Displaying all 8 publications

  1. Mazumdar P, Binti Othman R, Mebus K, Ramakrishnan N, Ann Harikrishna J
    Ann. Bot., 2017 Nov 28;120(6):893-909.
    PMID: 29155926 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcx112
    Background and Aims: Studies on codon usage in monocots have focused on grasses, and observed patterns of this taxon were generalized to all monocot species. Here, non-grass monocot species were analysed to investigate the differences between grass and non-grass monocots.

    Methods: First, studies of codon usage in monocots were reviewed. The current information was then extended regarding codon usage, as well as codon-pair context bias, using four completely sequenced non-grass monocot genomes (Musa acuminata, Musa balbisiana, Phoenix dactylifera and Spirodela polyrhiza) for which comparable transcriptome datasets are available. Measurements were taken regarding relative synonymous codon usage, effective number of codons, derived optimal codon and GC content and then the relationships investigated to infer the underlying evolutionary forces.

    Key Results: The research identified optimal codons, rare codons and preferred codon-pair context in the non-grass monocot species studied. In contrast to the bimodal distribution of GC3 (GC content in third codon position) in grasses, non-grass monocots showed a unimodal distribution. Disproportionate use of G and C (and of A and T) in two- and four-codon amino acids detected in the analysis rules out the mutational bias hypothesis as an explanation of genomic variation in GC content. There was found to be a positive relationship between CAI (codon adaptation index; predicts the level of expression of a gene) and GC3. In addition, a strong correlation was observed between coding and genomic GC content and negative correlation of GC3 with gene length, indicating a strong impact of GC-biased gene conversion (gBGC) in shaping codon usage and nucleotide composition in non-grass monocots.

