Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 81 in total

  1. Waugh S
    Parasit Vectors, 2015;8:79.
    PMID: 25651916 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-015-0694-8
    The use of detailed methodologies and legitimate settings justifications in spatial analysis is imperative to locating areas of significance. Studies missing this action may enact interventions in improper areas.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  2. Brant HL, Ewers RM, Vythilingam I, Drakeley C, Benedick S, Mumford JD
    Malar J, 2016 07 19;15(1):370.
    PMID: 27430261 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-016-1416-1
    BACKGROUND: Malaria cases caused by Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian parasite naturally found in long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques, are increasing rapidly in Sabah, Malaysia. One hypothesis is that this increase is associated with changes in land use. A study was carried out to identify the anopheline vectors present in different forest types and to observe the human landing behaviour of mosquitoes.

    METHODS: Mosquito collections were carried out using human landing catches at ground and canopy levels in the Tawau Division of Sabah. Collections were conducted along an anthropogenic disturbance gradient (primary forest, lightly logged virgin jungle reserve and salvage logged forest) between 18:00 and 22:00 h.

    RESULTS: Anopheles balabacensis, a vector of P. knowlesi, was the predominant species in all collection areas, accounting for 70 % of the total catch, with a peak landing time of 18:30-20:00 h. Anopheles balabacensis had a preference for landing on humans at ground level compared to the canopy (p knowlesi between canopy-dwelling simian hosts and ground-dwelling humans, and that forest disturbance increases the abundance of this disease vector. These results, in combination with regional patterns of land use change, may partly explain the rapid rise in P. knowlesi cases in Sabah. This study provides essential data on anthropophily for the principal vector of P. knowlesi which is important for the planning of vector control strategies.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification
  3. Lai MY, Ooi CH, Lau YL
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2018 03;98(3):700-703.
    PMID: 29260656 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0738
    The aim of this study was to develop a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) combined with a lateral flow (LF) strip method for specific diagnosis of Plasmodium knowlesi. With incubation at 37°C, the 18S rRNA gene of P. knowlesi was successfully amplified within 12 minutes. By adding a specifically designed probe to the reaction solution, the amplified RPA product can be visualized on a LF strip. The RPA assay exhibited high sensitivity with limits of detection down to 10 parasites/μL of P. knowlesi. Nonetheless, it was demonstrated that all P. knowlesi (N = 41) and other Plasmodium sp. (N = 25) were positive while negative samples (N = 8) were negative. Therefore, a combination of RPA and LF strip detection is a highly promising approach with the potential to be suitable for use in resource-limited settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  4. De Silva JR, Lau YL, Fong MY
    PLoS One, 2014;9(9):e108951.
    PMID: 25268233 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0108951
    The Duffy blood group is of major interest in clinical medicine as it plays an important role in Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax infection. In the present study, the distribution of Duffy blood group genotypes and allelic frequencies among P. knowlesi infected patients as well as healthy individuals in Peninsular Malaysia were determined. The blood group of 60 healthy blood donors and 51 P. knowlesi malaria patients were genotyped using allele specific polymerase chain reaction (ASP-PCR). The data was analyzed using Fisher's exact test in order to assess the significance of the variables. Our results show a high proportion of the FY*A/FY*A genotype (>85% for both groups) and a high frequency of the FY*A allele (>90% for both groups). The FY*A/FY*A genotype was the most predominant genotype in both infected and healthy blood samples. The genotype frequency did not differ significantly between the donor blood and the malaria patient groups. Also, there was no significant correlation between susceptibility to P. knowlesi infection with any Duffy blood genotype.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  5. Moyes CL, Henry AJ, Golding N, Huang Z, Singh B, Baird JK, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2014 Mar;8(3):e2780.
    PMID: 24676231 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002780
    BACKGROUND: The simian malaria parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi, can cause severe and fatal disease in humans yet it is rarely included in routine public health reporting systems for malaria and its geographical range is largely unknown. Because malaria caused by P. knowlesi is a truly neglected tropical disease, there are substantial obstacles to defining the geographical extent and risk of this disease. Information is required on the occurrence of human cases in different locations, on which non-human primates host this parasite and on which vectors are able to transmit it to humans. We undertook a systematic review and ranked the existing evidence, at a subnational spatial scale, to investigate the potential geographical range of the parasite reservoir capable of infecting humans.