Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 38 in total

  1. Teo CH, Amir Hamzah SP
    Malays J Pathol, 2014 Apr;36(1):69.
    PMID: 24763240
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  2. Hadi H, Wilkinson CM
    Forensic Sci Int, 2014 Apr;237:149.e1-149.e7.
    PMID: 24613011 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2013.12.014
    The post-mortem resilience of facial creases was studied using donated bodies in order to establish the efficacy of crease analysis for identification of the dead. Creases were studied on normal (pre-embalmed) and bloated (embalmed) cadavers at the Centre for Anatomy and Human Identification (CAHID) to establish whether facial bloating would affect facial crease visibility. Embalming was chosen to simulate the effects produced by post-mortem bloating. The results suggested that creases are resilient and changes were only detected for creases located on the periphery of the face, particularly at areas where the skin is thick, such as at the cheeks. Two new creases not previously classified were identified; these creases were called the vertical superciliary arch line and the lateral nose crease. This research suggests that facial creases may be resilient enough after death to be utilised for human identification.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  3. Teo CH, Pawita AH, Khairul O, Atiah Ayunni AG, Noor Hazfalinda H
    Malays J Pathol, 2013 Jun;35(1):77-85.
    PMID: 23817398 MyJurnal
    Post mortem changes are important in estimating post mortem interval (PMI). This project's aim was to study the effect of burial and type of clothing on rate of decomposition, which can contribute to estimating PMI for victims. 12 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) carcasses were separated into 3 groups: no clothing, light clothing and heavy clothing. Control subjects were placed on the ground surface while test subjects were buried at 30 cm depth graves. Soil samples prior and after decomposition were collected for soil pH and moisture analysis. Post mortem change was assessed using a Total Body Score system. The head, neck and limb regions were found to decay faster than the body trunk region. Mummifi cation occurred on body parts that were exposed directly to the atmosphere while adipocere formed on some buried subjects. Burial delayed decomposition due to lower insect activity and lower soil temperature. The soil layer also blocked the accessibility of majority of the arthropods, causing further delay in decomposition. Clothing enhanced decay for bodies on ground surface because it provided protection for maggots and retained moisture on tissues. However, clothing delayed decomposition in buried bodies because it physically separated the bodies from soil and arthropods. Higher sun exposure and repetitive exhumation showed acceleration of decomposition. The decomposition process increased soil pH and moisture percentage values. Soil pH initially increased until pH 8.0-8.4 followed by a slight decrease while soil moisture percentage changed inconsistently. Burial was significant in affecting post mortem change, F(1,11)=12.991, p<0.05 while type of clothing was not significant, F(2,9)=0.022, p=0.978 and combination of both type of clothing and burial factors were also not significant, F(2,3)=0.429, p=0.686. For validation, an accuracy of 83.33% was achieved based on soil pH and soil moisture percentage analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  4. Zuha RM, See HW, Disney RH, Omar B
    Forensic Sci Int, 2014 Dec;245:e36-7.
    PMID: 25466156 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2014.10.034
    Scuttle flies of genus Puliciphora Dahl (Diptera: Phoridae) are recorded for the first time in Malaysia from rabbit carcasses placed in concealed environments. They consist of Puliciphora borinquenensis Wheeler ♂♀, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Puliciphora beckeri Meijere ♀. All species were obtained from rabbit carcasses in used luggage and garbage bin placed at Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. The specimens were collected from the carcasses using a modified Malaise trap, an entomological aspirator and preserved in 70% ethanol. This report expands the geographical distributions of these species and their microhabitat, suggests its possible important role in forensic entomology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  5. Mohd Nor F, Das S
    J Forensic Leg Med, 2012 Jan;19(1):42-5.
    PMID: 22152448 DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2011.07.008
    We present a case of skeletonised human remains. In the present case report, a body was exhumed from the ground above a cemetery. On exhumation, the body was partially-skeletonised with adipocere formation on the upper part of the body. Autopsy of the body showed two bullets in the right thigh muscle and lumbar vertebrae between L4 and L5. Postmortem changes and destruction of soft tissue made it impossible to determine direction of fire through the body, even in a careful complete autopsy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  6. Zuha RM, Kurahashi H, Chin HC, Osman K, Rashid RA, Hassan RA, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Aug;26(2):216-8.
