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  1. Paton NI, Borand L, Benedicto J, Kyi MM, Mahmud AM, Norazmi MN, et al.
    Int J Infect Dis, 2019 Oct;87:21-29.
    PMID: 31301458 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.07.004
    Asia has the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI) in the world. Optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of LTBI is one of the key strategies for achieving the WHO 'End TB' targets. We report the discussions from the Asia Latent TubERculosis (ALTER) expert panel meeting held in 2018 in Singapore. In this meeting, a group of 13 TB experts from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam convened to review the literature, discuss the barriers and propose strategies to improve the management of LTBI in Asia. Strategies for the optimization of risk group prioritization, diagnosis, treatment, and research of LTBI are reported. The perspectives presented herein, may help national programs and professional societies of the respective countries enhance the adoption of the WHO guidelines, scale-up the implementation of national guidelines based on the regional needs, and provide optimal guidance to clinicians for the programmatic management of LTBI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology
  2. Al-Darraji HA, Tan C, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Occup Environ Med, 2015 Jun;72(6):442-7.
    PMID: 25794506 DOI: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102695
    OBJECTIVES: Although prison employees share the same tuberculosis (TB) risk environment with prisoners, the magnitude of TB problems among prison employees is unknown in most resource-limited prisons. This survey was conducted to investigate the prevalence and correlates of tuberculin skin test (TST) positivity among employees in Malaysia's largest prison.

    METHODS: Consented, full-time prison employees were interviewed using a structured questionnaire that included sociodemographic data, history of working in the correctional system and TB-related risk. TST was placed intradermally and read after 48-72 h. Induration size of ≥10 mm was considered positive. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore associations with TST positivity.

    RESULTS: Of the 445 recruited prison employees, 420 (94.4%) had complete data. Most were young (median=30.0 years) men (88.8%) who had only worked at this prison (76.4%) for a median total employment period of 60 months (IQR 34.5-132.0). The majority were correctional officers, while civilian employees represented only 7.6% of the sample. Only 26 (6.2%) reported having ever been screened for TB since employment. Prevalence of TST positivity was 81% and was independently associated with longer (≥12 months) prison employment (AOR 4.9; 95% CI 1.5 to 15.9) and current tobacco smoking (AOR=1.9, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.2).

    CONCLUSIONS: Latent TB prevalence was high in this sample, approximating that of prisoners in this setting, perhaps suggesting within prison TB transmission in this facility. Formal TB control programmes for personnel and prisoners alike are urgently needed within the Malaysian correctional system.

    Matched MeSH terms: Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology*
  3. Swarna Nantha Y, Puri A, Mohamad Ali SZ, Suppiah P, Che Ali SA, Ramasamy B, et al.
    Fam Pract, 2017 09 01;34(5):532-538.
    PMID: 28369346 DOI: 10.1093/fampra/cmx017
    Background: Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) are at a greater risk of tuberculosis (TB) reactivation. There is a paucity of information about the risk factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in patients with diabetes.

    Objective: We conducted an observational study to compare the prevalence and risk factors associated with LTBI factors in Malaysian adults with and without DM.

    Methods: Four hundred and four patients with DM and 359 patients with non-DM at a regional primary care clinic were recruited as participants in this case-control study. The tuberculin sensitivity test (TST) was performed. The presence of LTBI was defined by a TST value of 10 mm in DM patients and 10 mm in the non-DM group. A logistic regression model was used to identify variables associated with LTBI.

    Results: There was no statistical significant difference in the prevalence rates seen between the DM and non-DM group of the study. LTBI prevalence among patients with DM was 28.5%. The proportion of patients in the non-DM group with LTBI was 29.2%. When a critical cut-off of 8 mm was used, the adjusted odds ratio of LTBI in DM patients was 1.88 (95% confidence interval: 1.22-2.82). Smoking was an independent risk factor for LTBI regardless of DM status. HbA1c levels or anthropometric measurements were not associated with LTBI in diabetic patients.

