Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 25 in total

  1. Tan HJ, Suganthi C, Dhachayani S, Rizal AM, Raymond AA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2007 Mar;62(1):56-8.
    PMID: 17682573 MyJurnal
    Migraine is associated with a variety of electroencephalographic (EEG) changes. Previous studies using analogue EEG and old diagnostic criteria may under or over report the prevalence of EEG changes in migraine. The objective of this study was to reevaluate the EEG changes in migraine patients diagnosed by applying the new International Classification of Headache Disorder -2 criteria. This was a case control study involving 70 migraine patients and 70 age and gender matched control who were subjected to scalp EEG. The EEG changes during hyperventilation (HV), which were significantly more common in the migraine group were theta activity (34 vs 22, p = 0.038) and frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) (10 vs 3, p = 0.042). Applying the new ICHD -2 diagnostic criteria and digital EEG, this study yielded previously unrecognized features including FIRDA during HV on EEG.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/classification; Migraine Disorders/diagnosis*
  2. Shaik MM, Tan HL, Kamal MA, Gan SH
    CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets, 2014;13(5):828-35.
    PMID: 24040787
    Migraine is a neurovascular disease that has classically been attributed to multifactorial aetiologies, with genetic components and environmental interactions considered the main influence. Genes such as flavoenzyme 5, 10- methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), especially the C677T variant, have been associated with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. This elevation in homocysteine results in an array of metabolic disorders and increased risk of complex diseases, including migraine. Catalysation of homocysteine requires the presence of vitamins B6, B12 and folate. Deficiencies in these cofactor vitamins result in hypomethylation, which triggers migraine. Because migraine predominantly affects females, it is hypothesised that fluctuating oestrogen levels, which are governed by oestrogen receptor 1 polymorphisms, are important. Another important factor is homocysteine, the production of which is dependent upon MTHFR and B vitamins. Gene expression is modulated through epigenetic mechanisms, which involve methionine. Additionally, folate plays a major role in DNA synthesis. We propose that vitamin B intake, coupled with MTHFR and oestrogen receptor 1 polymorphisms, causes differential DNA methylation and gene expression that may contribute to the occurrence of migraine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/etiology; Migraine Disorders/genetics*; Migraine Disorders/metabolism
  3. Tan HJ, Suganthi C, Dhachayani S, Rizal AM, Raymond AA
    Singapore Med J, 2007 Apr;48(4):307-10.
    PMID: 17384877
    Migraine is associated with a variety of personality traits. The objective of this study was to reevaluate the personality traits using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) in migraine patients diagnosed by applying the new International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 criteria.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/psychology*
  4. Kam CS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1980 Mar;34(3):221-5.
    PMID: 7412662
    This is a report of migraine from Malaysia. 17 migraineurs are studied with respect to age, sex, ethnic group, occupation, age of onset, length of disease,' precipitating factors, relieving factors and family history. Similarities and differences between Malaysians and Caucasians are discussed.
    Study site: Neurology clinic, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/etiology*
  5. Loh TG, Chawla JC
    Singapore Med J, 1972 Dec;13(6):298-304.
    PMID: 4657200
    Complicated migraine is not well known. It is associated with transient and protean sensory and motor
    nenrological features although disturbance of mood, affect and psyche has also been described.
    This paper is based on a study of ten patients suffering from complicated migraine and attempt is made
    to describe various neurological symptoms and signs.
    It becomes apparent from this study that there arc diverse manifestations of this interesting disorder.
    Furthermore complicated migraine seems to affect a younger age group and there may not be any
    family history of migraine. In most cases the nenrological symptoms precede the attacks of headaches.
    The nenrological deficit may persist after longer periods. Initially, the attacks arc usnally followed by
    complete recovery, with repeated attacks there may be residual neurological deficit. Though the exact
    aetiology of the migraine remains unknown, it has been suggested that it is due to spasm or oedema of
    cerebral vascular system. If the vessels involved are the carotid artery system, the symptoms and signs
    obviously would be due to involvement of cerebral hemisphere, whereas affection of basilar artery
    would produce signs and symptoms of cerebellar or brain stem deficiency.
    At times it may be extremely difficult to differentiate between a typical attack of migraine and headache
    due to an underlying pathology e.g. intracranial angioma or space occupying lesions, which may