    PMID: 19901908
    Myospila pudica pudica (Stein, 1915) (Diptera: Muscidae) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia during a forensic entomological study conducted at a forested area of Forensic Science Simulation Site, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. This species can be differentiated from other species of its genus by having R1 setulose on dorsal surface and R4+5 more or less setulose dorsally and ventrally. The legs, including tarsi, are testaceous yellow and palpi blackish. Lateral and ventral surface of scutellum bare below the level of bristles and the third antennal segment is brownish yellow. Other features including the diverging of inner margin of lower squama from scutellum margin. This is also the first report on the occurence of M. pudica pudica (Stein, 1915) on animal carcass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  7. Azmiera N, Mariana A, Heo CC
    Trop Biomed, 2019 Dec 01;36(4):1099-1104.
    PMID: 33597479
    This is the first record of phoretic histiostomatid mites found on a forensically important blow fly species, Chrysomya villeneuvi (Diptera: Calliphoridae), collected from decomposing rabbit carcasses placed in Bukit Lagong Forest Reserve, Sungai Buloh and MARDI Cameron Highlands, Malaysia. The blow flies frequenting around the carcasses were first captured using an insect net. After pinning, they were examined under a stereomicroscope and mites phoretic on their body were carefully removed and preserved in 70% ethanol. Mites were cleared in lactic acid before mounting on slides using Hoyer's medium and identified under a compound microscope. The flies and their mites were identified as C. villeneuvi and deutonymphs of Histiostoma spp. (Astigmata: Histiostomatidae), respectively. This insectmite association may be useful to provide insights regarding the minimum post-mortem interval and the location of death in forensic entomological investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes
  8. Kavitha R, Nazni WA, Tan TC, Lee HL, Azirun MS
    J Forensic Leg Med, 2013 Jul;20(5):480-2.
    PMID: 23756518 DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2013.03.007
    Forensic entomological specimens collected from human decedents during crime scene investigations in Malaysia in the past 6 years (2005-2010) are reviewed. A total of 80 cases were recorded and 93 specimens were collected. From these specimens, 10 species of cyclorrphagic flies were identified, consisting of Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart) -38 specimens (40.86%), Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) -36 specimens (38.70%), Chrysomya villeneuvi (Patton) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya nigripes (Aubertin) -2 specimens (2.15%), Chrysomya pinguis (Walker) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hermetia illucens (Linnaeus) -1 specimen (1.08%), Hemipyrellia liguriens (Wiedemann) -5 specimens (5.37%), Synthesiomyia nudiseta (Wulp) -1 specimen (1.08%), Megaselia scalaris (Loew)-1 specimen (1.08%) and Sarcophaga ruficornis (Fabricius) -4 specimens (4.30%). In two specimens (2.15%), the maggots were not identifiable. Ch. megacephala and Ch. rufifacies were the commonest species found in human decedents from three different ecological habitats. S. nudiseta is an uncommon species found only on human cadavers from indoors. A total of 75 cases (93.75%) had a single fly infestation and 5 cases (6.25%) had double fly infestation. In conclusion, although large numbers of fly species were found on human decedents, the predominant species are still those of Chrysomya.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  9. Thevan K, Disney RH, Ahmad AH
    Forensic Sci Int, 2010 Feb 25;195(1-3):e5-7.
    PMID: 19944547 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.10.020
    In Penang, Malaysia, the Oriental and Afrotropical Megaselia curtineura (Brues) and the Oriental and Japanese Megaselia spiracularis Schmitz are reported from human corpses, these being the first reports of these species in such forensic cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  10. Faridah MN, Shahrom AW
    Malays J Pathol, 2001 Dec;23(2):111-4.
