Displaying all 11 publications

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  1. Mazumdar P, Binti Othman R, Mebus K, Ramakrishnan N, Ann Harikrishna J
    Ann Bot, 2017 Nov 28;120(6):893-909.
    PMID: 29155926 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx112
    Background and Aims: Studies on codon usage in monocots have focused on grasses, and observed patterns of this taxon were generalized to all monocot species. Here, non-grass monocot species were analysed to investigate the differences between grass and non-grass monocots.

    Methods: First, studies of codon usage in monocots were reviewed. The current information was then extended regarding codon usage, as well as codon-pair context bias, using four completely sequenced non-grass monocot genomes (Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, Phoenix dactylifera and Spirodela polyrhiza) for which comparable transcriptome datasets are available. Measurements were taken regarding relative synonymous codon usage, effective number of codons, derived optimal codon and GC content and then the relationships investigated to infer the underlying evolutionary forces.

    Key Results: The research identified optimal codons, rare codons and preferred codon-pair context in the non-grass monocot species studied. In contrast to the bimodal distribution of GC3 (GC content in third codon position) in grasses, non-grass monocots showed a unimodal distribution. Disproportionate use of G and C (and of A and T) in two- and four-codon amino acids detected in the analysis rules out the mutational bias hypothesis as an explanation of genomic variation in GC content. There was found to be a positive relationship between CAI (codon adaptation index; predicts the level of expression of a gene) and GC3. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between coding and genomic GC content and negative correlation of GC3 with gene length, indicating a strong impact of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) in shaping codon usage and nucleotide composition in non-grass monocots.