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After reviewing the published literature we identified potential host and vector species and ranked these based on how informative they are for the presence of an infectious parasite reservoir, based on current evidence. We collated spatial data on parasite occurrence and the ranges of the identified host and vector species. The ranked spatial data allowed us to assign an evidence score to 475 subnational areas in 19 countries and we present the results on a map of the Southeast and South Asia region.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have ranked subnational areas within the potential disease range according to evidence for presence of a disease risk to humans, providing geographical evidence to support decisions on prevention, management and prophylaxis. This work also highlights the unknown risk status of large parts of the region. Within this unknown category, our map identifies which areas have most evidence for the potential to support an infectious reservoir and are therefore a priority for further investigation. Furthermore we identify geographical areas where further investigation of putative host and vector species would be highly informative for the region-wide assessment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  6. Jiram AI, Vythilingam I, NoorAzian YM, Yusof YM, Azahari AH, Fong MY
    Malar J, 2012;11:213.
    PMID: 22727041
    The first natural infection of Plasmodium knowlesi in humans was recorded in 1965 in peninsular Malaysia. Extensive research was then conducted and it was postulated that it was a rare incident and that simian malaria will not be easily transmitted to humans. However, at the turn of the 21st century, knowlesi malaria was prevalent throughout Southeast Asia and is life threatening. Thus, a longitudinal study was initiated to determine the vectors, their seasonal variation and preference to humans and macaques.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  7. Ta TT, Salas A, Ali-Tammam M, Martínez Mdel C, Lanza M, Arroyo E, et al.
    Malar J, 2010;9:219.
    PMID: 20663184 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-219
    Previously, Plasmodium knowlesi was not considered as a species of Plasmodium that could cause malaria in human beings, as it is parasite of long-tailed (Macaca fascicularis) and pig-tailed (Macaca nemestrina) macaques found in Southeast Asia. A case of infection by P. knowlesi is described in a Spanish traveller, who came back to Spain with daily fever after his last overseas travel, which was a six-month holiday in forested areas of Southeast Asia between 2008 and 2009. His P. knowlesi infection was detected by multiplex Real time quantitative PCR and confirmed by sequencing the amplified fragment. Using nested multiplex malaria PCR (reference method in Spain) and a rapid diagnostic test, the P. knowlesi infection was negative. This patient was discharged and asymptomatic when the positive result to P. knowlesi was reported. Prior to this case, there have been two more reports of European travellers with malaria caused by P. knowlesi, a Finnish man who travelled to Peninsular Malaysia during four weeks in March 2007, and a Swedish man who did a short visit to Malaysian Borneo in October 2006. Taken together with this report of P. knowlesi infection in a Spanish traveller returning from Southeast Asia, this is the third case of P. knowlesi infection in Europe, indicating that this simian parasite can infect visitors to endemic areas in Southeast Asia. This last European case is quite surprising, given that it is an untreated-symptomatic P. knowlesi in human, in contrast to what is currently known about P. knowlesi infection. Most previous reports of human P. knowlesi malaria infections were in adults, often with symptoms and relatively high parasite densities, up to the recent report in Ninh Thuan province, located in the southern part of central Vietnam, inhabited mainly by the Ra-glai ethnic minority, in which all P. knowlesi infections were asymptomatic, co-infected with P. malariae, with low parasite densities and two of the three identified cases were very young children under five years old.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  8. van Hellemond JJ, van Genderen PJ
    Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd, 2010;154:A1353.
    PMID: 20456798
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  9. Kantele A, Jokiranta S
    Duodecim, 2010;126(4):427-34.
    PMID: 20486493
    Four species have been known to bring on human malaria, the most severe disease being caused by Plasmodium falciparum. In 2007, after returning from Malaysia, a Finnish tourist was found to be infected with a fifth Plasmodium species, P. knowlesi which usually infects macaques. Over the past few years, hundreds of human cases have been found in Malaysia. The clinical disease caused by P. knowlesi appears less severe than P. falciparum infection, but more severe than infection with other malaria-causing species. Diagnosis is based both on PCR and microscopy. P. knowlesi is currently. considered as the fifth species causing malaria in humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  10. Divis PC, Shokoples SE, Singh B, Yanow SK
    Malar J, 2010 Nov 30;9:344.
    PMID: 21114872 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-344
    BACKGROUND: The misdiagnosis of Plasmodium knowlesi by microscopy has prompted a re-evaluation of the geographic distribution, prevalence and pathogenesis of this species using molecular diagnostic tools. In this report, a specific probe for P. knowlesi, that can be used in a previously described TaqMan real-time PCR assay for detection of Plasmodium spp., and Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale, was designed and validated against clinical samples.