    PMID: 12166591
    This paper describes a modified method of quantitative determination of histamine in human skin wounds using fluorescence spectrophotometer. In this study, histamine was used as an indicator to differentiate antemortem from postmortem wounds. Skin samples were obtained from 20 corpses which were brought to Hospital Kuala Lumpur and Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for medicolegal autopsy. Sections of human skin were processed biochemically for histamine determination using fluorescence spectrophotometer. Results revealed no significant difference in the histamine content of the antemortem wounds in comparison to postmortem wounds. Based on these results, detection of histamine is not suitable to differentiate antemortem from postmortem wounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  11. Wasinger VC, Curnoe D, Boel C, Machin N, Goh HM
    Int J Mol Sci, 2020 Sep 03;21(17).
    PMID: 32899302 DOI: 10.3390/ijms21176422
    The transitioning of cells during the systemic demise of an organism is poorly understood. Here, we present evidence that organismal death is accompanied by a common and sequential molecular flood of stress-induced events that propagate the senescence phenotype, and this phenotype is preserved in the proteome after death. We demonstrate activation of "death" pathways involvement in diseases of ageing, with biochemical mechanisms mapping onto neurological damage, embryonic development, the inflammatory response, cardiac disease and ultimately cancer with increased significance. There is sufficient bioavailability of the building blocks required to support the continued translation, energy, and functional catalytic activity of proteins. Significant abundance changes occur in 1258 proteins across 1 to 720 h post-mortem of the 12-week-old mouse mandible. Protein abundance increases concord with enzyme activity, while mitochondrial dysfunction is evident with metabolic reprogramming. This study reveals differences in protein abundances which are akin to states of stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS). The control of these pathways is significant for a large number of biological scenarios. Understanding how these pathways function during the process of cellular death holds promise in generating novel solutions capable of overcoming disease complications, maintaining organ transplant viability and could influence the findings of proteomics through "deep-time" of individuals with no historically recorded cause of death.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  12. Heo CC, Tomberlin JK, Aitkenhead-Peterson JA
    J Forensic Sci, 2021 May;66(3):947-959.
    PMID: 33290606 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.14645
    Under normal circumstances, insects such as blow flies will oviposit and larvae will colonize a carcass as soon as possible. However, insect colonization on a carcass may be delayed due to the effects of wrapping, shallow burial, addition of lime derivatives to mitigate scavenging and odor, or extreme weather. The impacts of delayed insect colonization on carcass decomposition and its subsequent effect on soil chemistry profiles have not been examined to date. The objectives of this study were to determine soil chemistry dynamics associated with porcine carcasses experiencing delayed insect colonization for 7-day or 14-day. Soil chemistry profiles such as ammonium-N (NH4 -N), orthophosphate-P (PO4 -P), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were significantly different among treatments: insect inclusion (immediate access of blow fly colonization on porcine carcasses), 7-day insect exclusion and 14-day insect exclusion (blow fly access was delayed up to 7-day and 14-day). Furthermore, significant differences of soil chemical profiles were detected between days of decomposition and soil regions. Soil moisture, NH4 -N, PO4 -P, and DOC were significantly higher when insects were excluded from the porcine carcass suggesting loss of tissue from larval feeding reduced the mass of nutrients entering the soil. This study provides useful information for forensic science in cases where insect colonization is delayed for a period of time postmortem and soil chemistry in the cadaver decomposition island is considered for estimating postmortem interval.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  13. Syamsa RA, Omar B, Ahmad FM, Hidayatulfathi O, Shahrom AW
    J Forensic Leg Med, 2017 Jan;45:41-46.
