Displaying all 10 publications

  1. Kaur G
    PMID: 19842399
    An epidemiological cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of clinical malaria among the Orang Asli population of Raub, Pahang, Malaysia. The study was conducted on a representative sample of 520 Orang Asli. Malariometric and clinical measurements were taken. The overall parasitemic rate was 24.2% (95% CI 20.7-28.1). Twenty-three point four percent (95% CI 19.5-26.9) of respondents age two years and above were clinically febrile. The prevalence of fever, chills, perspiration and body aches during a one month period prior to the survey among the same group ranged between 4.2% (95% CI 2.7-6.4) and 13.5% (95% CI 10.6-16.7). Children 2-12 years old were more likely to present with fever, and symptoms of malaria than older children. Gender was not significantly associated with fever or any of the other malaria symptoms. Presence of clinical fever and history of malaria symptoms were all strongly associated with current infection. The association was significant even after controlling for age (adjusted OR 2.8-5.1, 95% CI 1.1-8.3). Orang Asli children significantly experienced greater morbidity due to malaria compared to adults. Control and treatment of malaria should focus on children, while further research should explore the effects of malaria morbidity on the quality of life of these children.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parasitemia/diagnosis
  2. Khoo A, Furuta T, Abdullah NR, Bah NA, Kojima S, Wah MJ
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1996 1 1;90(1):40-1.
    PMID: 8730308
    Matched MeSH terms: Parasitemia/diagnosis
  3. Lee WC, Chin PW, Lau YL, Chin LC, Fong MY, Yap CJ, et al.
    Malar J, 2013;12:88.
    PMID: 23496970 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-12-88
    Plasmodium knowlesi is a potentially life-threatening zoonotic malaria parasite due to its relatively short erythrocytic cycle. Microscopic identification of P. knowlesi is difficult, with "compacted parasite cytoplasm" being one of the important identifying keys. This report is about a case of hyperparasitaemic human P. knowlesi infection (27% parasitaemia) with atypical amoeboid morphology. A peninsular Malaysian was admitted to the hospital with malaria. He suffered anaemia and acute kidney function impairment. Microscopic examination, assisted by nested PCR and sequencing confirmed as P. knowlesi infection. With anti-malarial treatment and several medical interventions, patient survived and recovered. One-month medical follow-up was performed after recovery and no recrudescence was noted. This case report highlights the extreme hyperparasitaemic setting, the atypical morphology of P. knowlesi in the patient's erythrocytes, as well as the medical interventions involved in this successfully treated case.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parasitemia/diagnosis*
  4. Lim BH, Noordin R, Nor ZM, Rahman RA, Abdullah KA, Sinnadurai S
    Exp Parasitol, 2004 Sep-Oct;108(1-2):1-6.
    PMID: 15491542
    BmR1 recombinant antigen has previously been shown to demonstrate high sensitivity and specificity in the serological diagnosis of brugian filariasis in humans. In this study, the pattern of recognition of antibody to BmR1 during Brugia malayi infection was investigated by employing Meriones unguiculatus as the experimental model. Thirty two gerbils were infected subcutaneously with 120 L(3); and two control groups each comprising 25 animals were employed. ELISA using BmR1 was used to detect filaria-specific IgG antibodies elicited by the gerbils; using sera collected from the day 1 until day 150 post-inoculation (p.i.). The results showed that BmR1 detected B. malayi infection in gerbils harboring adult worms irrespective of the presence of circulating microfilaria, and was exemplified by positive ELISA results in nine a microfilaraemic animals that harbored live adult worms. The initial time of the antibody recognition was at day 8 p.i. and the antibody titre showed some correlation with adult worm burden.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parasitemia/diagnosis
  5. Cox-Singh J, Mahayet S, Abdullah MS, Singh B
    Int J Parasitol, 1997 Dec;27(12):1575-7.
    PMID: 9467744
    Malaria remains a disease of underdeveloped and remote regions of the world. The application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology to malaria epidemiology has the potential for increasing our knowledge and understanding of this disease. In order to study malaria in all geographical locations it is important that specimen collection and DNA extraction for PCR be kept simple. Here we report a method for extracting DNA from dried blood spots on filter paper which is capable of detecting one Plasmodium falciparum and two Plasmodium vivax parasites/microliter of whole blood by nested PCR without compromising the simplicity of specimen collection or DNA extraction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parasitemia/diagnosis
