For estimation of grain yield in wheat, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is considered as a potential screening tool. Field experiments were conducted to scrutinize the response of NDVI to yield behavior of different wheat cultivars and nitrogen fertilization at agronomic research area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (UAF) during the two years 2008-09 and 2009-10. For recording the value of NDVI, Green seeker (Handheld-505) was used. Split plot design was used as experimental model in, keeping four nitrogen rates (N1 = 0 kg ha(-1), N2 = 55 kg ha(-1), N3 = 110 kg ha(-1), and N4 = 220 kg ha(-1)) in main plots and ten wheat cultivars (Bakkhar-2001, Chakwal-50, Chakwal-97, Faisalabad-2008, GA-2002, Inqlab-91, Lasani-2008, Miraj-2008, Sahar-2006, and Shafaq-2006) in subplots with four replications. Impact of nitrogen and difference between cultivars were forecasted through NDVI. The results suggested that nitrogen treatment N4 (220 kg ha(-1)) and cultivar Faisalabad-2008 gave maximum NDVI value (0.85) at grain filling stage among all treatments. The correlation among NDVI at booting, grain filling, and maturity stages with grain yield was positive (R(2) = 0.90; R(2) = 0.90; R(2) = 0.95), respectively. So, booting, grain filling, and maturity can be good depictive stages during mid and later growth stages of wheat crop under agroclimatic conditions of Faisalabad and under similar other wheat growing environments in the country.
Soil contamination by copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) is a widespread environmental problem. For phytoextraction to be successful and viable in environmental remediation, strategies that can improve plant uptake must be identified. In the present study we investigated the use of nitrogen (N) fertilizer as an efficient way to enhance accumulation of Cu and Pb from contaminated industrial soils into amaranth, Indian mustard and sunflower.
A molybdate-reducing bacterium has been locally isolated. The bacterium reduces molybdate or Mo(6+) to molybdenum blue (molybdate oxidation states of between 5+ and 6+). Different carbon sources such as acetate, formate, glycerol, citric acid, lactose, fructose, glucose, mannitol, tartarate, maltose, sucrose, and starch were used at an initial concentration of 0.2% (w/v) in low phosphate media to study their effect on the molybdate reduction efficiency of bacterium. All of the carbon sources supported cellular growth, but only sucrose, maltose, glucose, and glycerol (in decreasing order) supported molybdate reduction after 24 h of incubation. Optimum concentration of sucrose for molybdate reduction is 1.0% (w/v) after 24 h of static incubation. Ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride, valine, OH-proline, glutamic acid, and alanine (in the order of decreasing efficiency) supported molybdate reduction with ammonium sulfate giving the highest amount of molybdenum blue after 24 h of incubation at 0.3% (w/v). The optimum molybdate concentration that supports molybdate reduction is between 15 and 25 mM. Molybdate reduction is optimum at 35 degrees C. Phosphate at concentrations higher than 5 mM strongly inhibits molybdate reduction. The molybdenum blue produced from cellular reduction exhibits a unique absorption spectrum with a maximum peak at 865 nm and a shoulder at 700 nm. The isolate was tentatively identified as Serratia marcescens Strain Dr.Y6 based on carbon utilization profiles using Biolog GN plates and partial 16s rDNA molecular phylogeny.
White-rot fungi, namely Coriolus versicolor and Schizophyllum commune, were studied for the biodecolorization of textile dyeing effluent in shaker-flask experiments. The results showed that C. versicolor was able to achieve 68% color removal after 5 days of treatment while that of S. commune was 88% in 9 days. Both fungi achieved the above results in non-sterile condition with diammonium hydrogen phosphate as the nutrient supplement. On the other hand, the best COD removal of 80% was obtained with C. versicolor in 9 days in sterile effluent with yeast extract as nutrient supplement, while S. commune was able to remove 85% COD within 8 days in non-sterile textile effluent supplemented with diammonium hydrogen phosphate.
Copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [P(3HB-co-3HV)] has been the center of attention in the bio-industrial fields, as it possesses superior mechanical properties compared to poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB)]. The usage of oleic acid and 1-pentanol was exploited as the carbon source for the production of P(3HB-co-3HV) copolymer by using a locally isolated strain Cupriavidus sp. USMAA2-4. In this study, the productivity of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) was improved by varying the frequency of feeding in fed-batch culture. The highest productivity (0.48 g/L/h) that represents 200 % increment was obtained by feeding the carbon source and nitrogen source three times and also by considering the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and oxygen transfer rate (OTR). A significantly higher P(3HB-co-3HV) concentration of 25.7 g/L and PHA content of 66 wt% were obtained. The 3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) monomer composition obtained was 24 mol% with the growth of 13.3 g/L. The different frequency of feeding carried out has produced a blend copolymer and has broadened the monomer distribution. In addition, increase in number of granules was also observed as the frequency of feeding increases. In general, the most glaring increment in productivity offer advantage for industrial P(3HB-co-3HV) production, and it is crucial in developing cost-effective processes for commercialization.
Bioprospecting for biodiesel potential in microalgae primarily involves a few model species of microalgae and rarely on non-model microalgae species. Therefore, the present study determined changes in physiology, oil accumulation, fatty acid composition and biodiesel properties of a non-model microalga Messastrum gracile SE-MC4 in response to 12 continuous days of nitrate-starve (NS) and nitrate-replete (NR) conditions respectively. Under NS, the highest oil content (57.9%) was achieved despite reductions in chlorophyll content, biomass productivity and lipid productivity. However, under both NS and NR, palmitic acid and oleic acid remained as dominant fatty acids thus suggesting high potential of M. gracile for biodiesel feedstock consideration. Biodiesel properties analysis returned high values of cetane number (CN 61.9-64.4) and degree of unsaturation (DU 45.3-57.4) in both treatments. The current findings show the possibility of a non-model microalga to inherit superior ability over model species in oil accumulation for biodiesel development.
Ability of two strains of Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 74135 and ATCC 20542) for production of lovastatin in solid state fermentation (SSF) using rice straw (RS) and oil palm frond (OPF) was investigated. Results showed that RS is a better substrate for production of lovastatin in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin has been obtained using A. terreus ATCC 74135 and RS as substrate without additional nitrogen source (157.07 mg/kg dry matter (DM)). Although additional nitrogen source has no benefit effect on enhancing the lovastatin production using RS substrate, it improved the lovastatin production using OPF with maximum production of 70.17 and 63.76 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and A. terreus ATCC 74135, respectively (soybean meal as nitrogen source). Incubation temperature, moisture content, and particle size had shown significant effect on lovastatin production (P < 0.01) and inoculums size and pH had no significant effect on lovastatin production (P > 0.05). Results also have shown that pH 6, 25°C incubation temperature, 1.4 to 2 mm particle size, 50% initial moisture content, and 8 days fermentation time are the best conditions for lovastatin production in SSF. Maximum production of lovastatin using optimized condition was 175.85 and 260.85 mg/kg DM for A. terreus ATCC 20542 and ATCC 74135, respectively, using RS as substrate.