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  1. Tao L, Ma J, Kunisue T, Libelo EL, Tanabe S, Kannan K
    Environ Sci Technol, 2008 Nov 15;42(22):8597-602.
    PMID: 19068854
    The occurrence of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in human blood is known to be widespread; nevertheless, the sources of exposure to humans, including infants, are not well understood. In this study, breast milk collected from seven countries in Asia was analyzed (n=184) for nine PFCs, including perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA). In addition, five brands of infant formula (n=21) and 11 brands of dairy milk (n=12) collected from retail stores in the United States were analyzed, for comparison with PFC concentrations previously reported for breast milk from the U.S. PFOS was the predominant PFC detected in almost all Asian breast milk samples, followed by perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) and PFOA. Median concentrations of PFOS in breast milk from Asian countries varied significantly;the lowest concentration of 39.4 pg/mL was found in India, and the highest concentration of 196 pg/mL was found in Japan. The measured concentrations were similarto or less than the concentrations previously reported from Sweden, the United States, and Germany (median, 106-166 pg/mL). PFHxS was found in more than 70% of the samples analyzed from Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, and Vietnam, at mean concentrations ranging from 6.45 (Malaysia) to 15.8 (Philippines) pg/mL PFOA was found frequently only in samples from Japan; the mean concentration for that country was 77.7 pg/mL. None of the PFCs were detected in the infant-formula or dairy-milk samples from the U.S. except a few samples that contained concentrations close to the limit of detection. The estimated average daily intake of PFOS by infants from seven Asian countries, via breastfeeding, was 11.8 +/- 10.6 ng/kg bw/ day; this value is 7-12 times higher than the estimated adult dietary intakes previously reported from Germany, Canada, and Spain. The average daily intake of PFOA by Japanese infants was 9.6 +/- 4.9 ng/kg bw/day, a value 3-10 times greater than the estimated adult dietary intakes reported from Germany and Canada. The highest estimated daily intakes of PFOS and PFOA by infants from seven Asian countries studied were 1-2 orders of magnitude below the tolerable daily intake values recommended by the U.K. Food Standards Agency.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/chemistry*
  2. Juvarajah T, Wan-Ibrahim WI, Ashrafzadeh A, Othman S, Hashim OH, Fung SY, et al.
    Breastfeed Med, 2018 11;13(9):631-637.
    PMID: 30362820 DOI: 10.1089/bfm.2018.0057
    BACKGROUND: Bioactive proteins from milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) play extensive roles in cellular processes and defense mechanisms in infants. The aims of this study were to identify differences in protein compositions in human and caprine MFGM using proteomics and evaluate possible nutritional benefits of caprine milk toward an infant's growth, as an alternative when breastfeeding or human milk administration is not possible or inadequate.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human and caprine MFGM proteins were isolated and analyzed, initially by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and subsequently by quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. This was then followed by database search and gene ontology analysis. In general, this method selectively analyzed the abundantly expressed proteins in milk MFGM.

    RESULTS: Human MFGM contains relatively more abundant bioactive proteins compared with caprine. While a total of 128 abundant proteins were detected in the human MFGM, only 42 were found in that of the caprine. Seven of the bioactive proteins were apparently found to coexist in both human and caprine MFGM.

    RESULTS/DISCUSSION: Among the commonly detected MFGM proteins, lactotransferrin, beta-casein, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid synthase, and butyrophilin subfamily 1 member A1 were highly expressed in human MFGM. On the other hand, alpha-S1-casein and EGF factor 8 protein, which are also nutritionally beneficial, were found in abundance in caprine MFGM. The large number of human MFGM abundant proteins that were generally lacking in caprine appeared to mainly support human metabolic and developmental processes.

    CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated superiority of human MFGM by having more than one hundred nutritionally beneficial and abundantly expressed proteins, which are clearly lacking in caprine MFGM. The minor similarity in the abundantly expressed bioactive proteins in caprine MFGM, which was detected further, suggests that it is still nutritionally beneficial, and therefore should be included when caprine milk-based formula is used as an alternative.