    Conclusion: Optimal codons in these non-grass monocots show a preference for G/C in the third codon position. These results support the concept that codon usage and nucleotide composition in non-grass monocots are mainly driven by gBGC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics
  2. Intan Sakinah MA, Suzianti IV, Latiffah Z
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(2):3627-37.
    PMID: 24854442 DOI: 10.4238/2014.May.9.5
    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
  3. Passos MA, de Cruz VO, Emediato FL, de Teixeira CC, Azevedo VC, Brasileiro AC, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2013;14:78.
    PMID: 23379821 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-78
    Although banana (Musa sp.) is an important edible crop, contributing towards poverty alleviation and food security, limited transcriptome datasets are available for use in accelerated molecular-based breeding in this genus. 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology was employed to determine the sequence of gene transcripts in genotypes of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides Calcutta 4 and M. acuminata subgroup Cavendish cv. Grande Naine, contrasting in resistance to the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola, causal organism of Sigatoka leaf spot disease. To enrich for transcripts under biotic stress responses, full length-enriched cDNA libraries were prepared from whole plant leaf materials, both uninfected and artificially challenged with pathogen conidiospores.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
  4. Teo CH, Tan SH, Othman YR, Schwarzacher T
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Biophys., 2002 Jun;6(3):193-201.
    PMID: 12186754
    Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons have been identified and investigated in several plant species. Here, the internal region of the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons was amplified by PCR from total genomic DNA of 10 varieties of banana. Two to four clones from each variety were sequenced. Extreme heterogeneity in the sequences of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons from all the varieties was revealed following sequence analysis of the reverse transcriptase (RT) fragments. The size of the individual RT gene fragments varied between 213 and 309 bp. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested from Musa acuminata and other banana varieties probed with W8 clone from M. acuminata and A4 clone from Pisang Abu Nipah showed similar strong, multiple restriction fragments together with other faint hybridization band patterns with variable intensities indicating the presence of many copies of the Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons in the genomes. There was no correlation between retroelement sequence and the banana species (with A or B genomes) from which it arose, suggesting that the probes are not useful for tracking genomes through breeding populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
  5. Pucker B, Pandey A, Weisshaar B, Stracke R
    PLoS One, 2020;15(10):e0239275.
    PMID: 33021974 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0239275
    The R2R3-MYB genes comprise one of the largest transcription factor gene families in plants, playing regulatory roles in plant-specific developmental processes, defense responses and metabolite accumulation. To date MYB family genes have not yet been comprehensively identified in the major staple fruit crop banana. In this study, we present a comprehensive, genome-wide analysis of the MYB genes from Musa acuminata DH-Pahang (A genome). A total of 285 R2R3-MYB genes as well as genes encoding three other classes of MYB proteins containing multiple MYB repeats were identified and characterised with respect to structure and chromosomal organisation. Organ- and development-specific expression patterns were determined from RNA-Seq data. For 280 M. acuminata MYB genes for which expression was found in at least one of the analysed samples, a variety of expression patterns were detected. The M. acuminata R2R3-MYB genes were functionally categorised, leading to the identification of seven clades containing only M. acuminata R2R3-MYBs. The encoded proteins may have specialised functions that were acquired or expanded in Musa during genome evolution. This functional classification and expression analysis of the MYB gene family in banana establishes a solid foundation for future comprehensive functional analysis of MaMYBs and can be utilized in banana improvement programmes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics
  6. Zhang L, Cenci A, Rouard M, Zhang D, Wang Y, Tang W, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 06 03;9(1):8199.
    PMID: 31160634 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-44637-x
    Fusarium wilt disease, caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, especially by tropical race 4 (Foc TR4), is threatening the global banana industry. Musa acuminata Pahang, a wild diploid banana that displays strong resistance to Foc TR4, holds great potential to understand the underlying resistance mechanisms. Microscopic examination reports that, in a wounding inoculation system, the Foc TR4 infection processes in roots of Pahang (resistant) and a triploid cultivar Brazilian (susceptible) were similar by 7 days post inoculation (dpi), but significant differences were observed in corms of both genotypes at 14 dpi. We compare transcriptomic responses in the corms of Pahang and Brazilian, and show that Pahang exhibited constitutive defense responses before Foc TR4 infection and inducible defense responses prior to Brazilian at the initial Foc TR4 infection stage. Most key enzymatic genes in the phenylalanine metabolism pathway were up-regulated in Brazilian, suggesting that lignin and phytotoxin may be triggered during later stages of Foc TR4 infection. This study unravels a few potential resistance candidate genes whose expression patterns were assessed by RT-qPCR assay and improves our understanding the defense mechanisms of Pahang response to Foc TR4.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
  7. Wang Z, Huang S, Jia C, Liu J, Zhang J, Xu B, et al.
    Plant Cell Rep, 2013 Sep;32(9):1373-80.
    PMID: 23652818 DOI: 10.1007/s00299-013-1449-7
    KEY MESSAGE: Three tau class MaGSTs responded to abiotic stress, MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1 responded to signaling molecules, they may play an important role in the growth of banana plantlet. Glutathione S-transferases (GST) are multifunctional detoxification enzymes that participate in a variety of cellular processes, including stress responses. In this study, we report the molecular characteristics of five GST genes (MaGSTU1, MaGSTU2, MaGSTU3, MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1) cloned from banana (Musa acuminate L. AAA group, cv. Cavendish) using a RACE-PCR-based strategy. The predicted molecular masses of these GSTs range from 23.4 to 27.7 kDa and their pIs are acidic. At the amino acid level, they share high sequence similarity with GSTs in the banana DH-Pahang (AA group) genome. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the deduced amino acid sequences of MaGSTs also have high similarity to GSTs of other plant species. Expression analysis by semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that these genes are differentially expressed in various tissues. In addition, their expression is regulated by various stress conditions, including exposure to signaling molecules, cold, salinity, drought and Fusarium oxysporum f specialis(f. Sp) cubense Tropical Race 4 (Foc TR4) infection. The expression of the tau class MaGSTs (MaGSTU1, MaGSTU2 and MaGSTU3) mainly responded to cold, salinity and drought while MaGSTF1 and MaGSTL1 expressions were upregulated by signaling molecules. Our findings suggest that MaGSTs play a key role in both development and abiotic stress responses.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
  8. Biswas MK, Bagchi M, Biswas D, Harikrishna JA, Liu Y, Li C, et al.
    Genes (Basel), 2020 12 09;11(12).
    PMID: 33317074 DOI: 10.3390/genes11121479
    Trait tagging through molecular markers is an important molecular breeding tool for crop improvement. SSR markers encoded by functionally relevant parts of a genome are well suited for this task because they may be directly related to traits. However, a limited number of these markers are known for Musa spp. Here, we report 35136 novel functionally relevant SSR markers (FRSMs). Among these, 17,561, 15,373 and 16,286 FRSMs were mapped in-silico to the genomes of Musa acuminata, M. balbisiana and M. schizocarpa, respectively. A set of 273 markers was validated using eight accessions of Musa spp., from which 259 markers (95%) produced a PCR product of the expected size and 203 (74%) were polymorphic. In-silico comparative mapping of FRSMs onto Musa and related species indicated sequence-based orthology and synteny relationships among the chromosomes of Musa and other plant species. Fifteen FRSMs were used to estimate the phylogenetic relationships among 50 banana accessions, and the results revealed that all banana accessions group into two major clusters according to their genomic background. Here, we report the first large-scale development and characterization of functionally relevant Musa SSR markers. We demonstrate their utility for germplasm characterization, genetic diversity studies, and comparative mapping in Musa spp. and other monocot species. The sequences for these novel markers are freely available via a searchable web interface called Musa Marker Database.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
  9. Wong GR, Mazumdar P, Lau SE, Harikrishna JA
    J Plant Physiol, 2018 Dec;231:219-233.
    PMID: 30292098 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2018.09.018
    Genetic improvement is an important approach for crop improvement towards yield stability in stress-prone areas. Functional analysis of candidate stress response genes can provide key information to allow the selection and modification of improved crop varieties. In this study, the constitutive expression of a banana cDNA, MaRHD3 in Arabidopsis improved the ability of transgenic lines to adapt to drought conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing MaRHD3 had roots with enhanced branching and more root hairs when challenged with drought stress. The MaRHD3 plants had higher biomass accumulation, higher relative water content, higher chlorophyll content and an increase in activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes; SOD, CAT, GR, POD and APX with reduced water loss rates compared to control plants. The analysis of oxidative damage indicated lower cell membrane damage in transgenic lines compared to control plants. These findings, together with data from higher expression of ABF-3 and higher ABA content of drought-stressed transgenic MaRHD3 expressing plants, support the involvement of the ABA signal pathway and ROS scavenging enzyme systems in MaRHD3 mediated drought tolerance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics
  10. Lee WS, Gudimella R, Wong GR, Tammi MT, Khalid N, Harikrishna JA
    PLoS One, 2015;10(5):e0127526.
    PMID: 25993649 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127526
    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
  11. Mahdavi F, Sariah M, Maziah M
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2012 Feb;166(4):1008-19.
    PMID: 22183565 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-011-9489-3
    The possibility of controlling Fusarium wilt--caused by Fusarium oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4)--was investigated by genetic engineering of banana plants for constitutive expression of rice thaumatin-like protein (tlp) gene. Transgene was introduced to cauliflower-like bodies' cluster, induced from meristemic parts of male inflorescences, using particle bombardment with plasmid carrying a rice tlp gene driving by the CaMV 35S promoter. Hygromycin B was used as the selection reagent. The presence and integration of rice tlp gene in genomic DNA confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. RT-PCR revealed the expression of transgene in leaf and root tissues in transformants. Bioassay of transgenic banana plants challenged with Fusarium wilt pathogen showed that expression of TLP enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4) compared to control plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
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