    require investigations such as angiography. The angiography may prove fruitless and cause deterioration
    in neurological signs. A careful follow-up should be planned for cases with complicated migraine
    to exclude any underlying pathology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders*
  6. Tan CT
    Family Practitioner, 1982;5(3):61-62.
    A study of 50 healthy nurses from the University Hospital showed that 72% had chronic headache. Among those who had chronic headache, 33% were due to migraine. Another 30% were probable migraine subjects and 33% suffered from tension headache. Twenty two nurses had headache more than once a month and 18 nurses described the headache as moderate to severe. The common precipitating factors mentioned were tension, exposure to the sun, lack of sleep and menstruation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders
  7. Sathasivam S, Sathasivam S
    J Cardiol, 2013 Apr;61(4):256-9.
    PMID: 23484805 DOI: 10.1016/j.jjcc.2012.12.005
    There is conflicting evidence on the causal relationship of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in migraine. This review will examine the pathophysiological relevance of PFO in migraine, the epidemiological evidence of PFO causing migraine, and the existing evidence on the effectiveness of closure of PFO on the symptomatology of migraine. From the current available evidence, the role of PFO in migraine is debatable, and interventions such as closure of PFO cannot yet be considered routine treatment of migraine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/etiology*; Migraine Disorders/therapy
  8. Shaik MM, Gan SH
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:469529.
    PMID: 25815319 DOI: 10.1155/2015/469529
    Migraine is the most common form of headache disorder globally. The etiology of migraine is multifactorial, with genetic components and environmental interactions considered to be the main causal factors. Some researchers postulate that deficits in mitochondrial energy reserves can cause migraine or an increase in homocysteine levels can lead to migraine attacks; therefore, vitamins could play a vital role in migraine prevention. For instance, riboflavin influences mitochondrial dysfunction and prevents migraine. Genes such as flavoenzyme 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), especially the C677T variant, have been associated with elevated plasma levels of homocysteine and migraine with aura. Homocysteine catalyzation requires the presence of vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid, which can decrease the severity of migraine with aura, making these vitamins potentially useful prophylactic agents for treating migraine with aura. Menstrual migraine, on the other hand, is associated with increased prostaglandin (PG) levels in the endometrium, indicating a role for vitamin E, which is an anti-PG. Vitamin C can also be used as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species for treating neurogenic inflammation in migraine patients. This paper reviews possible therapies based on vitamin supplementation for migraine prophylaxis, focusing on migraine with aura and menstrual migraine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/blood; Migraine Disorders/complications; Migraine Disorders/diet therapy*; Migraine Disorders/pathology
  9. Bhaskar S, Abdullah JM
    Neurosciences (Riyadh), 2013 Apr;18(2):185-6.
    PMID: 23545624
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/genetics*
  10. Shaik MM, Hassan NB, Tan HL, Gan SH
    Biomed Res Int, 2015;2015:523717.
    PMID: 25632394 DOI: 10.1155/2015/523717
    Disability caused by migraine may be one of the main causes of burden contributing to poor quality of life (QOL) among migraine patients. Thus, this study aimed to measure QOL among migraine sufferers in comparison with healthy controls.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/epidemiology*
  11. Shaik MM, Hassan NB, Tan HL, Bhaskar S, Gan SH
    J Headache Pain, 2015 Mar 14;16:22.
    PMID: 25903056 DOI: 10.1186/s10194-015-0509-5
    BACKGROUND: The Structured Migraine Interview (SMI) is a valid and reliable instrument for migraine diagnosis. However, a Malay version of the SMI is not available to be applied to the local Malaysian population. This study was designed to access the validity and reliability of a new Malay version of the SMI questionnaire.
    METHODS: Patients with headache attending the Neurology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia, were screened against the inclusion/exclusion criteria before recruitment. A standard translation procedure was used to translate and adapt the questionnaire into the Malay language. The translated version was tested for face, content and construct validities. Subsequently, validity and reliability studies were conducted (1(st) compilation), followed by retesting seven days later (2(nd) compilation).
    RESULTS: A total of 157 patients between 15 and 60 years of age were enrolled in this study. The kappa value was 0.70 (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/diagnosis*
  12. Shaik MM, Hassan NB, Tan HL, Bhaskar S, Gan SH
    Biomed Res Int, 2014;2014:435856.
    PMID: 25121099 DOI: 10.1155/2014/435856
    BACKGROUND: The study was designed to determine the validity and reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version (MIDAS-M) of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire.

