The effect of Artocarpus integer lectin (lectin C) on the functional activity of guinea-pig complement was investigated. Purified and crude extract of lectin C from six cultivars of Artocarpus integer seeds were found to consume complement and thus decreased the complement-induced haemolytic activity of sensitized sheep erythrocytes. The change in the complement-mediated haemolytic activity was significantly decreased when incubation of the lectins was performed in the presence of melibiose. The reversal effect of the carbohydrate, which is a potent inhibitor of the lectin's binding to O-linked oligosaccharides of glycoprotein, demonstrate involvement of the lectins interaction with O-glycans of glycoproteins in the consumption of guinea-pig complement.
The growth and lectin production of Ganoderma applanatum, a white rot fungus, was optimized in broth cultures. The fungus was found to have a higher growth rate and higher lectin activity when grown in a medium adjusted to pH 6.5 at 26°C under stationary conditions. Expression of lectin activity started in 5-day-old mycelial culture; maximum activity was expressed after the 15th day of incubation. Among the various carbon and nitrogen sources tested, the carbon source sucrose and the nitrogen source yeast extract support maximum growth and lectin production. Lectin from G. applanatum was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and ion exchange chromatography. The purified fraction revealed a single band with a molecular weight of 35.0 kDa. Moreover, carbohydrates such as mannitol, glucose, sucrose, maltose, mannose, galactose, sorbose, and fructose were found to inhibit the hemagglutinating activity of the lectin. The purified lectins from G. applanatum contain cytotoxic and proapoptotic activities against HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells.
Endothelial cell injury caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Omentin, an adipocytokine that is abundantly expressed in visceral fat tissue, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic properties. However, endothelial protective effects of omentin against oxidative stress remain unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of omentin against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cell injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cytotoxicity and cytoprotective effects of omentin were evaluated using 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic activity of HUVECs was detected using Annexin-V/PI and Hoechst 33258 staining methods. Antioxidant activity of omentin was evaluated by measuring both reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. No cytotoxicity effect was observed in HUVECs treated with omentin alone at concentrations of 150 to 450 ng/ml. MTT assay showed that omentin significantly prevented the cell death induced by H2O2 (p < 0.001). Hoechst staining and flow cytometry also revealed that omentin markedly prevented H2O2-induced apoptosis. Moreover, omentin not only significantly inhibited ROS production (p < 0.01) but also significantly (p < 0.01) increased GPx activity in HUVECs. In conclusion, our data suggest that omentin may protect HUVECs from injury induced by H2O2.
A lectin gene from the Tiger Milk Mushroom Lignosus rhinocerus TM02® was successfully cloned and expressed via vector pET28a in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The recombinant lectin, Rhinocelectin, with a predicted molecular mass of 22.8 kDa, was overexpressed in water-soluble form without signal peptide and purified via native affinity chromatography Ni-NTA agarose. Blast protein analysis indicated the lectin to be homologous to jacalin-related plant lectin. In its native form, Rhinocelectin exists as a homo-tetramer predicted with four chains of identical proteins consisting of 11 beta-sheet structures with only one alpha-helix structure. The antiproliferative activity of the Rhinocelectin against human cancer cell lines was concentration dependent and selective. The IC50 values against triple negative breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231 and breast cancer MCF-7 are 36.52 ± 13.55 μg mL-1 and 53.11 ± 22.30 μg mL-1 , respectively. Rhinocelectin is only mildly cytotoxic against the corresponding human nontumorigenic breast cell line 184B5 with IC50 value at 142.19 ± 36.34 μg mL-1 . The IC50 against human lung cancer cell line A549 cells is 46.14 ± 7.42 μg mL-1 while against nontumorigenic lung cell line NL20 is 41.33 ± 7.43 μg mL-1 . The standard anticancer drug, Doxorubicin exhibited IC50 values mostly below 1 μg mL-1 for the cell lines tested. Flow cytometry analysis showed the treated breast cancer cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis induced. Rhinocelectin agglutinated rat and rabbit erythrocytes at a minimal concentration of 3.125 μg mL-1 and 6.250 μg mL-1 , respectively.
The effect of the mannose-binding champedak (Artocarpus integer) lectin-M on the cellular proliferation of murine lymphocytes was investigated in this study. Our data demonstrated that the lectin was the main mitogenic component in the crude extract of the champedak seeds. It stimulated the proliferation of murine T cells at an optimal concentration of 2.5 microg/ml in a 3 day culture. Lectin-M appeared to be a T-cell mitogen as it does not induce significant DNA synthesis when cultured with spleen cells from the nude mouse. In the absence of T cells, the lectin was incapable of inducing resting B cells to differentiate into immunoglobulin secreting plasma cells.
The natural coagulant Moringa oleifera lectin (MoL) as cationic protein is a promising candidate in coagulation process of water treatment plant. Introducing the gene encoding MoL into a host, Pichia pastoris, to secrete soluble recombinant protein is assessed in this study. Initial screening using PCR confirmed the insertion of MoL gene, and SDS-PAGE analysis detected the MoL protein at 8 kDa. Cultured optimization showed the highest MoL protein at 520 mg/L was observed at 28 °C for 144 h of culturing by induction in 1% methanol. Approximately, 0.40 mg/mL of recombinant MoL protein showed 95 ± 2% turbidity removal of 1% kaolin suspension. In 0.1% kaolin suspension, the concentration of MoL at 10 μg/mL exhibits the highest turbidity reduction at 68 ± 1%. Thus, recombinant MoL protein from P. pastoris is an effective coagulant for water treatment.
