Malaysia is a surplus poultry producing country with well-established commercial slaughtering and processing plants. Immense quantity of heads, feet, viscera, blood and feathers are usually discarded and not optimally utilized. Chicken heads are rich in protein, and could be a potential source of gelatin. The aim of the present work was therefore to find a simpler, faster, cheaper and greener gelatin extraction technology as compared to current available methods of gelatin extraction from poultry heads. A comparison of three different gelatin extraction methods with alkaline-acid pretreatment (E1), single acid pretreatment (E2) and single alkaline pretreatment (E3) were studied to extract gelatin from chicken heads. E1 and E2 produced gelatins of Type A, while E3 produced gelatin of Type B. High bloom gelatin (>300 g) with
By-products from different animal sources are currently being utilised for beneficial purposes. Chicken processing plants all over the world generate large amount of solid by-products in form of heads, legs, bones, viscera and feather. These wastes are often processed into livestock feed, fertilizers and pet foods or totally discarded. Inappropriate disposal of these wastes causes environmental pollution, diseases and loss of useful biological resources like protein, enzymes and lipids. Utilisation methods that make use of these biological components for producing value added products rather than the direct use of the actual waste material might be another viable option for dealing with these wastes. This line of thought has consequently led to researches on these wastes as sources of protein hydrolysates, enzymes and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Due to the multi-applications of protein hydrolysates in various branches of science and industry, and the large body of literature reporting the conversion of animal wastes to hydrolysates, a large section of this review was devoted to this subject. Thus, this review reports the known functional and bioactive properties of hydrolysates derived from chicken by-products as well their utilisation as source of peptone in microbiological media. Methods of producing these hydrolysates including their microbiological safety are discussed. Based on the few references available in the literature, the potential of some chicken by-product as sources of proteases and polyunsaturated fatty acids are pointed out along with some other future applications.
This study investigates productivity growth and efficiency of Large Scale Enterprises (LSEs) in the
Malaysian food processing industry. Malmquist productivity index of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) was employed to five-digit panel data for the period of 2000-2006. The findings suggest that average Technical Efficiency (TE) of the LSEs was 0.683 during the period of observation, which indicates that the industries are able to expand their output as much as 31.7 percent by using the same level of inputs. Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth was positive at 7.3 percent, which is contributed by a Technical Efficiency Change (EFCH) of 4.3 percent and Technological Change (TECH) of 3.0 percent. Sub industries of manufacturing alcohol and wine as well as the processing and preserving of meat and meat products shows the highest productivity growth at 84.8 percent and 47.5 percent respectively. On the other hand, the sub industries of processing and preserving poultry and poultry products together with the manufacturing of chocolate are those which have the lowest TFP growth at -30.5percent and -14.8 percent respectively. The significant determinants of the productivity growth, with a positive relationship are public infrastructure, IT expenditure and foreign ownership, while energy price is the determinant with a negative relationship. The main contributor to the TFP growth of the LSEs in the Malaysian food processing industry is EFCH, however, the LSEs can also improve the TFP growth by moving forward the production frontier as well.
Malaysian poultry policy aims to provide remunerative prices for producers and to guarantee a steady supply of poultry products at stable and affordable prices to consumers. Broiler meat is the most important and the cheapest protein source in Malaysia and trade protection could stimulate the local industry and enhance food security. The study attempts to evaluate the competitiveness and comparative advantage of three different scales of broiler production in Johor using policy analysis matrix (PAM). The existing protection and the level of comparative advantage are ascertained through PAM indicators. The results show that Malaysia has strong competitiveness position in every scale of broiler production especially the largest scale. But, the protection through import curtailment resulted in higher domestic prices than the world price. To increase competitiveness, the broiler industry should reduce the dependence on expensive and unstable cost of corn based feed.