    METHODS: Patients having migraine for more than six months attending the Neurology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia, were recruited. Standard forward and back translation procedures were used to translate and adapt the MIDAS questionnaire to produce the Bahasa Melayu version. The translated Malay version was tested for face and content validity. Validity and reliability testing were further conducted with 100 migraine patients (1st administration) followed by a retesting session 21 days later (2nd administration).

    RESULTS: A total of 100 patients between 15 and 60 years of age were recruited. The majority of the patients were single (66%) and students (46%). Cronbach's alpha values were 0.84 (1st administration) and 0.80 (2nd administration). The test-retest reliability for the total MIDAS score was 0.73, indicating that the MIDAS-M questionnaire is stable; for the five disability questions, the test-retest values ranged from 0.77 to 0.87.

    CONCLUSION: The MIDAS-M questionnaire is comparable with the original English version in terms of validity and reliability and may be used for the assessment of migraine in clinical settings.

    Study site: Neurology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/diagnosis*
  13. Sheshala R, Khan N, Darwis Y
    Chem. Pharm. Bull., 2011;59(8):920-8.
    PMID: 21804234
    The aims of the present research were to mask the intensely bitter taste of sumatriptan succinate and to formulate orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of the taste masked drug. Taste masking was performed by coating sumatriptan succinate with Eudragit EPO using spray drying technique. The resultant microspheres were evaluated for thermal analysis, yield, particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro taste masking. The tablets were formulated by mixing the taste masked microspheres with different types and concentrations of superdisintegrants and compressed using direct compression method followed by sublimation technique. The prepared tablets were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content, water content, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release. All the tablet formulations disintegrated in vitro within 37-410 s. The optimized formulation containing 5% Kollidon CL-SF released more than 90% of the drug within 15 min and the release was comparable to that of commercial product (Suminat®). In human volunteers, the optimized formulation was found to have a pleasant taste and mouth feel and disintegrated in the oral cavity within 41 s. The optimized formulation was found to be stable and bioequivalent with Suminat®.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/drug therapy
  14. Loo CY, Tan HJ, Teh HS, Raymond AA
    Singapore Med J, 2007 Sep;48(9):834-9.
    PMID: 17728965
    INTRODUCTION: Migraine is a common disabling condition that results in considerable socioeconomic loss. The role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in acute migraine has been well-established. We compared the efficacy of the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib with the NSAID, naproxen sodium, in the treatment of acute migraine.
    METHODS: This was a randomised, open label, controlled trial. We selected patients with a diagnosis of migraine, based on the International Headache Society revised criteria. 60 patients were randomised to either celecoxib 400 mg (30 patients) or naproxen sodium 550 mg (30 patients). Patients took the study medicine for the first acute migraine episode that occurred during the study period and reported the headache reduction based on a visual analogue score (VAS). Patients were reviewed after a month to check on VAS at one and two hours, compared to the baseline. Any side effects of the medication were also recorded.
    RESULTS: Of the 52 patients who completed the study, eight did not experience any headaches. The mean VAS in the celecoxib group improved significantly from baseline (6.48 +/- 1.53) to one hour (4.28 +/- 2.11) and two hours (2.24 +/- 2.57) (p-value is less than 0.0005). The mean VAS in the naproxen sodium group also improved significantly from baseline (7.30 +/- 1.66) to one hour (4.81 +/- 2.50) and two hours (2.63 +/- 2.65) (p-value is less than 0.0005). However, there was no significant difference between the magnitudes of improvement between the treatment groups. The incidence of gastric pain was significantly higher in the naproxen sodium group (p-value is equal to 0.029).
    CONCLUSION: In comparison with naproxen sodium, celecoxib was equally effective in relieving pain in acute migraine and caused significantly less gastric pain.