    METHODS: A hydrolysis probe for a real-time PCR assay was designed to recognize a specific DNA sequence within the P. knowlesi small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. The sensitivity, linearity and specificity of the assay were determined using plasmids containing P. knowlesi DNA and genomic DNA of P. falciparum, P. knowlesi, P. malariae, P. ovale and P. vivax isolated from clinical samples. DNA samples of the simian malaria parasites Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium inui that can infect humans under experimental conditions were also examined together with human DNA samples.

    RESULTS: Analytical sensitivity of the P. knowlesi-specific assay was 10 copies/μL and quantitation was linear over a range of 10-106 copies. The sensitivity of the assay is equivalent to nested PCR and P. knowlesi DNA was detected from all 40 clinical P. knowlesi specimens, including one from a patient with a parasitaemia of three parasites/μL of blood. No cross-reactivity was observed with 67 Plasmodium DNA samples (31 P. falciparum, 23 P. vivax, six P. ovale, three P. malariae, one P. malariae/P. ovale, one P. falciparum/P. malariae, one P. inui and one P. cynomolgi) and four samples of human DNA.

    CONCLUSIONS: This test demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity, and adds P. knowlesi to the repertoire of Plasmodium targets for the clinical diagnosis of malaria by real-time PCR assays. Furthermore, quantitation of DNA copy number provides a useful advantage over other molecular assays to investigate the correlation between levels of infection and the spectrum of disease.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  11. Van den Eede P, Vythilingam I, Ngo DT, Nguyen VH, Le XH, D'Alessandro U, et al.
    Malar J, 2010;9:20.
    PMID: 20082717 DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-9-20
    A recently published comment on a report of Plasmodium knowlesi infections in Vietnam states that this may not accurately represent the situation in the study area because the PCR primers used may cross-hybridize with Plasmodium vivax. Nevertheless, P. knowlesi infections have been confirmed by sequencing. In addition, a neighbour-joining tree based on the 18S S-Type SSUrRNA gene shows that the Vietnamese samples clearly cluster with the P. knowlesi isolates identified in Malaysia and are distinct from the corresponding P. vivax sequences. All samples came from asymptomatic individuals who did not consult for fever during the months preceding or following the survey, indicating that asymptomatic P. knowlesi infections occur in this population, although this does not exclude the occurrence of symptomatic cases. Large-scale studies to determine the extent and the epidemiology of P. knowlesi malaria in Vietnam are further needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  12. Lee KS, Cox-Singh J, Brooke G, Matusop A, Singh B
    Int. J. Parasitol., 2009 Aug;39(10):1125-8.
    PMID: 19358848 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2009.03.003
    Human infections with Plasmodium knowlesi have been misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium malariae due to their morphological similarities. Although microscopy-identified P. malariae cases have been reported in the state of Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo) as early as 1952, recent epidemiological studies suggest the absence of indigenous P. malariae infections. The present study aimed to determine the past incidence and distribution of P. knowlesi infections in the state of Sarawak based on archival blood films from patients diagnosed by microscopy as having P. malariae infections. Nested PCR assays were used to identify Plasmodium species in DNA extracted from 47 thick blood films collected in 1996 from patients in seven different divisions throughout the state of Sarawak. Plasmodium knowlesi DNA was detected in 35 (97.2%) of 36 blood films that were positive for Plasmodium DNA, with patients originating from all seven divisions. Only one sample was positive for P. malariae DNA. This study provides further evidence of the widespread distribution of human infections with P. knowlesi in Sarawak and its past occurrence. Taken together with data from previous studies, our findings suggest that P. knowlesi malaria is not a newly emergent disease in humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  13. Vythilingam I, Tan CH, Asmad M, Chan ST, Lee KS, Singh B
    Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2006 Nov;100(11):1087-8.
    PMID: 16725166
    Four species of malaria parasites are known to infect humans. A fifth species, Plasmodium knowlesi, has been reported to infect humans in Malaysian Borneo. Here we report for the first time the incrimination of Anopheles latens as the vector of P. knowlesi among humans and monkeys in Sarawak, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification
  14. Wong ML, Chua TH, Leong CS, Khaw LT, Fornace K, Wan-Sulaiman WY, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2015;9(10):e0004135.
    PMID: 26448052 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004135
    BACKGROUND: The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is emerging as a public health problem in Southeast Asia, particularly in Malaysian Borneo where it now accounts for the greatest burden of malaria cases and deaths. Control is hindered by limited understanding of the ecology of potential vector species.

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a one year longitudinal study of P. knowlesi vectors in three sites within an endemic area of Sabah, Malaysia. All mosquitoes were captured using human landing catch. Anopheles mosquitoes were dissected to determine, oocyst, sporozoites and parous rate. Anopheles balabacensis is confirmed as the primary vector of. P. knowlesi (using nested PCR) in Sabah for the first time. Vector densities were significantly higher and more seasonally variable in the village than forest or small scale farming site. However An. balabacensis survival and P. knowlesi infection rates were highest in forest and small scale farm sites. Anopheles balabacensis mostly bites humans outdoors in the early evening between 1800 to 2000 hrs.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study indicates transmission is unlikely to be prevented by bednets. This combined with its high vectorial capacity poses a threat to malaria elimination programmes within the region.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  15. Moyes CL, Shearer FM, Huang Z, Wiebe A, Gibson HS, Nijman V, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2016 Apr 28;9:242.
    PMID: 27125995 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1527-0
    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium knowlesi is a zoonotic pathogen, transmitted among macaques and to humans by anopheline mosquitoes. Information on P. knowlesi malaria is lacking in most regions so the first step to understand the geographical distribution of disease risk is to define the distributions of the reservoir and vector species.

    METHODS: We used macaque and mosquito species presence data, background data that captured sampling bias in the presence data, a boosted regression tree model and environmental datasets, including annual data for land classes, to predict the distributions of each vector and host species. We then compared the predicted distribution of each species with cover of each land class.

    RESULTS: Fine-scale distribution maps were generated for three macaque host species (Macaca fascicularis, M. nemestrina and M. leonina) and two mosquito vector complexes (the Dirus Complex and the Leucosphyrus Complex). The Leucosphyrus Complex was predicted to occur in areas with disturbed, but not intact, forest cover (> 60% tree cover) whereas the Dirus Complex was predicted to occur in areas with 10-100% tree cover as well as vegetation mosaics and cropland. Of the macaque species, M. nemestrina was mainly predicted to occur in forested areas whereas M. fascicularis was predicted to occur in vegetation mosaics, cropland, wetland and urban areas in addition to forested areas.