Salmonella remains to be a major foodborne pathogen for animals and humans and is the
leading cause of foodborne infections and outbreaks in various countries. Salmonella Enteritidis
is one of the most frequently isolated serotypes in poultry and poultry products from human
food poisoning cases. It can cause mild to acute gastroenterititis as well as other common
food poisoning symptoms when infection takes place in human. Nucleic acid amplification
technologies such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a tool that is rapid and sensitive
for detection of bacterial pathogen. We report the successful detection of S. Enteritidis by
PCR in raw chicken meat artificially-contaminated with serial concentration of S. Enteritidis
using crude DNA extracts as DNA template. PCR primers, ENT-F and ENT-R targeted on sdfI
gene were used to amplify DNA region unique to S. Enteritidis with crude DNA extract of the
samples, yielded product with the size of 303 bp. These primers were specific to S. Enteritidis
when tested by in-silico simulation against genome database of targeted bacterial species and
confirmed in PCR as amplification bands were observed with S. Typhimurium, S. Polarum and
S. Gallinarum. The established PCR can detect as few as 9.4 X 101
CFU/ml of inoculated S.
Enteritidis concentration and proved that pre-enrichment effect have significant effect on PCR
detection by increasing 1000-fold of the sensitivity limit compared to the non pre-enriched
samples. The PCR technique indicated that it can be successfully coupled with pre-enrichment
step to offer advantage in routine screening and surveillance of bacterial contamination in food
Twenty-five and three strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 were identified from 25 tenderloin beef and three chicken meat burger samples, respectively. The bacteria were recovered using the immunomagnetic separation procedure followed by selective plating on sorbitol MacConkey agar and were identified as E. coli serotype O157:H7 with three primer pairs that amplified fragments of the SLT-I, SLT-II and H7 genes in PCR assays. Susceptibility testing to 14 antibiotics showed that all were resistant to two or more antibiotics tested. Although all 28 strains contained plasmid, there was very little variation in the plasmid sizes observed. The most common plasmid of 60 MDa was detected in all strains. We used DNA fingerprinting by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to compare the 28 E. coli O157:H7 strains. At a similarity level of 90%, the results of PFGE after restriction with XbaI separated the E. coli O157:H7 strains into 28 single isolates, whereas RAPD using a single 10-mer oligonucleotides separated the E. coli O157:H7 strains into two clusters and 22 single isolates. These typing methods should aid in the epidemiological clarification of the E. coli O157:H7 in the study area.
A total of 225 samples from poultry farms and the surrounding environment were screened for vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and bifunctional aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci using conventional microbiological tests and a nanoplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Three (1.3%) of the samples were found to contain vancomycin-resistant isolates (MIC>256 microg/mL) that had a vanA genotype. The three vanA positive VRE isolates were identified as different species. Only one isolate (Enterococcus faecium F 4/13_54) was sensitive to teicoplanin (MIC<0. 12-0.35 microg/mL); the other two VRE (E. faecalis A 21_35 and E. gallinarum F 5/10_1) were resistant to teicoplanin (MIC 3.6-->16 microg/mL). The vanC genotype was observed in nine (4%) of the samples collected. High-level gentamicin-resistant (HLGR) enterococci (with MIC ranging between 100 and 500 microg/mL) were detected in 44 samples. However, only 40 of these were found to possess the aac(6')-aph(2'') gene. The overall prevalence of VRE among the samples from the poultry farms and environment was 5.3%, but the prevalence of the clinically significant vanA VRE was 1.3%, and the prevalence of bifunctional aminoglycoside-resistant enterococci was slightly higher, at 19.5%.
Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) is the most widely used method for determining protein quality. The studies involved a few category of products as raw materials namely poultry products, beef burger products, fish and fish products, soy products and palm kernel cake in animal diet preparation were compiled to compare the data. Data from the proximate analysis showed that protein content in soy protein isolate (SPI) was the highest (95.00%) followed by meat such as mackerel fish (89.09%) and beef (88.60%). Results from feed consumption and total protein consumed showed that the rats fed with mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) products (excluding broiler back) consumed more feed, ranging from 469.2g to 422.3g during the study while the lowest total feed consumed (157.7g) was recorded in the rat fed a diet of fermented palm kernel cake (fPKC). The total protein consumed by rat for diets of fish and fish products such as canned sardine was 62.36g, mackerel 61.76g and anchovy at 58.91g, followed by MDPM products. Tempeh (14.72g) and fPKC diet (16.3g) were among the lowest total protein consumed by the rats. Growth and PER data for rats fed a diet of canned sardine, anchovy and mackerel, as well as mechanically deboned turkey meat (MDTM) and mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM) had higher mean body weight (154.80g, 145.20g, 144.81g, 148.7g and 142.5g respectively) compared to rats fed with plant protein diet such as SPI, tempeh and PKC (34.79g, 16.34g and 16.60g respectively) whereas rats fed diets containing fPKC had a mean body weight loss of 24.4g. MDPM showed higher PER value (ranging from 3.01 to 3.34) compared to hamburger group, pure beef and fish group. Tempeh and SPI had lower PER of 1.02 and 1.52 respectively while the lowest PER of 0.50 and -1.50 were shown in PKC and fPKC. The highest digestibility was shown in mackerel (96.99%), followed by canned sardine (96.88%), tempeh (91.41%), meat (90.79%) and pure beef burger (90.04%) while digestibility of PKC and fPKC were much lower (45.70% and 22.60%). Lipid profile of rats fed with palm based fat beef burger showed that palm fat(PF) and red PF did not affect the total cholestrol concentration but resulted in higher high density lipoprotein (HDL)- cholesterol concentration in their blood serum. In summary, the utilization of PF and red PF in beef burger increased the HDL-cholesterol and has no effect on the concentration of total cholesterol in rat blood serum.
The organic foods’ market is becoming one of the rapidly growing sections in agricultural economies in the world. During the last two decades, food-borne outbreaks associated with fresh produce have rapidly increased. E. coli O57:H7, the caustic agent of acute hemorrhagic diarrhea and abdominal cramps, is mainly associated with meat and poultry product outbreaks but frequent outbreaks linked to the consumption of vegetables have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 in some organic foods. A total of 230 organic food samples including four-winged bean, tomato, white radish, red cabbage, chinese cabbage, lettuce, cucumber and chicken form retailed groceries and supermarkets in Malaysia were investigated. Low prevalence of E. coli O157:H7 was detected in organic vegetables and chickens. The estimated quantity of E. coli O157:H7 in all samples ranged from 2400 MPN/g. The overall MPN/g estimate of E. coli O157:H7 in the samples from organic groceries was higher than supermarket with the maximum of >2400 MPN/g. Most of the samples from supermarket showed a minimum of
Salmonella genus represents the most common foodborne pathogens frequently isolated from food-producing animals that is responsible for zoonotic infections in humans and animal species including birds. Thus, Salmonella infections represent a major concern to public health, animals, and food industry worldwide. Salmonella enterica represents the most pathogenic specie and includes > 2600 serovars characterized thus far. Salmonella can be transmitted to humans along the farm-to-fork continuum, commonly through contaminated foods of animal origin, namely poultry and poultry-related products (eggs), pork, fish etc. Some Salmonella serovars are restricted to one specific host commonly referred to as "host-restricted" whereas others have broad host spectrum known as "host-adapted" serovars. For Salmonella to colonize its hosts through invading, attaching, and bypassing the host's intestinal defense mechanisms such as the gastric acid, many virulence markers and determinants have been demonstrated to play crucial role in its pathogenesis; and these factors included flagella, capsule, plasmids, adhesion systems, and type 3 secretion systems encoded on the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI-2, and other SPIs. The epidemiologically important non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars linked with a high burden of foodborne Salmonella outbreaks in humans worldwide included Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Newport. The increased number of NTS cases reported through surveillance in recent years from the United States, Europe and low- and middle-income countries of the world suggested that the control programs targeted at reducing the contamination of food animals along the food chain have largely not been successful. Furthermore, the emergence of several clones of Salmonella resistant to multiple antimicrobials worldwide underscores a significant food safety hazard. In this review, we discussed on the historical background, nomenclature and taxonomy, morphological features, physical and biochemical characteristics of NTS with a particular focus on the pathogenicity and virulence factors, host specificity, transmission, and antimicrobial resistance including multidrug resistance and its surveillance.