OBJECTIVE: To assess and characterize the prevalence of Potentially Inappropriate Medications (PIMs) in nursing home care in Malaysia as defined by Screening Tool of Older Peoples Prescriptions (STOPP) and Beers criteria.
SETTING: Four Nursing Homes situated in Penang, Malaysia.
METHODS: A multicenter and cross-sectional study was conducted over 2 months period at four large non-governmental organizations nursing homes in Penang, Malaysia. The study population included older residents (≥65 years old) taking at least one medication. Residents who had been diagnosed with dementia or taking anti dementia drugs, delirium, too frail or refused to give consent were excluded. Demographic, clinical data and concurrent medications were collected through direct interview and also by reviewing medical records. STOPP and Beers criteria were applied in the medical review to screen for PIMs.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Potentially Inappropriate Medication using STOPP and Beers criteria.
RESULTS: Two hundred eleven residents were included in the study with the median age of 77 (inter quartile range (IQR) 72-82) years. Median number of prescription medicines was 4 (IQR 1-14). STOPP identified less residents (50 residents, 23.7 %) being prescribed on PIMs compared with Beers criteria (69 residents, 32.7 %) (p < 0.001). There was a significant difference in the number of residents with PIMs detected by STOPP (23.7 %) and by Beers criteria (32.7 %), p < 0.001. The common identified PIMs by Beers criteria included nifedipine short acting, chlorpheniramine and diphenhydramine. The STOPP identified first generation antihistamines, duplication of drug classes, glibenclamide and anticholinergic agents. Higher number of medications (OR = 1.405 [1.193-1.654]; OR = 1.447 [1.215-1.723]) and longer stay at nursing home (OR = 1.132 [1.045-1.226]; OR = 1.133 [1.034-1.241]) were identified as predictors for both Beers and STOPP PIMs.
CONCLUSION: Potentially inappropriate medications are highly prevalent among older residents living in the nursing homes and are associated with number of medications and longer nursing home stay. Further research is warranted to study the impact of PIMs towards health related outcomes in these elderly.
METHODS: We prospectively studied older patients (n = 301) admitted to three urban, public-funded hospitals. We scrutinized their medical records and used STOPP-START (Screening Tool to Alert Prescribers to Right Treatment) criteria to determine PIM and potential prescribing omissions (PPO) respectively- together these constitute IP. Prescriptions with PIM(s) were subjected to a pharmacist medication review, aimed at detecting cases of ADE(s). The vetted cases were further assessed by an expert consensus panel to ascertain: i) causality between the ADE and hospitalization, using, the World Health Organization Uppsala Monitoring Centre criteria, and, ii) whether the ADEs were avoidable (using Hallas criteria). Finally, percentages of PIM-associated ADEs that were both preventable and linked to hospitalization were calculated.
RESULTS: IP prevalence was 58.5% (n = 176). A majority (49.5%, n = 150) had moderate to severe degree of comorbidities (Charlson Comorbidity Index score ≥ 3). Median age was 72 years. Median number of medications was 6 and 30.9% (n = 93) had ≥8 medications. PIM prevalence was 34.9% (117 PIMs, n = 105) and PPO 37.9% (191 PPOs, n = 114). Most PIMs and PPOs involved overuse of aspirin and underuse of both antiplatelets and statins respectively. With every increase in the number of medications prescribed, the likelihood of PIM occurrence increased by 20%, i.e.1.2 fold (OR 1.20, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3). Among the 105 patients with PIMs, 33 ADEs (n = 33); 31 ADEs (n = 31) considered "causal" or "contributory" to hospitalization; 27 ADEs (n = 27) deemed "avoidable" or "potentially avoidable"; and 25 PIM-associated ADEs, preventable, and that induced hospitalization (n = 25), were identified: these equated to prevalence of 31.4%, 29.5%, 25.7%, and 23.8% respectively. The most common ADEs were masked hypoglycemia and gastrointestinal bleed. With every additional PIM prescribed, the odds for ADE occurrence increased by 12 folds (OR 11.8, 95% CI 5.20-25.3).
CONCLUSION: The majority of the older patients who were admitted to secondary care for acute illnesses were potentially exposed to IP. Approximately a quarter of the patients were prescribed with PIMs, which were plausibly linked with preventable ADEs that directly caused or contributed to hospitalization.
Methods: Longitudinal surveillance was conducted over a period of 2 months among hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. Antibiotic treatment was considered inappropriate on the basis of a wrong dosage regimen, wrong indication, or both based on the British National Formulary.
Results: A total of 2022 antibiotics were given to 1185 patients. Out of the total prescribed, approximately two-thirds of the study population (70.3%) had at least one inappropriate antimicrobial. Overall, 27.2% of patients had respiratory tract infections, and out of these, 62.8% were considered as having inappropriate therapy. Cephalosporins were extensively prescribed among patients, and in many cases, this was inappropriate (67.2%). Penicillins were given to 283 patients, out of which 201 (71.0%) were prescribed for either the wrong indication or dosage or both. Significant variations were also observed regarding inappropriate prescribing for several antimicrobials including the carbapenems (70.9%), aminoglycosides (35.8%), fluoroquinolones (64.2%), macrolides (74.6%) and other antibacterials (73.1%).
Conclusion: Educational interventions, institutional guidelines, and antimicrobial stewardship programs need to be developed to enhance future appropriate antimicrobial use in hospitals in Pakistan. Policies by healthcare and Government officials are also needed to minimize inappropriate antibiotic use.
METHOD: Assessment of utilization (items dispensed) and expenditure of key LLAs (mainly statins) between 2001 and 2015 in Scotland alongside initiatives.
RESULTS: Multiple interventions over the years have increased international nonproprietary name prescribing (99% for statins) and preferential prescribing of generic versus patented statins, and reduced inappropriate prescribing of ezetimibe. This resulted in a 50% reduction in expenditure of LLAs between 2001 and 2015 despite a 412% increase in utilization, increased prescribing of higher dose statins (71% in 2015) especially atorvastatin following generic availability, and reduced prescribing of ezetimibe (reduced by 72% between 2010 and 2015). As a result, the quality of prescribing has improved.
CONCLUSION: Generic availability coupled with multiple measures has resulted in appreciable shifts in statin prescribing behavior and reduced ezetimibe prescribing, resulting in improvements in both the quality and efficiency of prescribing.