    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/chemistry*
  3. McJarrow P, Radwan H, Ma L, MacGibbon AKH, Hashim M, Hasan H, et al.
    Nutrients, 2019 Oct 08;11(10).
    PMID: 31597293 DOI: 10.3390/nu11102400
    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), phospholipids (PLs), and gangliosides (GAs) are components of human breast milk that play important roles in the development of the rapidly growing infant. The differences in these components in human milk from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were studied in a cross-sectional trial. High-performance liquid chromatography‒mass spectrometry was used to determine HMO, PL, and GA concentrations in transitional (5-15 days) and mature (at 6 months post-partum) breast milk of mothers of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results showed that the average HMO (12 species), PL (7 species), and GA (2 species) concentrations quantified in the UAE mothers' transitional milk samples were (in mg/L) 8204 ± 2389, 269 ± 89, and 21.18 ± 11.46, respectively, while in mature milk, the respective concentrations were (in mg/L) 3905 ± 1466, 220 ± 85, and 20.18 ± 9.75. The individual HMO concentrations measured in this study were all significantly higher in transitional milk than in mature milk, except for 3 fucosyllactose, which was higher in mature milk. In this study, secretor and non-secretor phenotype mothers showed no significant difference in the total HMO concentration. For the PL and GA components, changes in the individual PL and GA species distribution was observed between transitional milk and mature milk. However, the changes were within the ranges found in human milk from other regions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/chemistry*
  4. Daud AZ, Mohd-Esa N, Azlan A, Chan YM
    Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2013;22(3):431-42.
    PMID: 23945414 DOI: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.3.09
    Excessive intake of trans fatty acids (TFA) could reduce the fat density of human milk and impair the desaturation of essential fatty acids. Because the mammary glands are unable to synthesize TFA, it is likely that the TFA in human milk come from dietary intake. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the sources of TFA intake for lactating mothers in one of the urban areas in Selangor. In this cross-sectional study, anthropometric measurements, FFQ including 7 food groups and dietary consumption data were collected from 101 lactating mothers. Five major TFA isomers (palmitoelaidic acid (16:1t9), petroselaidic acid (18:1t6), elaidic acid (18:1t9), vaccenic acid (18:1t11) and linoelaidic acid (18:2t9,12) in human milk were measured by gas chromatography (GC). The relationship between food consumption and TFA levels was assessed using the non-parametric Spearman's rho test. The TFA content in human milk was 2.94±0.96 (SEM) % fatty acid; this is considered low, as it is lower than 4%. The most abundant TFA isomer was linoelaidic acid (1.44±0.60% fatty acid). A sub-experiment (analyzing 3 days of composite food consumption) was conducted with 18 lactating mothers, and the results showed that linoelaidic acid was the most common TFA consumed (0.07±0.01 g/100 g food). Only 10 food items had an effect on the total TFA level and the isomers found in human milk. No association was found between TFA consumption and the TFA level in human milk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/chemistry*
  5. Tanabe S, Kunisue T
    Environ Pollut, 2007 Mar;146(2):400-13.
    PMID: 16949712
    In this paper, we concisely reviewed the contamination of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in human breast milk collected from Asian countries such as Japan, China, Philippines, Vietnam, Cambodia, India, Malaysia, and Indonesia during 1999-2003. Dioxins, PCBs, CHLs in Japanese, and DDTs in Vietnamese, Chinese, Cambodian, Malaysian, and HCHs in Chinese, Indian, and HCB in Chinese breast milk were predominant. In India, levels of dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in the mothers living around the open dumping site were notably higher than those from the reference site and other Asian developing countries, indicating that significant pollution sources of DRCs are present in the dumping site of India and the residents there have been exposed to relatively higher levels of these contaminants possibly via bovine milk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/chemistry*
  6. Prameela KK, Vijaya LR
    Malays J Nutr, 2012 Apr;18(1):103-11.
    PMID: 23713234 MyJurnal
    Globally, rotaviral vaccines in use today have contributed to the reduction of the incidence of rotaviral diarrhoeas. Despite the substantial protection conferred by the current vaccines against the rotaviral strains, it is only prudent to recognise that other protective factors, like breastfeeding, also provide some degree of protection against this disease. This article has attempted to review some important mechanisms of protection in breast milk against the rotaviruses and highlight the oft forgotten non-immunoglobulin fraction in breast milk as an additional tool of protection against rotavirus disease. The adaptive capacity of breast milk to environment is another compelling reason to continue breastfeeding as it can usefully complement and be significant in the use of many vaccines. Vital immunoprotective constituents in breast milk beneficially protect the infant by initiating and strengthening many immune responses and should be borne in mind as essential tools of defence even in an era where vaccines play a pivotal role in the combat against certain diseases. It is impressive that besides nutritive advantages, the suckling infant enjoys appreciable immunoprotection via exclusive breastfeeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/chemistry
  7. Leong YH, Azmi NI, Majid MIA, Wen S
    PMID: 34014804 DOI: 10.1080/19440049.2021.1922758
    An average 50 ml breast milk samples were collected from 21 lactating primiparous mothers (range 25 to 45 years, mean 33 years), 4-8 weeks after delivery in Penang Island, Malaysia. The geometric mean concentration of the most toxic congeners, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) was 0.14 pg WHO2005-TEQ g-1 zlipid. The most abundant congeners of PCDD/Fs were octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) (5.9-75.4%), followed by 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDD) (1.1-30.7%). The geometric mean level of total dioxins and dl-PCBs was 2.2 pg WHO2005-TEQ g-1 lipid, significantly lower than those in developed countries or highly contaminated areas. The total dioxins and dl-PCBs in pg WHO2005-TEQ levels in breast milk were significantly correlated with years of residence at potential contaminated site. The average daily intake of 11.8 pg WHO2005-TEQ kg-1 body weight was estimated for a breastfed infant at 6 months of age. This demonstrates the exposure risk to infants, especially from Penang region, to these pollutants from human milk intake are potentially high during the lactation period.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/chemistry*
  8. Su LL, S K TC, Lim SL, Chen Y, Tan EA, Pai NN, et al.
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 2010 Sep;39(9):675-5.
    PMID: 20957301
    INTRODUCTION: Breast milk fatty acids play a major role in infant development. However, no data have compared the breast milk composition of different ethnic groups living in the same environment. We aimed to (i) investigate breast milk fatty acid composition of three ethnic groups in Singapore and (ii) determine dietary fatty acid patterns in these groups and any association with breast milk fatty acid composition.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. Healthy pregnant women with the intention to breastfeed were recruited. Diet profile was studied using a standard validated 3-day food diary. Breast milk was collected from mothers at 1 to 2 weeks and 6 to 8 weeks postnatally. Agilent gas chromatograph (6870N) equipped with a mass spectrometer (5975) and an automatic liquid sampler (ALS) system with a split mode was used for analysis.