    CONCLUSIONS: The predicted M. fascicularis distribution encompassed a wide range of habitats where humans are found. This is of most significance in the northern part of its range where members of the Dirus Complex are the main P. knowlesi vectors because these mosquitoes were also predicted to occur in a wider range of habitats. Our results support the hypothesis that conversion of intact forest into disturbed forest (for example plantations or timber concessions), or the creation of vegetation mosaics, will increase the probability that members of the Leucosphyrus Complex occur at these locations, as well as bringing humans into these areas. An explicit analysis of disease risk itself using infection data is required to explore this further. The species distributions generated here can now be included in future analyses of P. knowlesi infection risk.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  16. Lau YL, Cheong FW, Chin LC, Mahmud R, Chen Y, Fong MY
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Dec;31(4):749-59.
    PMID: 25776601 MyJurnal
    Malaria causes high global mortality and morbidity annually. Plasmodium knowlesi has been recognised as the fifth human Plasmodium sp. and its infection is widely distributed in Southeast Asia. Merozoite surface protein-119 (MSP-119) appears as a potential candidate for malaria blood stage vaccine as it could induce protective immunity. In this study, codon optimized P. knowlesi MSP-119 (pkMSP-119) was expressed and purified in yeast Pichia pastoris expression system. The purified recombinant protein was further evaluated using Western blot assay using knowlesi malaria, non-knowlesi human malaria, non-malarial parasitic infections and healthy serum samples (n = 50). The sensitivity of purified pkMSP-119 towards detection of knowlesi infection was as 28.6% (2/7). pkMSP-119 did not react with all non-malarial parasitic infections and healthy donor sera, yet reacted with some non-knowlesi human malaria sera, therefore lead to a specificity of 86.0% (37/43).
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification
  17. Barber BE, Rajahram GS, Grigg MJ, William T, Anstey NM
    Malar J, 2017 03 31;16(1):135.
    PMID: 28359340 DOI: 10.1186/s12936-017-1787-y
    BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) World Malaria Report documents substantial progress towards control and elimination of malaria. However, major challenges remain. In some regions of Southeast Asia, the simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged as an important cause of human malaria, and the authors believe this species warrants regular inclusion in the World Malaria Report.

    MAIN TEXT: Plasmodium knowlesi is the most common cause of malaria in Malaysia, and cases have also been reported in nearly all countries of Southeast Asia. Outside of Malaysia, P. knowlesi is frequently misdiagnosed by microscopy as Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax. Thus, P. knowlesi may be underdiagnosed in affected regions and its true incidence underestimated. Acknowledgement in the World Malaria Report of the regional importance of P. knowlesi will facilitate efforts to improve surveillance of this emerging parasite. Furthermore, increased recognition will likely lead to improved delivery of effective treatment for this potentially fatal infection, as has occurred in Malaysia where P. knowlesi case-fatality rates have fallen despite rising incidence. In a number of knowlesi-endemic countries, substantial progress has been made towards the elimination of P. vivax and P. falciparum. However, efforts to eliminate these human-only species should not preclude efforts to reduce human malaria from P. knowlesi. The regional importance of knowlesi malaria was recognized by the WHO with its recent Evidence Review Group meeting on knowlesi malaria to address strategies for prevention and mitigation.

