: Reconstruction of the primary defect following resection of primary tumour is part of
the surgical treatment of head and neck cancer.The present paper reports a case of reconstruction
of medium size through and through defect of the cheek with the transverse platysma
myocutaneous flap combined with the temporalis flap. (Copied from article).
Follicular thyroid adenoma and carcinoma are very common. Benign and malignant lesions are usually indistinguishable from cytology alone and often require confirmatory resection. The spread of follicular carcinoma is usually hematogenous and is treated with surgery and adjuvant radioactive iodine. Very rarely, metastases occur in the mediastinum. Patients usually present with severe compressive symptoms. With proper treatment and follow-up, the prognosis for these type of thyroid malignancies is excellent. In the case presented here, our patient presented to the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center with a progressively enlarging anterior neck swelling. The swelling had started 10 years before his presentation. We diagnosed him with an advanced thyroid malignancy with bulky mediastinal metastases. After extensive investigations and counseling, we chose to treat the patient with tumor excision and mediastinal metastases resection. Typically, mediastinal resection involves the removal of the sternum and use of an acrylic implant to recreate the sternum. In this case, the sternum and ribs were removed with subsequent myocutaneous flap coverage for the wound defect. Our experience represents an alternative treatment option in cases where implant use is unsuitable.
The use of internal mammary perforators (IMPs) as recipient vessels in autologous free flap breast reconstruction has many additional benefits compared with the internal mammary or thoracodorsal vessels. Our goals were to analyze the characteristics of these vessels and to evaluate the reliability of using them in an Asian population.
Introduction: Large wounds in the leg require combination of local flaps or free flap for wound coverage. Gastrocnemius musculocutaneous flap (GMCF) allows a large wound to be covered by a single local flap. However, the conventional GMCF is often associated with donor site morbidity where the exposed soleus raphe causes poor uptake of the skin graft. Islanding the skin on the muscles allows the donor site to be closed primarily, thus avoiding the donor site morbidity. Materials and Methods: Medical records of twelve patients who underwent islanded GMCF surgery from 2004 till 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Results: The mean age was 31 years old. Eight cases were with open fracture of the tibia, two degloving injury exposing the patella, one open fracture of patella and necrotising soft tissue infection. The wound size ranged from 12cm2 to 120cm2. All flaps survived. Three patients required skin grafting at the donor site while in the rest the donor sites were able to be closed primarily. Four patients developed deep infection, one healed after vacuum dressing, one after bone transport and one after split thickness skin graft. One patient ended up with below knee amputation after developing chronic osteomyelitis of the tibia. Conclusion: Islanded gastrocnemius musculocutaneous flap is an effective simple alternative for coverage of large soft tissue defects from the knee to half of the leg distally with minimal donor site morbidity. Aggressive debridement of unhealthy tissue is necessary to prevent infection following wound coverage with this flap.
Chest wall resection is defined as partial or full-thickness removal of the chest wall. Significant morbidity has been recorded, with documented respiratory failure as high as 27%. Medical records of all patients who had undergone chest wall resection and reconstruction were reviewed. Patients' demographics, length of surgery, reconstruction method, size of tumor and chest wall defect, histopathological result, complications, duration of post-operative antibiotics, and hospital stay were assessed. From 1 April 2017 to 30 April 2019, a total of 20 patients underwent chest wall reconstructive surgery. The median age was 57 years, with 12 females and 8 males. Fourteen patients (70%) had malignant disease and 6 patients (30%) had benign disease. Nine patients underwent rigid reconstruction (titanium mesh for sternum and titanium plates for ribs), 6 patients had non-rigid reconstruction (with polypropylene or composite mesh), and 5 patients had primary closure. Nine patients (45%) required closure with myocutaneous flap. Complications were noted in 70% of patients. Patients who underwent primary closure had minor complications. In total, 66.7% of patients who had closure with either fasciocutaneous or myocutaneous flaps had threatened flap necrosis. Two patients developed pneumonia and 3 patients (15%) had respiratory failure requiring tracheostomy and prolonged ventilation. There was 1 mortality (5%) in this series. In conclusion, chest wall resections involving large defects require prudent clinical judgment and multidisciplinary assessments in determining the choice of chest wall reconstruction to improve outcomes.