    Study site: neurology outpatient clinic in Pusat Perubatan
    Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/drug therapy*
  15. Juliena Muhammed, Sanihah Abdul Halim, Wan Hazabbah Wan Hitam, Tharakan, John
    Neurology Asia, 2014;19(3):323-326.
    Migraine with aura is one of the major subtypes of migraine, and can be associated with ischaemic brain infarction. Use of oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) increases the risk of infarction in this type of migraine. Seizures and migraine also have a complex relationship, one element of which is migraine- triggered seizures. We report a case of bilateral occipital lobe infarction and migraine-triggered seizures, most likely precipitated by oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) in a patient with migraine with visual aura. OCPs, triptans and ergotamines should be used cautiously in these patients. Methods of birth control other than OCPs should be considered.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders
  16. Tai MS, Yet SXE, Lim TC, Pow ZY, Goh CB
    Curr Pain Headache Rep, 2019 Feb 21;23(2):12.
    PMID: 30790108 DOI: 10.1007/s11916-019-0760-6
    In this review, we discussed the types and frequencies of trigger factors of primary headache [migraine and tension-type headache (TTH)] among adult patients. We assessed the influence of geographical location, ethnicity and gender on the various trigger factors of a migraine and a TTH. We also evaluated the trigger factors among the multi-ethnic Southeast Asian adult patients. In a recent study, odor triggered more migrainous headaches compared to the other primary headaches. Odor was observed to be specific of migraines. Moreover, stress is one of the most common trigger factors for patients with migraines and TTHs worldwide. Migrainous patients have an increased sensitivity in comparison to non-migrainous patients. Furthermore, these patients have much difficulty in adapting to the high level of sensitivity, and the sensitized brain is therefore more vulnerable to trigger factors. In addition, the presence of one trigger factor may increase the exposure of other trigger factors. This phenomenon is more marked in the patients with migraines who have stress and menstruation as triggers, predisposing them to be more sensitive to other triggers. In conclusion, the geographical location factor has an influence on the trigger factors of headaches. Ethnicity may have an effect due to the cultural differences. Change in weather and sunlight are important commonly identified trigger factors for headaches. Moreover, gender differences in some trigger factors are present among the patients with headaches, especially sunlight and sleep deprivation. More research studies can be conducted to have a better understanding on trigger factors in the future. This will enable proper identification of trigger factors, leading to a decrease in the number of headache episodes and an improvement in quality of life for patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders
  17. Islam MA, Alam F, Wong KK
    Autoimmun Rev, 2017 May;16(5):512-522.
    PMID: 28279839 DOI: 10.1016/j.autrev.2017.03.005
    BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) namely anticardiolipin (aCL) antibody, anti-β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) antibody and lupus anticoagulant (LA) are autoantibodies produced against anionic phospholipids and proteins on plasma membranes. Migraine is a primary headache disorder which has growing evidences of autoimmune-mediated pathogenesis and previous studies suggested the presence of aPLs in migraine patients.

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the comorbid association between aPLs (aCL, anti-β2GPI and LA) and migraine compared to healthy controls.

    METHODS: Studies were searched through PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Google Scholar databases without restricting the languages and year (up to October 2016) and were selected based on the inclusion criteria. Two authors independently extracted data from the included studies. All analyses were conducted by using random effects model to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Quality assessment was carried out by using the modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). Publication bias was evaluated via visualization of funnel plots, Begg's and Egger's tests.

    RESULTS: The database searches produced 1995 articles, 13 of which were selected (912 migraineurs and 822 healthy controls). 8.59%, 15.21% and 4.11% of the migraineurs exhibited aCL, anti-β2GPI and LA which was 4.83, 1.63 and 3.03 times higher, respectively, than healthy controls. A significant presence of aCL (OR: 3.55, 95% CI: 1.59-7.95; p=0.002) or anti-β2GPI antibodies (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 1.20-3.42; p=0.008) was observed in migraine patients, however, LA was not significantly associated (OR: 2.02, 95% CI: 0.50-8.37; p=0.320). Majority of the studies (n=10 of 13) demonstrated NOS score of 7 or above and no significant publication bias was observed.

    CONCLUSION: Migraine might be an autoimmune-associated neurologic disorder. The presence of aCL or anti-β2GPI antibodies was significant in migraine patients compared to healthy controls, suggesting an involvement of these autoantibodies in migraine attack.