  6. Sahimin N, Alias SN, Woh PY, Edah MA, Mohd Zain SN
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Sep;31(3):422-31.
    PMID: 25382468 MyJurnal
    The quantitative buffy coat (QBC) technique and conventional Giemsa thin blood smear was compared to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the technique in detecting blood parasitic infection of the rodent populations from four urban cities in Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 432 blood samples from four rat species (Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus diardii, Rattus exulans and Rattus argentiventer) were screened using both techniques and successfully detected two blood protozoan species (Trypanosoma lewisi and Plasmodium sp.) with Trypanosoma lewisi predominantly infecting the population. Results showed that Giemsa-stained thin film (GTF) was the better detection method on blood parasitemia (46.7%) compared to Quantitative Buffy Coat method (38.9%) with overall detection technique sensitivity and specificity at 83.2% and 74.8% respectively. The sensitivity in detection of Trypanosoma lewisi was 84.4% with value slightly lower for Plasmodium sp. infections at 76.6%. Statistical analysis proved that GTF technique was significantly more sensitive in the detection of blood protozoan infections in the rodent population compared to QBC (p<0.05).
    Matched MeSH terms: Parasitemia/diagnosis
  7. Gurpreet K
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Apr;26(1):57-66.
    PMID: 19696728 MyJurnal
    An epidemiological cross-sectional study was undertaken to determine the endemicity of malaria among the Orang Asli population of Raub, Pahang. Malaria endemicity was measured in terms of the prevalence of parasitaemia and splenomegaly. A total of 520 Orang Asli were examined. The point prevalence of malaria was 24.2% (95% CI 20.7-25.1), with Plasmodium falciparum (67.5%) being the predominant species. Children < 12 years were at least 3.7 times more likely to be parasitaemic compared to those older. The prevalence of malaria among children 2-<10 years was 38.1% (95% CI 31.6-50.0). Spleen rate among children 2-<10 years old was 22.3% (95% CI 17.1-28.3). The average enlarged spleen size was 1.2. These findings classify the study area as being mesoendemic. Malaria control activities among the Orang Asli should focus on protecting vulnerable subgroups like young children. Measuring the level of malaria endemicity at regular intervals is fundamental in evaluating the effectiveness of malaria control programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parasitemia/diagnosis
  8. Chandrawathani P, Nurulaini R, Adnan M, Premalaatha B, Khadijah S, Jamnah O, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Apr;26(1):11-5.
    PMID: 19696722 MyJurnal
    This paper reports the occurrence of helminth and protozoan infections on small ruminants from eight farms situated in Kinta and Perak Tengah district, Perak. The results of this survey indicate that helminthiasis and coccidiosis is rampant in sheep and goat farms. Several anthelmintics have been used for the control of helminths. The smallholders depended on health and extention services from the State Veterinary Department. This survey is part of an ongoing programme by the Department of Veterinary Services to upgrade services and report the current status of parasitic diseases in the state.
    Matched MeSH terms: Parasitemia/diagnosis
  9. Jiram AI, Ooi CH, Rubio JM, Hisam S, Karnan G, Sukor NM, et al.
    Malar J, 2019 May 02;18(1):156.
    PMID: 31046769 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-019-2786-y
    BACKGROUND: Malaysia has declared its aim to eliminate malaria with a goal of achieving zero local transmission by the year 2020. However, targeting the human reservoir of infection, including those with asymptomatic infection is required to achieve malaria elimination. Diagnosing asymptomatic malaria is not as straightforward due to the obvious lack of clinical manifestations and often subpatent level of parasites. Accurate diagnosis of malaria is important for providing realistic estimates of malaria burden and preventing misinformed interventions. Low levels of parasitaemia acts as silent reservoir of transmission thus remains infectious to susceptible mosquito vectors. Hence, the aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence of asymptomatic submicroscopic malaria (SMM) in the District of Belaga, Sarawak.