    PMID: 27997861 DOI: 10.1016/j.jflm.2016.12.002
    Forensic entomology refers to the science of collection and analysis of insect evidence in order to determine the minimum time period since death. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of forensically important flies on 34 human remains referred to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre over a period of three years. Entomological specimens were collected at the death scenes and/or during autopsies. Live specimens were reared into adults while preserved specimens were processed for species identification. Five families, seven genera and nine species of flies were identified from human remains. The results of the study showed Chrysomya megacephala (Calliphoridae) maggots occurred on corpses with the highest frequency (70.6%), followed by Ch. rufifacies (Calliphoridae) (44.1%), sarcophagid fly (Sarcophagidae) (38.2%), Synthesiomya nudiseta (Muscidae) (20.6%), Megaselia scalaris (Phoridae) (14.7%), Lucilia cuprina (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Ch. nigripes (Calliphoridae) (5.9%), Eristalis spp. (Syrphidae) (5.9%) and Hydrotaea spinigera (Muscidae) (2.9%). The greatest fly diversity occurred on remains recovered indoors (eight species) compared to outdoors (three species). Whilst, single and double infestations were common for both indoor and outdoor cases, multiple infestation of up to six species was observed in one of the indoor cases. Although large numbers of fly species were found on human remains, the predominant species were still those of Chrysomya, while S. nudiseta was found only on human remains recovered from indoors. The present study provides additional knowledge in the context of Malaysian forensic entomology and the distribution of forensically important flies which is of relevance to forensic science.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  14. Azmiera N, Low VL, Heo CC
    Acta Parasitol, 2021 Jun;66(2):706-709.
    PMID: 33389626 DOI: 10.1007/s11686-020-00313-z
    INTRODUCTION: Psychoda sp. is often collected from patchy habitats such as sewers, drains and decomposing organic matters. The discovery of Psychoda sp. in forensic studies indicated that it might have noteworthy value in assisting death investigations.

    PURPOSE: This study reports on the first finding of Psychoda larvae collected from decomposing rabbit carcasses placed in Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia.

    METHODS: The larvae were first observed on rabbit carcasses and were collected using tweezers and carefully preserved in 70% ethanol. They were subsequently mounted on microscopy slides using Hoyer's medium and identified as Psychoda sp. morphologically. The identification was also confirmed through a DNA barcoding analysis.

    RESULTS: Psychoda sp. larvae were collected on day-10 post-mortem where the rabbit carcasses were at the advanced decay stage of decomposition. The cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequences of the larvae had 90% similarity with the Psychoda spp. in the database.

    CONCLUSION: The finding of these larvae on carrion may provide additional valuable insights into forensic entomology and may assist in death investigations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes
  15. Teo Chee Hau, Noor Hazfalinda Hamzah, Hing Hiang Lian, Sri Pawita Albakri Amir Hamzah
    Sains Malaysiana, 2014;43:1873-1882.
    Decomposition is degradation process of a corpse into basic respective constituents macroscopically and microscopically by action of microorganisms, arthropods and scavengers. Post mortem changes could be separated into early post mortem changes (i.e. algor mortis, rigor mortis and livor mortis) and putrefaction stages of corpse. These changes function as suitable indicators for determination of post mortem interval (PMI). In this paper, different stages of post mortem changes, possible variations such as mummification and formation of adipocere and special circumstances such as burial condition is discussed. This article also refers to several arguments in the different texture of adipocere and the influence of different types of fabric in affecting the post mortem changes and formation of adipocere. This is largely due to the property of permeability and resistance of material against degradation process. Undeniably, decomposition process involves numerous potential variables including burial condition, presence of clothing, potential formation of adipocere and mummification. Hence, studies in forensic taphonomy combined with real case scenario are crucial in understanding the nature of decomposition and estimation of PMI with higher accuracy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes
  16. Ivorra T, Rahimi R, Goh TG, Azmiera N, Nur-Aliah NA, Low VL, et al.
    Int J Legal Med, 2024 Mar;138(2):677-683.