    RESULTS: Seventy-two breast milk samples were obtained from 52 subjects. Analysis showed that breast milk ETA (Eicosatetraenoic acid) and ETA:EA (Eicosatrienoic acid) ratio were significantly different among the races (P = 0.031 and P = 0.020), with ETA being the highest among Indians and the lowest among Malays. Docosahexaenoic acid was significantly higher among Chinese compared to Indians and Malays. No difference was demonstrated in n3 and n6 levels in the food diet analysis among the 3 ethnic groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: Differences exist in breast milk fatty acid composition in different ethnic groups in the same region, although no difference was demonstrated in the diet analysis. Factors other than maternal diet may play a role in breast milk fatty acid composition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/chemistry*
  9. Sudaryanto A, Kunisue T, Tanabe S, Niida M, Hashim H
    Arch Environ Contam Toxicol, 2005 Oct;49(3):429-37.
    PMID: 16132420
    This study determined the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and tris(4-chlorophenyl) methane (TCPMe) in human breast milk samples collected in 2003 from primipara mothers living in Penang, Malaysia. OCs were detected in all the samples analyzed with DDTs, hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs), and PCBs as the major contaminants followed by chlordane compounds (CHLs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and TCPMe. The residue levels of DDTs, HCHs, and CHLs were comparable to or higher than those in general populations of other countries, whereas PCBs and HCB were relatively low. In addition, dioxins and related compounds were also detected with a range of dioxin equivalent concentrations from 3.4 to 24 pg-TEQs/g lipid wt. Levels of toxic equivalents (TEQs) were slightly higher than those in other developing countries but still much lower than those of industrialized nations. One donor mother contained a high TEQs level, equal to the mean value in human breast milk from Japan, implying that some of the residents in Malaysia may be exposed to specific pollution sources of dioxins and related compounds. No association was observed between OCs concentrations and maternal characteristics, which might be related to a limited number of samples, narrow range of age of the donor mothers, and/or other external factors. The recently identified endocrine disrupter, TCPMe, was also detected in all human breast milk samples of this study. A significant positive correlation was observed between TCPMe and DDTs, suggesting that technical DDT might be a source of TCPMe in Malaysia. The present study provides a useful baseline for future studies on the accumulations of OCs in the general population of Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/chemistry*
  10. Mohd Shukri NH, Wells J, Eaton S, Mukhtar F, Petelin A, Jenko-Pražnikar Z, et al.
    Am J Clin Nutr, 2019 07 01;110(1):121-130.
    PMID: 31161202 DOI: 10.1093/ajcn/nqz033
    BACKGROUND: Biological signaling and communication between mothers and infants during breastfeeding may shape infant behavior and feeding. This signaling is complex and little explored in humans, although it is potentially relevant for initiatives to improve breastfeeding rates.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate physiological and psychological aspects of mother-infant signaling during breastfeeding experimentally, testing the effects of a relaxation intervention on maternal psychological state, breast milk intake, milk cortisol levels, and infant behavior and growth.