    Conclusions: There is no significant risk of contracting LTBI in DM patients using the standard 10-mm TST cut-off. Nonetheless, using lower cut-offs in a DM population appear valid. Smoking is an important predictor of LTBI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology*
  4. Al-Darraji HA, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    BMC Public Health, 2014 Jan 10;14:22.
    PMID: 24405607 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-22
    Prisons continue to fuel tuberculosis (TB) epidemics particularly in settings where access to TB screening and prevention services is limited. Malaysia is a middle-income country with a relatively high incarceration rate of 138 per 100,000 population. Despite national TB incidence rate remaining unchanged over the past ten years, data about TB in prisons and its contribution to the overall national rates does not exist. This survey was conducted to address the prevalence of latent TB infection (LTBI) in Malaysia's largest prison.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology*
  5. Margolis B, Al-Darraji HA, Wickersham JA, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis., 2013 Dec;17(12):1538-44.
    PMID: 24200265 DOI: 10.5588/ijtld.13.0193
    There are currently no routine screening procedures for active tuberculosis (TB) or latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) in Malaysian prisons.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology*
  6. Morano JP, Zelenev A, Walton MR, Bruce RD, Altice FL
    Am J Public Health, 2014 Aug;104(8):1508-15.
    PMID: 24922157 DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.301897
    OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the efficacy of a mobile medical clinic (MMC) screening program for detecting latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) and active tuberculosis.
    METHODS: A LTBI screening program in a MMC in New Haven, Connecticut, used medical surveys to examine risk factors and tuberculin skin test (TST) screening eligibility. We assessed clinically relevant correlates of total (prevalent; n = 4650) and newly diagnosed (incident; n = 4159) LTBI from 2003 to 2011.
    RESULTS: Among 8322 individuals, 4159 (55.6%) met TST screening eligibility criteria, of which 1325 (31.9%) had TST assessed. Similar to LTBI prevalence (16.8%; 779 of 4650), newly diagnosed LTBI (25.6%; 339 of 1325) was independently correlated with being foreign-born (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 8.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.54, 13.02), Hispanic (AOR = 3.12; 95% CI = 1.88, 5.20), Black (AOR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.31, 3.55), employed (AOR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.14, 2.28), and of increased age (AOR = 1.04; 95% CI = 1.02, 1.05). Unstable housing (AOR = 4.95; 95% CI = 3.43, 7.14) and marijuana use (AOR = 1.57; 95% CI = 1.05, 2.37) were significantly correlated with incident LTBI, and being male, heroin use, interpersonal violence, employment, not having health insurance, and not completing high school were significantly correlated with prevalent LTBI.
    CONCLUSIONS: Screening for TST in MMCs successfully identifies high-risk foreign-born, Hispanic, working, and uninsured populations and innovatively identifies LTBI in urban settings.
    Study site: Mobile clinic, New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    Matched MeSH terms: Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology
  7. Al-Darraji HA, Wong KC, Yeow DG, Fu JJ, Loeliger K, Paiji C, et al.
    J Subst Abuse Treat, 2014 Feb;46(2):144-9.
    PMID: 24074846 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2013.08.023
    People who use drugs (PWUD) represent a key high risk group for tuberculosis (TB). The prevalence of both latent TB infection (LTBI) and active disease in drug treatment centers in Malaysia is unknown. A cross-sectional convenience survey was conducted to assess the prevalence and correlates of LTBI among attendees at a recently created voluntary drug treatment center using a standardized questionnaire and tuberculin skin testing (TST). Participants (N=196) were mostly men (95%), under 40 (median age=36 years) and reported heroin use immediately before treatment entry (75%). Positive TST prevalence was 86.7%. Nine (4.6%) participants were HIV-infected. Previous arrest/incarcerations (AOR=1.1 for every entry, p<0.05) and not being HIV-infected (AOR=6.04, p=0.03) were significantly associated with TST positivity. There is an urgent need to establish TB screening and treatment programs in substance abuse treatment centers and to tailor service delivery to the complex treatment needs of patients with multiple medical and psychiatric co-morbidities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology
  8. Rafiza S, Rampal KG, Tahir A
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2011;11:19.
    PMID: 21244645 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-19
    BACKGROUND: Health care workers are exposed to patients with tuberculosis and are at risk of nosocomial infection. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers in Malaysia and also to evaluate the agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test with Tuberculin Skin Test.
    METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted at four randomly selected hospitals in the Klang Valley from December 2008 to May 2009. Self administered questionnaire was used to obtain information on health care workers and possible risk factors. The response rate for this study was 90.8% with 954 respondents completed the questionnaire and were tested with Quantiferon TB Gold in tube for latent tuberculosis infection. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube and Tuberculin Skin Test was assessed among 95 health care workers who consented to undergo both tests.
    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection among health care workers was 10.6% (CI: 8.6%; 12.6%). Factors significantly associated with latent tuberculosis infection were aged 35 years and older [9.49 (CI: 2.22; 40.50)], history of living in the same house with close family members or friends who had active tuberculosis [8.69 (CI: 3.00; 25.18)], worked as a nurse [4.65 (CI: 1.10; 19.65)] and being male [3.70 (CI: 1.36; 10.02)]. Agreement between Quantiferon TB Gold in tube test and tuberculin skin test at cut-off points of 10 mm and 15 mm was 50.5% and 82.1% respectively. However, Kappa-agreement was poor for both cut-off points.
    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection in Malaysia was relatively low for an intermediate TB burden country. We could not comment on the occupational risk of latent tuberculosis infection among health care worker compared to the general population as there were no prevalence data available for latent tuberculosis infection in the general population. Kappa agreement between Quantiferon TB gold in-tube and tuberculin skin test was poor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology*
  9. Nathavitharana RR, Bond P, Dramowski A, Kotze K, Lederer P, Oxley I, et al.
    Presse Med, 2017 Mar;46(2 Pt 2):e53-e62.
    PMID: 28256382 DOI: 10.1016/j.lpm.2017.01.014
    Healthcare workers (HCWs) play a central role in global tuberculosis (TB) elimination efforts but their contributions are undermined by occupational TB. HCWs have higher rates of latent and active TB than the general population due to persistent occupational TB exposure, particularly in settings where there is a high prevalence of undiagnosed TB in healthcare facilities and TB infection control (TB-IC) programmes are absent or poorly implemented. Occupational health programmes in high TB burden settings are often weak or non-existent and thus data that record the extent of the increased risk of occupational TB globally are scarce. HCWs represent a limited resource in high TB burden settings and occupational TB can lead to workforce attrition. Stigma plays a role in delayed diagnosis, poor treatment outcomes and impaired well-being in HCWs who develop TB. Ensuring the prioritization and implementation of TB-IC interventions and occupational health programmes, which include robust monitoring and evaluation, is critical to reduce nosocomial TB transmission to patients and HCWs. The provision of preventive therapy for HCWs with latent TB infection (LTBI) can also prevent progression to active TB. Unlike other patient groups, HCWs are in a unique position to serve as agents of change to raise awareness, advocate for necessary resource allocation and implement TB-IC interventions, with appropriate support from dedicated TB-IC officers at the facility and national TB programme level. Students and community health workers (CHWs) must be engaged and involved in these efforts. Nosocomial TB transmission is an urgent public health problem and adopting rights-based approaches can be helpful. However, these efforts cannot succeed without increased political will, supportive legal frameworks and financial investments to support HCWs in efforts to decrease TB transmission.
    Matched MeSH terms: Latent Tuberculosis/epidemiology
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