    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/complications*
  18. Chia YC, Lim SH, Wang SJ, Cheong YM, Denaro J, Hettiarachchi J
    Headache, 2003 Oct;43(9):984-90.
    PMID: 14511275 DOI: 10.1046/j.1526-4610.2003.03190.x
    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs continue to be one of the most widely used therapies for migraine, but their efficacy in treating moderate to severe migraine headache has not been well documented. In contrast, the efficacy of triptans in this group of patients is well documented, although no systematic research is available that evaluates the effectiveness of switching to a triptan in patients who respond poorly to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
    METHODS: One hundred thirteen patients who met International Headache Society criteria for migraine and who did not experience satisfactory response to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, received open-label treatment with a 40-mg dose of eletriptan for one migraine attack. Efficacy assessments were made at 1, 2, 4, and 24 hours postdose and consisted of headache and pain-free response rates, absence of associated symptoms, and functional response. Global ratings of treatment effectiveness and preference were obtained at 24 hours.
    RESULTS: The pain-free response rate at 2 hours postdose was 25% and at 4 hours postdose, 55%; the headache response rate at 2 hours was 66% and at 4 hours, 87%. At 2 hours postdose, relief of baseline associated symptoms was achieved by 41% of patients with nausea compared to 82% of patients at 4 hours; for patients with phonophobia, 67% were relieved at 2 hours and 93% at 4 hours, and for patients with photophobia, 70% were relieved at 2 hours and 91% at 4 hours. Functional response was achieved by 70% of patients by 2 hours postdose. The high level of acute response was maintained over 24 hours, with only 24% of patients experiencing a headache recurrence and only 10% using rescue medication. At 24 hours postdose, 74% of patients rated eletriptan as preferable to any previous treatment for migraine. The most frequent reasons cited for this treatment preference were faster headache improvement (83%) and functional response (78%). Overall, eletriptan was well tolerated; most adverse events were transient and mild to moderate in severity. No serious adverse events were reported.
    CONCLUSION: Results of this open-label trial found the 40-mg dose of eletriptan to have a high degree of efficacy and tolerability among patients who responded poorly to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
    Study site in Malaysia: Primary care clinic, University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/drug therapy*
  19. Rahman A, Segasothy M, Samad SA, Zulfiqar A, Rani M
    Headache, 1993 Sep;33(8):442-5.
    PMID: 8262786
    The pattern of analgesic use, abuse and incidence of analgesic-associated nephropathy in 79 patients with chronic headache was studied. Sixty-eight of these patients had migraine. Most patients had consumed a combination of analgesics (81%) while 19% had taken single analgesics for their headache. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the most commonly used analgesics (96.2%) followed by paracetamol (70.9%) and aspirin, phenacetin and caffeine compounds (5.1%). Mefenamic acid was the commonest nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug consumed (97.4%). Analgesic abuse which was defined as a minimum total of 1 kg of analgesics such as paracetamol or aspirin, phenacetin and caffeine compounds or 400 capsules/tablets of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was noted in 65 patients. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the most commonly abused analgesics (89.2%) followed by paracetamol (38.5%). Forty-five of the 65 analgesic abusers had an intravenous urogram or ultrasound performed and renal papillary necrosis was documented in one patient. Three (4.6%) of the analgesic abusers had mildly raised serum creatinine levels. Mild proteinuria of less than 1 gm/litre was present in 27.7% of abusers. In conclusion, although analgesic use and abuse is common in patients with chronic headache, the short term incidence of analgesic-associated nephropathy (2.2%) and renal impairment (4.6%) was low. Prolonged observations will be necessary to ascertain the safety of these drugs for long term use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders/drug therapy*
  20. Tan, Ciang Sang, Haiza Hani Hamidon, Zainah Shaikh Hedra
    Background: A 9 year old boy presented with history of persistent headache and recurrent vomiting for 1 month post dental extraction. CT brain was performed for the possibility of space occupying lesion but it was normal. Subsequently, he was treated as migraine after exclusion of meningitis and intracranial lesion. Unfortunately, he developed 3rd, 4th and 6th cranial nerve palsy two weeks later. Repeated CT brain showed subtle finding and inconclusive. MRI brain performed at the time showed features suggestive of basal skull osteomyelitis with congestion of right orbit and optic nerve swelling. Case was referred to Paediatric Neurologist and he was diagnosed to have cranial nerve palsy secondary to basal skull osteomyelitis, post dental extraction.

    Conclusion: Dental procedure is common among children, however basal skull osteomyelitis with cranial nerve palsy is a rare complication. Adequate treatment of dental infection post dental procedure is important to prevent this complication.
    Matched MeSH terms: Migraine Disorders
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