    METHODS: Primiparous breastfeeding mothers and full-term infants were randomly assigned to receive relaxation therapy [intervention relaxation group; n = 33 (RG)] or to the control group [n = 31 (CG); no relaxation therapy] at 2 wk postpartum. Both groups received standard breastfeeding support. Home visits were conducted at 2 (HV1), 6 (HV2), 12 (HV3) and 14 (HV4) wk to measure maternal stress and anxiety, breast milk intake and milk cortisol, and infant behavior and growth.

    RESULTS: RG mothers had lower stress scores postintervention than the CG (HV3 ∆ = -3.13; 95% CI: -5.9, -0.3) and lower hindmilk cortisol at HV1 (∆ = -44.5%; 95% CI: -76.1%, -12.9%) but not at HV2. RG infants had longer sleep duration (∆ = 82 min/d; 95% CI: 16, 149 min/d) at HV2 and higher gains in weight and body mass index standardized deviation score than the CG infants (∆ = 0.76; 95% CI: 0.3, 1.22; and ∆ = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.09, 1.1, respectively). RG infants had a mean milk intake at HV3 that was 227 g/d higher than that of the CG infants (P = 0.031) after controlling for gender and milk intake at HV1.

    CONCLUSIONS: The trial shows the effectiveness of a simple relaxation intervention for improving maternal and infant outcomes and identifies some potential signaling mechanisms for investigation in future and larger studies, especially in settings where mothers are more stressed, such as those with preterm or low birth weight infants. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01971216.

    Matched MeSH terms: Milk, Human/chemistry
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