AIM: The role of laparoscopy in staging of gastric cancer is widely accepted; however, in Malaysia its usage has been limited. Patients can be classified as resectable or unresectable, which helps in avoiding an unwanted laparotomy and the morbidities associated with it. The aim of this study was to assess the value of laparoscopy in staging of gastric cancer in comparison with CT scan.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with carcinoma of the stomach after a complete preoperative work-up underwent laparoscopy prior to surgical exploration. TNM staging was used to compare laparoscopy with CT, with the histopathological report used as the gold standard.
RESULTS: Forty cases were included in this study. The sensitivity of laparoscopy for T3 tumours appears to be significant when compared to that of CT. Laparoscopy detected 90.3% of the cases as against the 58% detected with CT. There was not much difference in the N factor. With regard to M factor, the sensitivity was 100% for laparoscopy in comparison with CT.
CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopy has been shown to be sensitive in detecting metastasis in gastric cancer in comparison to CT, thus helping in avoiding unwanted laparotomy and thus providing a more systemic approach in managing gastric cancers.
KEYWORDS: Gastric cancer; laparoscopic staging
BACKGROUND: Smoking is the most important individual risk factor for many cancer sites but its association with breast and prostate cancer is not entirely clear. Rate advancement periods (RAPs) may enhance communication of smoking related risk to the general population. Thus, we estimated RAPs for the association of smoking exposure (smoking status, time since smoking cessation, smoking intensity, and duration) with total and site-specific (lung, breast, colorectal, prostate, gastric, head and neck, and pancreatic) cancer incidence and mortality.
METHODS: This is a meta-analysis of 19 population-based prospective cohort studies with individual participant data for 897,021 European and American adults. For each cohort we calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for the association of smoking exposure with cancer outcomes using Cox regression adjusted for a common set of the most important potential confounding variables. RAPs (in years) were calculated as the ratio of the logarithms of the HRs for a given smoking exposure variable and age. Meta-analyses were employed to summarize cohort-specific HRs and RAPs.
RESULTS: Overall, 140,205 subjects had a first incident cancer, and 53,164 died from cancer, during an average follow-up of 12 years. Current smoking advanced the overall risk of developing and dying from cancer by eight and ten years, respectively, compared with never smokers. The greatest advancements in cancer risk and mortality were seen for lung cancer and the least for breast cancer. Smoking cessation was statistically significantly associated with delays in the risk of cancer development and mortality compared with continued smoking.
CONCLUSIONS: This investigation shows that smoking, even among older adults, considerably advances, and cessation delays, the risk of developing and dying from cancer. These findings may be helpful in more effectively communicating the harmful effects of smoking and the beneficial effect of smoking cessation.
KEYWORDS: Cancer; Cohort; Incidence; Meta-analysis; Mortality; Smoking
The present study aimed to evaluate the role of pre-therapeutic (18)fluorine-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ((18)F-FDG PET-CT) and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in guiding the treatment strategy and predicting the prognosis of esophageal carcinoma, using the survival data of the patients.
Esophagogastric junction (EGJ) adenocarcinoma has been on the increase in Western countries. However, in Asian countries, data on the incidence of EGJ adenocarcinoma are evidently lacking. In the present review, we focus on the current clinical situation of EGJ adenocarcinoma in three Asian countries: Japan, Hong Kong, and Malaysia. The incidence of EGJ adenocarcinoma has been reported to be gradually increasing in Malaysia and Japan, whereas it has stabilized in Hong Kong. However, the number of cases in these countries is comparatively low compared with Western countries. A reason for the reported difference in the incidence and time trend of EGJ adenocarcinoma among the three countries may be explained by two distinct etiologies: one arising from chronic gastritis similar to distal gastric cancer, and the other related to gastroesophageal reflux disease similar to esophageal adenocarcinoma including Barrett's adenocarcinoma. This review also shows that there are several concerns in clinical practice for EGJ adenocarcinoma. In Hong Kong and Malaysia, many EGJ adenocarcinomas have been detected at a stage not amenable to endoscopic resection. In Japan, histological curability criteria for endoscopic resection cases have not been established. We suggest that an international collaborative study using the same definition of EGJ adenocarcinoma may be helpful not only for clarifying the characteristics of these cancers but also for improving the clinical outcome of these patients.
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Western studies have suggested two distinct etiologies of esophagogastric junction (EGJ) cancer: Helicobacter pylori-associated atrophic gastritis and non-atrophic gastric mucosa resembling esophageal adenocarcinoma. The present study investigated whether endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy can distinguish between these two types of EGJ adenocarcinoma.
METHODS: Data were collected from patients with Siewert type II, T1 EGJ adenocarcinoma who underwent endoscopic or surgical resection at eight Japanese institutions in 2010-2015. Clinicopathological characteristics of EGJ cancers with and without endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy were compared. EGJ was defined as the lower end of the palisade vein and/or the top of the gastric folds.
RESULTS: Of the 229 patients identified, 161 had endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy and 68 did not. The latter group was younger (64 vs 70 years, P = 0.000); had a higher proportion of patients negative for H. pylori (90% vs 47%, P
Mixed salivary tumour is not confined to the parotid. It occurs also in the submandibular gland, and is the commonest cause of subepithelial tumour of the palate. It should be dissected out with its capsule through an adequate incision early, being insensitive to radiation. To shell it out of its capsule is to invite recurrence. It is a disease of young patients, onset at ages of 6 to 46 in this series, and grows slowly.