    Conclusion: Optimal codons in these non-grass monocots show a preference for G/C in the third codon position. These results support the concept that codon usage and nucleotide composition in non-grass monocots are mainly driven by gBGC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics
  2. Intan Sakinah MA, Suzianti IV, Latiffah Z
    Genet. Mol. Res., 2014;13(2):3627-37.
    PMID: 24854442 DOI: 10.4238/2014.May.9.5
    Anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. We investigated and identified Colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of ITS regions and of the β-tubulin gene. Thirty-eight Colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. Based on morphological characteristics, 32 isolates were identified as Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and 6 isolates as C. musae. C. gloeosporioides isolates were divided into two morphotypes, with differences in colony color, shape of the conidia and growth rate. Based on ITS regions and β-tubulin sequences, 35 of the isolates were identified as C. gloeosporioides and only 3 isolates as C. musae; the percentage of similarity from BLAST ranged from 95-100% for ITS regions and 97-100% for β-tubulin. C. gloeosporioides isolates were more prevalent compared to C. musae. This is the first record of C. gloeosporioides associated with banana anthracnose in Malaysia. In a phylogenetic analysis of the combined dataset of ITS regions and β-tubulin using a maximum likelihood method, C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates were clearly separated into two groups. We concluded that C. gloeosporioides and C. musae isolates are associated with anthracnose in the local banana cultivars and that C. gloeosporioides is more prevalent than C. musae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
  3. Passos MA, de Cruz VO, Emediato FL, de Teixeira CC, Azevedo VC, Brasileiro AC, et al.
    BMC Genomics, 2013;14:78.
    PMID: 23379821 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2164-14-78
    Although banana (Musa sp.) is an important edible crop, contributing towards poverty alleviation and food security, limited transcriptome datasets are available for use in accelerated molecular-based breeding in this genus. 454 GS-FLX Titanium technology was employed to determine the sequence of gene transcripts in genotypes of Musa acuminata ssp. burmannicoides Calcutta 4 and M. acuminata subgroup Cavendish cv. Grande Naine, contrasting in resistance to the fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella musicola, causal organism of Sigatoka leaf spot disease. To enrich for transcripts under biotic stress responses, full length-enriched cDNA libraries were prepared from whole plant leaf materials, both uninfected and artificially challenged with pathogen conidiospores.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
  4. Teo CH, Tan SH, Othman YR, Schwarzacher T
    J. Biochem. Mol. Biol. Biophys., 2002 Jun;6(3):193-201.
    PMID: 12186754
    Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons have been identified and investigated in several plant species. Here, the internal region of the reverse transcriptase (RT) gene of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons was amplified by PCR from total genomic DNA of 10 varieties of banana. Two to four clones from each variety were sequenced. Extreme heterogeneity in the sequences of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons from all the varieties was revealed following sequence analysis of the reverse transcriptase (RT) fragments. The size of the individual RT gene fragments varied between 213 and 309 bp. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested from Musa acuminata and other banana varieties probed with W8 clone from M. acuminata and A4 clone from Pisang Abu Nipah showed similar strong, multiple restriction fragments together with other faint hybridization band patterns with variable intensities indicating the presence of many copies of the Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons in the genomes. There was no correlation between retroelement sequence and the banana species (with A or B genomes) from which it arose, suggesting that the probes are not useful for tracking genomes through breeding populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
  5. Kaliyappan R, Viswanathan S, Suthanthiram B, Subbaraya U, Marimuthu Somasundram S, Muthu M
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(9):e0162013.
    PMID: 27603787 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0162013
    The WRKY family of transcription factors orchestrate the reprogrammed expression of the complex network of defense genes at various biotic and abiotic stresses. Within the last 96 million years, three rounds of Musa polyploidization events had occurred from selective pressure causing duplication of MusaWRKYs with new activities. Here, we identified a total of 153 WRKY transcription factors available from the DH Pahang genome. Based on their phylogenetic relationship, the MusaWRKYs available with complete gene sequence were classified into the seven common WRKY sub-groups. Synteny analyses data revealed paralogous relationships, with 17 MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from the duplication events that had occurred within the Musa lineage. We also found 15 other MusaWRKY gene pairs originating from much older duplication events that had occurred along Arecales and Poales lineage of commelinids. Based on the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates, the fate of duplicated MusaWRKY genes was predicted to have undergone sub-functionalization in which the duplicated gene copies retain a subset of the ancestral gene function. Also, to understand the regulatory roles of MusaWRKY during a biotic stress, Illumina sequencing was performed on resistant and susceptible cultivars during the infection of root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus coffeae. The differential WRKY gene expression analysis in nematode resistant and susceptible cultivars during challenged and unchallenged conditions had distinguished: 1) MusaWRKYs participating in general banana defense mechanism against P.coffeae common to both susceptible and resistant cultivars, 2) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the pathogen survival as suppressors of plant triggered immunity, 3) MusaWRKYs that may aid in the host defense as activators of plant triggered immunity and 4) cultivar specific MusaWRKY regulation. Mainly, MusaWRKY52, -69 and -92 are found to be P.coffeae specific and can act as activators or repressors in a defense pathway. Overall, this preliminary study in Musa provides the basis for understanding the evolution and regulatory mechanism of MusaWRKY during nematode stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
  6. Wong GR, Mazumdar P, Lau SE, Harikrishna JA
    J. Plant Physiol., 2018 Dec;231:219-233.
    PMID: 30292098 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2018.09.018
    Genetic improvement is an important approach for crop improvement towards yield stability in stress-prone areas. Functional analysis of candidate stress response genes can provide key information to allow the selection and modification of improved crop varieties. In this study, the constitutive expression of a banana cDNA, MaRHD3 in Arabidopsis improved the ability of transgenic lines to adapt to drought conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing MaRHD3 had roots with enhanced branching and more root hairs when challenged with drought stress. The MaRHD3 plants had higher biomass accumulation, higher relative water content, higher chlorophyll content and an increase in activity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes; SOD, CAT, GR, POD and APX with reduced water loss rates compared to control plants. The analysis of oxidative damage indicated lower cell membrane damage in transgenic lines compared to control plants. These findings, together with data from higher expression of ABF-3 and higher ABA content of drought-stressed transgenic MaRHD3 expressing plants, support the involvement of the ABA signal pathway and ROS scavenging enzyme systems in MaRHD3 mediated drought tolerance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics
  7. Lee WS, Gudimella R, Wong GR, Tammi MT, Khalid N, Harikrishna JA
    PLoS ONE, 2015;10(5):e0127526.
    PMID: 25993649 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127526
    Physiological responses to stress are controlled by expression of a large number of genes, many of which are regulated by microRNAs. Since most banana cultivars are salt-sensitive, improved understanding of genetic regulation of salt induced stress responses in banana can support future crop management and improvement in the face of increasing soil salinity related to irrigation and climate change. In this study we focused on determining miRNA and their targets that respond to NaCl exposure and used transcriptome sequencing of RNA and small RNA from control and NaCl-treated banana roots to assemble a cultivar-specific reference transcriptome and identify orthologous and Musa-specific miRNA responding to salinity. We observed that, banana roots responded to salinity stress with changes in expression for a large number of genes (9.5% of 31,390 expressed unigenes) and reduction in levels of many miRNA, including several novel miRNA and banana-specific miRNA-target pairs. Banana roots expressed a unique set of orthologous and Musa-specific miRNAs of which 59 respond to salt stress in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression patterns of miRNA compared with those of their predicted mRNA targets indicated that a majority of the differentially expressed miRNAs were down-regulated in response to increased salinity, allowing increased expression of targets involved in diverse biological processes including stress signaling, stress defence, transport, cellular homeostasis, metabolism and other stress-related functions. This study may contribute to the understanding of gene regulation and abiotic stress response of roots and the high-throughput sequencing data sets generated may serve as important resources related to salt tolerance traits for functional genomic studies and genetic improvement in banana.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
  8. Mahdavi F, Sariah M, Maziah M
    Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol., 2012 Feb;166(4):1008-19.
    PMID: 22183565 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-011-9489-3
    The possibility of controlling Fusarium wilt--caused by Fusarium oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4)--was investigated by genetic engineering of banana plants for constitutive expression of rice thaumatin-like protein (tlp) gene. Transgene was introduced to cauliflower-like bodies' cluster, induced from meristemic parts of male inflorescences, using particle bombardment with plasmid carrying a rice tlp gene driving by the CaMV 35S promoter. Hygromycin B was used as the selection reagent. The presence and integration of rice tlp gene in genomic DNA confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. RT-PCR revealed the expression of transgene in leaf and root tissues in transformants. Bioassay of transgenic banana plants challenged with Fusarium wilt pathogen showed that expression of TLP enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum sp. cubensec (race 4) compared to control plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Musa/genetics*
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