The objective of this study was to screen and identify α-amylase inhibitor peptides from Pinto bean. Five Pinto bean bioactive peptides were successfully identified: PPHMLP (P1), PLPWGAGF (P3), PPHMGGP (P6), PLPLHMLP (P7) and LSSLEMGSLGALFVCM (P9). Based on ELISA results, their promising optical density values were 1.27; 3.71, 1.67, 3.20 and 1.03, respectively, which indicated the binding interaction between the peptide and α-amylase occurred. The highest inhibitory activity (66.72%) of the chemically synthesized peptide was shown in SyP9 followed by SyP1 (48.86%), SyP3 (31.17%), SyP7 (27.88%) and SyP6 (23.96%). The IC50 values were 1.97, 8.96, 14.63, 18.45 and 20.56mgml(-1), respectively. Structure activity relationship study revealed that α-amylase was inhibited due to its residues of Ala230, Asp229, Asp326, Tyr54, Met195, Leu194 and His233 were bound. On the other hand, the residues of PBBP (i.e. histidine, proline and methionine) were found to have the highest potency in the binding interaction.
Lectins, carbohydrate-binding proteins, have been regarded as potential antiviral agents, as some can bind glycans on viral surface glycoproteins and inactivate their functions. However, clinical development of lectins has been stalled by the mitogenicity of many of these proteins, which is the ability to stimulate deleterious proliferation, especially of immune cells. We previously demonstrated that the mitogenic and antiviral activities of a lectin (banana lectin, BanLec) can be separated via a single amino acid mutation, histidine to threonine at position 84 (H84T), within the third Greek key. The resulting lectin, H84T BanLec, is virtually non-mitogenic but retains antiviral activity. Decreased mitogenicity was associated with disruption of pi-pi stacking between two aromatic amino acids. To examine whether we could provide further proof-of-principle of the ability to separate these two distinct lectin functions, we identified another lectin, Malaysian banana lectin (Malay BanLec), with similar structural features as BanLec, including pi-pi stacking, but with only 63% amino acid identity, and showed that it is both mitogenic and potently antiviral. We then engineered an F84T mutation expected to disrupt pi-pi stacking, analogous to H84T. As predicted, F84T Malay BanLec (F84T) was less mitogenic than wild type. However, F84T maintained strong antiviral activity and inhibited replication of HIV, Ebola, and other viruses. The F84T mutation disrupted pi-pi stacking without disrupting the overall lectin structure. These findings show that pi-pi stacking in the third Greek key is a conserved mitogenic motif in these two jacalin-related lectins BanLec and Malay BanLec, and further highlight the potential to rationally engineer antiviral lectins for therapeutic purposes.
The second most predominant cancer in the world and the first among women is breast cancer. We aimed to study the protein abundance profiles induced by lectin purified from the Agaricus bisporus mushroom (ABL) and conjugated with CaCO3NPs in the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques were used to reveal the protein abundance pattern induced by lectin. Flow cytometric analysis showed the accumulation of ABL-CaCO3NPs treated cells in the G1 phase than the positive control. Thirteen proteins were found different in their abundance in breast cancer cells after 24 h exposure to lectin conjugated with CaCO3NPs. Most of the identified proteins were showing a low abundance in ABL-CaCO3NPs treated cells in comparison to the positive and negative controls, including V-set and immunoglobulin domain, serum albumin, actin cytoplasmic 1, triosephosphate isomerase, tropomyosin alpha-4 chain, and endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP. Hornerin, tropomyosin alpha-1 chain, annexin A2, and protein disulfide-isomerase were up-regulated in comparison to the positive. Bioinformatic analyses revealed the regulation changes of these proteins mainly affected the pathways of 'Bcl-2-associated athanogene 2 signalling pathway', 'Unfolded protein response', 'Caveolar-mediated endocytosis signalling', 'Clathrin-mediated endocytosis signalling', 'Calcium signalling' and 'Sucrose degradation V', which are associated with breast cancer. We concluded that lectin altered the abundance in molecular chaperones/heat shock proteins, cytoskeletal, and metabolic proteins. Additionally, lectin induced a low abundance of MCF-7 cancer cell proteins in comparison to the positive and negative controls, including; V-set and immunoglobulin domain, serum albumin, actin cytoplasmic 1, triosephosphate isomerase, tropomyosin alpha-4 chain, and endoplasmic reticulum chaperone BiP.
COVID-19, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, has resulted in a massive global health crisis. Bioactive molecules extracted or synthesized using starting material obtained from marine species, including griffithsin, plitidepsin and fingolimod are in clinical trials to evaluate their anti-SARS-CoV-2 and anti-HIV efficacies. The current review highlights the anti-SARS-CoV-2 potential of marine-derived phytochemicals explored using in silico, in vitro and in vivo models. The current literature suggests that these molecules have the potential to bind with various key drug targets of SARS-CoV-2. In addition, many of these agents have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory potentials and thus could play a role in the attenuation of COVID-19 complications. Overall, these agents may play a role in the management of COVID-19, but further preclinical and clinical studies are still required to establish their role in the mitigation of the current viral pandemic.