%) and emergency wards (40.9% vs 10.7%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist-led educational interventions can significantly reduce the use of HRAs by healthcare providers. Future research should investigate the long-term effectiveness of such educational interventions through a randomised controlled trial.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control*
  4. Abubakar U, Syed Sulaiman SA, Adesiyun AG
    Int J Clin Pharm, 2018 Oct;40(5):1037-1043.
    PMID: 30054786 DOI: 10.1007/s11096-018-0702-0
    Background Audit of antibiotic prophylaxis is an important strategy used to identify areas where stewardship interventions are required. Objectives To evaluate compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis in obstetrics and gynaecology surgeries and determine the Defined Daily Dose (DDD) of antibiotic. Settings Three public tertiary hospitals located in Northern Nigeria. Methods This prospective study included women who had obstetrics and gynaecology surgeries with no infection at the time of incision. Appropriateness of antibiotic prophylaxis was determined by a clinical pharmacist. DDD of antibiotics was determined using ATC/DDD index 2017 from the World Health Organization Collaborating Centre for Drugs Statistics Methodology. Main outcome measure Compliance with antibiotic prophylaxis and DDD of antibiotic per procedure. Results A total of 248 procedures were included (mean age: 31.7 ± 7.9 years). Nitroimidazole in combination with either beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor or third generation cephalosporin were the most prescribed antibiotics. Redundant anaerobic antibiotic combination was detected in 71.4% of the procedures. Timing of antibiotic prophylaxis was optimal in 16.5% while duration of prophylaxis was prolonged in all the procedures (mean duration was 8.7 ± 1.0 days). The DDD of antibiotics prophylaxis was 16.75 DDD/procedure. Antibiotic utilisation was higher in caesarean section and myomectomy (17.9 DDD/procedure) than hysterectomy (14.5 DDD/procedure); P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control*
  5. Saleem Z, Saeed H, Hassali MA, Godman B, Asif U, Yousaf M, et al.
    PMID: 31768252 DOI: 10.1186/s13756-019-0649-5
    Background: The inappropriate use of antibiotics in hospitals increases resistance, morbidity, and mortality. Little is currently known about appropriate antibiotic use among hospitals in Lahore, the capital city of Pakistan.

    Methods: Longitudinal surveillance was conducted over a period of 2 months among hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. Antibiotic treatment was considered inappropriate on the basis of a wrong dosage regimen, wrong indication, or both based on the British National Formulary.

    Results: A total of 2022 antibiotics were given to 1185 patients. Out of the total prescribed, approximately two-thirds of the study population (70.3%) had at least one inappropriate antimicrobial. Overall, 27.2% of patients had respiratory tract infections, and out of these, 62.8% were considered as having inappropriate therapy. Cephalosporins were extensively prescribed among patients, and in many cases, this was inappropriate (67.2%). Penicillins were given to 283 patients, out of which 201 (71.0%) were prescribed for either the wrong indication or dosage or both. Significant variations were also observed regarding inappropriate prescribing for several antimicrobials including the carbapenems (70.9%), aminoglycosides (35.8%), fluoroquinolones (64.2%), macrolides (74.6%) and other antibacterials (73.1%).

    Conclusion: Educational interventions, institutional guidelines, and antimicrobial stewardship programs need to be developed to enhance future appropriate antimicrobial use in hospitals in Pakistan. Policies by healthcare and Government officials are also needed to minimize inappropriate antibiotic use.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control
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