    PMID: 37211557 DOI: 10.1007/s00414-023-03023-z
    A partially skeletonized human corpse was found in bushes in Selangor, Malaysia in June 2020. Entomological evidence was collected during the autopsy and sent to the Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM) for minimum postmortem interval (PMImin) analysis. Standard protocols were applied when processing preserved and live insect specimens of both larval and pupal stages. Entomological evidence revealed that the corpse was colonized by Chrysomya nigripes Aubertin, 1932 (Diptera: Calliphoridae) and Diamesus osculans (Vigors, 1825) (Coleoptera: Silphidae). Chrysomya nigripes was chosen as the PMImin indicator as this fly species is an earlier colonizer compared to D. osculans beetle larvae which their presence is the indicative of late stage of decomposition. For the present case, the pupae of C. nigripes were the oldest insect evidence collected and based on the available developmental data, the estimated minimum PMI was established between 9 and 12 days. It is noteworthy to highlight that this is the first record of D. osculans colonization on a human corpse.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes
  17. Mahat NA, Zafarina Z, Jayaprakash PT
    Forensic Sci Int, 2009 Nov 20;192(1-3):19-28.
    PMID: 19671490 DOI: 10.1016/j.forsciint.2009.07.008
    The influence of rain and malathion on the initial oviposition as well as development of blowfly species infesting rabbit carcasses decomposing in sunlit and shaded habitats were studied over a period of 1 year in Kelantan, Malaysia. Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) was the most dominant species that infested the carcasses, followed by Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart). In general, rain, depending on its intensity, delayed initial oviposition by 1-2 days and prolonged the pupation period by 1-3 days. The presence of malathion in the carcasses delayed initial oviposition by 1-3 days and prolonged the pupation period by 2-3 days. These findings deserve consideration while estimating postmortem interval since rain is a commonplace occurrence in Malaysia and malathion is one of the common poisons as an agent for choice to commit suicide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes
  18. Chen CD, Lee HL, Nazni WA, Ramli R, Jeffery J, Sofian-Azirun M
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Aug;27(2):355-9.
    PMID: 20962738
    A study on insect succession of monkey carcass in a forested area in Ulu Gombak, Selangor, Malaysia was conducted from 9 May to 18 June 2007. The third instar of the housefly, Musca domestica (Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) were only found on dry stage of a decomposed (Day-33) monkey carcass (Macaca fascicularis Raffles). This observation revealed that M. domestica maggots were found together with other muscid fly maggots, Hydrotaea (=Ophyra) spinigera (Stein) (Diptera: Muscidae) on dry stage of a carcass. However, the role of M. domestica on forensic entomological study remains unknown. This study recorded the first finding of M. domestica maggots on primate carcass in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes
  19. Singh MK, O'Donnell C, Woodford NW
    Forensic Sci Med Pathol, 2009;5(3):236-42.
    PMID: 19669956 DOI: 10.1007/s12024-009-9103-y
    We report the case of an 82-year-old woman with a past history of diabetes mellitus who died following blunt head injury sustained in a fall resulting in an acute subdural hematoma. Serial postmortem CT scans of the chest and abdomen performed over a 3-day period demonstrated progressive intra-hepatic and intra-cardiac gas formation whilst the deceased was stored in a standard mortuary refrigerator at a nominated temperature of 4 degrees C. Measured mortuary refrigerator temperatures over a 7 day period showed statistically significant day to day variability in temperatures above 4 degrees C as well as variations in temperature depending on location within the refrigerator space. In the absence of other known factors associated with such gas formation, putrefaction seems the likely cause despite a lack of obvious external features. This phenomenon must therefore be taken into account when interpreting the presence of visceral gas on postmortem CT and relating such gas to the cause of death.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
  20. Azwandi A, Omar B
    Trop Biomed, 2012 Dec;29(4):638-41.
    PMID: 23202610
    This paper discusses the colonization of the stratiomyid species Ptecticus melanurus (Walker) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) in monkey carrion and its potential for the determination of the minimum time since death (PMI). A study was conducted in a tropical forest at Bangi, Malaysia from 13 November 2009 to 8 June 2011. Twelve monkey carcasses (Macaca fascicularis Raffles) were used and divided in equal number into three different field trials. Adults of P. melanurus were first observed on monkey carrions on the second day the carcasses were placed in the field while their penultimate instar larvae were found in the wet soil under and beside carcass from day 8 to 31 days postmortem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Postmortem Changes*
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