MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the information for CYP1B1 missense variants was retrieved from the dbSNP database. Seven different tools, namely: SIFT, PolyPhen-2, PROVEAN, SNAP2, PANTHER, PhD-SNP, and Predict-SNP, were used for functional annotation, and two packages, which were I-Mutant 2.0 and MUpro, were used to predict the effect of the variants on protein stability. A phylogenetic conservation analysis using deleterious variants was performed by the ConSurf server. The 3D structures of the wild-type and mutants were generated using the I-TASSER tool, and a 50 ns molecular dynamic simulation (MDS) was executed using the GROMACS webserver to determine the stability of mutants compared to the native protein. Co-expression, protein-protein interaction (PPI), gene ontology (GO), and pathway analyses were additionally performed for the CYP1B1 in-depth study.
RESULTS: All the retrieved data from the dbSNP database was subjected to functional, structural, and phylogenetic analysis. From the conducted analyses, a total of 19 high-risk variants (P52L, G61E, G90R, P118L, E173K, D291G, Y349D, G365W, G365R, R368H, R368C, D374N, N423Y, D430E, P442A, R444Q, F445L, R469W, and C470Y) were screened out that were considered to be deleterious to the CYP1B1 gene. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that the majority of the variants occurred in highly conserved regions. The MD simulation analysis exhibited that all mutants' average root mean square deviation (RMSD) values were higher compared to the wild-type protein, which could potentially cause CYP1B1 protein dysfunction, leading to the severity of the disease. Moreover, it has been discovered that CYP1A1, VCAN, HSD17B1, HSD17B2, and AKR1C3 are highly co-expressed and interact with CYP1B1. Besides, the CYP1B1 protein is primarily involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, chemical carcinogenesis, the retinal metabolic process, and steroid hormone biosynthesis pathways, demonstrating its multifaceted and important roles.
DISCUSSION: This is the first comprehensive study that adds essential information to the ongoing efforts to understand the crucial role of genetic signatures in the development of PCG and will be useful for more targeted gene-disease association studies.
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel dinucleotide deletion in the FRDA gene in two Malaysian siblings with FRDA1.
SETTING: Tertiary referral university hospital setting.
PATIENTS AND METHODS: A previously healthy 10-year-old Malaysian boy, presented with fever, lethargy, headaches, dysarthria, dysphagia, vertigo and ataxia which developed over a one week period. His neurological exam revealed evidence of dysarthria and ataxia, mild generalized weakness and choreoform movements of the tongue and hands. His reflexes were absent and Babinski sign was present bilaterally. A nine-year-old sister was found to have mild ataxia but was otherwise neurologically intact.
RESULTS: Molecular genetic studies demonstrated that both siblings were compound heterozygotes with a GAA expansion on one allele and a novel dinucleotide deletion on the other allele.
CONCLUSIONS: We describe a novel dinucleotide deletion in the first exon of the FRDA gene in two siblings with FRDA1. Additionally this is the first report of FRDA1 occurring in a family of southeast Asian descent, it demonstrates intrafamilial phenotypic variability, and confirms that atypical phenotypes are associated with compound heterozygosity.
Please provide feedback to Administrator (firstname.lastname@example.org)