    METHODS: In 2013, a total of 1744 dried blood spots (DBS) were obtained from residents of 8 longhouses who appeared healthy. Subsequently, 251 venous blood samples were collected from residents of 2 localities in 2014 based on the highest number of submicroscopic cases from prior findings. Thin and thick blood films were prepared from blood obtained from all participants in this study. Microscopic examination were carried out on all samples and a nested and nested multiplex PCR were performed on samples collected in 2013 and 2014 respectively.

    RESULTS: No malaria parasites were detected in all the Giemsa-stained blood films. However, of the 1744 samples, 29 (1.7%) were positive for Plasmodium vivax by PCR. Additionally, of the 251 samples, the most prevalent mono-infection detected by PCR was Plasmodium falciparum 50 (20%), followed by P. vivax 39 (16%), P. knowlesi 9 (4%), and mixed infections 20 (8%).

    CONCLUSIONS: This research findings conclude evidence of Plasmodium by PCR, among samples previously undetectable by routine blood film microscopic examination, in local ethnic minority who are clinically healthy. SMM in Belaga district is attributed not only to P. vivax, but also to P. falciparum and P. knowlesi. In complementing efforts of programme managers, there is a need to increase surveillance for SMM nationwide to estimate the degree of SMM that warrant measures to block new transmission of malaria.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parasitemia/diagnosis*
  10. Daneshvar C, Davis TM, Cox-Singh J, Rafa'ee MZ, Zakaria SK, Divis PC, et al.
    Clin Infect Dis, 2009 Sep 15;49(6):852-60.
    PMID: 19635025 DOI: 10.1086/605439
    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is increasingly recognized as a cause of human malaria in Southeast Asia but there are no detailed prospective clinical studies of naturally acquired infections.

    METHODS: In a systematic study of the presentation and course of patients with acute P. knowlesi infection, clinical and laboratory data were collected from previously untreated, nonpregnant adults admitted to the hospital with polymerase chain reaction-confirmed acute malaria at Kapit Hospital (Sarawak, Malaysia) from July 2006 through February 2008.

    RESULTS: Of 152 patients recruited, 107 (70%) had P. knowlesi infection, 24 (16%) had Plasmodium falciparum infection, and 21 (14%) had Plasmodium vivax. Patients with P. knowlesi infection presented with a nonspecific febrile illness, had a baseline median parasitemia value at hospital admission of 1387 parasites/microL (interquartile range, 6-222,570 parasites/microL), and all were thrombocytopenic at hospital admission or on the following day. Most (93.5%) of the patients with P. knowlesi infection had uncomplicated malaria that responded to chloroquine and primaquine treatment. Based on World Health Organization criteria for falciparum malaria, 7 patients with P. knowlesi infection (6.5%) had severe infections at hospital admission. The most frequent complication was respiratory distress, which was present at hospital admission in 4 patients and developed after admission in an additional 3 patients. P. knowlesi parasitemia at hospital admission was an independent determinant of respiratory distress, as were serum creatinine level, serum bilirubin, and platelet count at admission (p < .002 for each). Two patients with knowlesi malaria died, representing a case fatality rate of 1.8% (95% confidence interval, 0.2%-6.6%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Knowlesi malaria causes a wide spectrum of disease. Most cases are uncomplicated and respond promptly to treatment, but approximately 1 in 10 patients develop potentially fatal complications.

    Matched MeSH terms: Parasitemia/diagnosis*
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