    CONCLUSION: The WHO World Malaria Report has an appropriate focus on falciparum and vivax malaria, the major causes of global mortality and morbidity. However, the authors hope that in future years this important publication will also incorporate data on the progress and challenges in reducing knowlesi malaria in regions where transmission occurs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  18. Lai MY, Ooi CH, Lau YL
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 2017 Nov;97(5):1597-1599.
    PMID: 28820700 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0427
    In this study, we developed a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) assay for specific diagnosis of Plasmodium knowlesi. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples using a commercial kit. With incubation at 37°C, the samples were successfully amplified within 20 minutes. The end product of RPA was further examined by loading onto agarose gel and a specific band was observed with a size of 128 bp. The RPA assay exhibited high sensitivity with limits of detection down to one copy of the plasmid. From the specificity experiments, it was demonstrated that all P. knowlesi samples (N = 45) were positive while other Plasmodium spp. (N = 42) and negative samples (N = 6) were negative. Therefore, the RPA assay is a highly promising approach with the potential to be used in resource-limited settings. This assay can be further optimized for bedside and on field application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  19. De Silva JR, Lau YL, Fong MY
    Parasit Vectors, 2017 01 03;10(1):2.
    PMID: 28049516 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-016-1935-1
    BACKGROUND: The simian malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi has been reported to cause significant numbers of human infection in South East Asia. Its merozoite surface protein-3 (MSP3) is a protein that belongs to a multi-gene family of proteins first found in Plasmodium falciparum. Several studies have evaluated the potential of P. falciparum MSP3 as a potential vaccine candidate. However, to date no detailed studies have been carried out on P. knowlesi MSP3 gene (pkmsp3). The present study investigates the genetic diversity, and haplotypes groups of pkmsp3 in P. knowlesi clinical samples from Peninsular Malaysia.

    METHODS: Blood samples were collected from P. knowlesi malaria patients within a period of 4 years (2008-2012). The pkmsp3 gene of the isolates was amplified via PCR, and subsequently cloned and sequenced. The full length pkmsp3 sequence was divided into Domain A and Domain B. Natural selection, genetic diversity, and haplotypes of pkmsp3 were analysed using MEGA6 and DnaSP ver. 5.10.00 programmes.

    RESULTS: From 23 samples, 48 pkmsp3 sequences were successfully obtained. At the nucleotide level, 101 synonymous and 238 non-synonymous mutations were observed. Tests of neutrality were not significant for the full length, Domain A or Domain B sequences. However, the dN/dS ratio of Domain B indicates purifying selection for this domain. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences revealed 42 different haplotypes. Neighbour Joining phylogenetic tree and haplotype network analyses revealed that the haplotypes clustered into two distinct groups.

    CONCLUSIONS: A moderate level of genetic diversity was observed in the pkmsp3 and only the C-terminal region (Domain B) appeared to be under purifying selection. The separation of the pkmsp3 into two haplotype groups provides further evidence of the existence of two distinct P. knowlesi types or lineages. Future studies should investigate the diversity of pkmsp3 among P. knowlesi isolates in North Borneo, where large numbers of human knowlesi malaria infection still occur.

    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
  20. Stark DJ, Fornace KM, Brock PM, Abidin TR, Gilhooly L, Jalius C, et al.
    Ecohealth, 2019 12;16(4):638-646.
    PMID: 30927165 DOI: 10.1007/s10393-019-01403-9
    Land-use changes can impact infectious disease transmission by increasing spatial overlap between people and wildlife disease reservoirs. In Malaysian Borneo, increases in human infections by the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi are hypothesised to be due to increasing contact between people and macaques due to deforestation. To explore how macaque responses to environmental change impact disease risks, we analysed movement of a GPS-collared long-tailed macaque in a knowlesi-endemic area in Sabah, Malaysia, during a deforestation event. Land-cover maps were derived from satellite-based and aerial remote sensing data and models of macaque occurrence were developed to evaluate how macaque habitat use was influenced by land-use change. During deforestation, changes were observed in macaque troop home range size, movement speeds and use of different habitat types. Results of models were consistent with the hypothesis that macaque ranging behaviour is disturbed by deforestation events but begins to equilibrate after seeking and occupying a new habitat, potentially impacting human disease risks. Further research is required to explore how these changes in macaque movement affect knowlesi epidemiology on a wider spatial scale.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium knowlesi/isolation & purification*
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