Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 314 in total

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  1. Wahab AFFA, Abdul Karim NA, Ling JG, Hasan NS, Yong HY, Bharudin I, et al.
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2019 02;154:52-61.
    PMID: 30261309 DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2018.09.014
    Cellobiohydrolases catalyze the processive hydrolysis of cellulose into cellobiose. Here, a Trichoderma virens cDNA predicted to encode for cellobiohydrolase (cbhI) was cloned and expressed heterologously in Aspergillus niger. The cbhI gene has an open reading frame of 1518 bp, encoding for a putative protein of 505 amino acid residues with a calculated molecular mass of approximately 54 kDa. The predicted CbhI amino acid sequence has a fungal type carbohydrate binding module separated from a catalytic domain by a threonine rich linker region and showed high sequence homology with glycoside hydrolase family 7 proteins. The partially purified enzyme has an optimum pH of 4.0 with stability ranging from pH 3.0 to 6.0 and an optimum temperature of 60 °C. The partially purified CbhI has a specific activity of 4.195 Umg-1 and a low Km value of 1.88 mM when p-nitrophenyl-β-D-cellobioside (pNPC) is used as the substrate. The catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) was 5.68 × 10-4 mM-1s-1, which is comparable to the CbhI enzymes from Trichoderma viridae and Phanaerochaete chrysosporium. CbhI also showed activity towards complex substrates such as Avicel (0.011 Umg-1), which could be useful in complex biomass degradation. Interestingly, CbhI also exhibited a relatively high inhibition constant (Ki) for cellobiose with a value of 8.65 mM, making this enzyme more resistant to end-product inhibition compared to other fungal cellobiohydrolases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis; Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry
  2. Hairul Bahara NH, Tye GJ, Choong YS, Ong EB, Ismail A, Lim TS
    Biologicals, 2013 Jul;41(4):209-16.
    PMID: 23647952 DOI: 10.1016/j.biologicals.2013.04.001
    With major developments in molecular biology, numerous display technologies have been successfully introduced for recombinant antibody production. Even so, phage display still remains the gold standard for recombinant antibody production. Its success is mainly attributed to the robust nature of phage particles allowing for automation and adaptation to modifications. The generation of monospecific binders provides a vital tool for diagnostics at a lower cost and higher efficiency. The flexibility to modify recombinant antibodies allows great applicability to various platforms for use. This review presents phage display technology, application and modifications of recombinant antibodies for diagnostics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis; Recombinant Proteins/genetics
  3. Ng WK, Lim TS, Lai NS
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2016 11;127:73-80.
    PMID: 27412717 DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2016.07.004
    Neonatal Fc-receptor (FcRn) with its affinity to immunoglobulin G (IgG) has been the subject of many pharmacokinetic studies in the past century. This protein is well known for its unique feature in maintaining the circulating IgG from degradation in blood plasma. FcRn is formed by non-covalent association between the α-chain with the β-2-microglobulin (β2m). Many studies have been conducted to produce FcRn in the laboratory, mainly using mammalian tissue culture as host for recombinant protein expression. In this study, we demonstrate a novel strategy to express the α-chain of FcRn using Escherichia coli as the expression host. The expression vector that carries the cDNA of the α-chain was transformed into expression host, Rosetta-gami 2 strain for inducible expression. The bacterial culture was grown in a modified growth medium which constitutes of terrific broth, sodium chloride (NaCl), glucose and betaine. A brief heat shock at 45 °C was carried out after induction, before the temperature for expression was reduced to 22 °C and grown for 16 h. The soluble form of the α-chain of FcRn expressed was tested in the ELISA and dot blot immunoassay to confirm its native functionality. The results implied that the α-chain of FcRn expressed using this method is functional and retains its pH-dependent affinity to IgG. Our study significantly suggests that the activity of human FcRn remain active and functional in the absence of β2m.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis; Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry
  4. Lim CS, Goh SL, Krishnan G, Ng CC
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2014 Mar;95:8-12.
    PMID: 24291446 DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2013.11.007
    This paper describes the recombinant production of a biologically active Epstein-Barr virus BZLF1 trans-activator, i.e., Z-encoded broadly reactive activator (ZEBRA), that recognized specific DNA motifs. We used auto-induction for histidine-tagged BZLF1 expression in Escherichia coli and immobilized cobalt affinity membrane chromatography for protein purification under native conditions. We obtained the purified BZLF1 at a yield of 5.4mg per gram of wet weight cells at 75% purity, in which 27% of the recombinant BZLF1 remained biologically active. The recombinant BZLF1 bound to oligonucleotides containing ZEBRA response elements, either AP-1 or ZIIIB, but not a ZIIIB mutant. The recombinant BZLF1 showed a specific DNA-binding activity which could be useful for functional studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism*; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry*
  5. Chan MK, Lim SK, Miswan N, Chew AL, Noordin R, Khoo BY
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2018 Jan;141:52-62.
    PMID: 28893606 DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2017.09.003
    This study described the isolation of the coding region of human topoisomerase I (TopoI) from MDA-MB-231 and the expression of multiple copy recombinant genes in four Pichia pastoris strains. First, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplification of the enzyme coding region was performed. The PCR fragment was cloned into pPICZ-α-A vector and sequenced. It was then transformed into X33, GS115, SMD1168H and KM71H strains of Pichia. PCR-screening for positive clones was performed, and estimation of multiple copy integrants in each Pichia strain was carried out using agar plates containing increasing concentrations of Zeocin(®). The selected clones of multiple copy recombinant genes were then induced for TopoI expression in shaker flasks. GS115 and SMD1168 were found to be better Pichia strains to accommodate the recombinant gene for the expression of TopoI extracellularly. However, the DNA relaxation activity revealed that only the target enzyme in the culture supernatants of GS115-pPICZ-α-A-TopoI exhibited consistent enzyme activity over the cultivation time-points. Active enzyme activity was inhibited by Camptothecin. The enzyme produced can be used for in-house gel-based DNA relaxation assay development in performing high throughput screening for target-specific growth inhibitors that display similar effect as the TopoI inhibitors. These inhibitors may contribute to the improvement of the treatment of cancer patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/analysis; Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism*; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry
  6. Chua LH, Tan SC, Liew MWO
    J Biotechnol, 2018 Jun 20;276-277:34-41.
    PMID: 29679607 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2018.04.012
    An intensified process was developed that enables high level production of recombinant core streptavidin (cSAV), a non-glycosylated tetrameric protein utilised in a wide range of applications. A pH-stat fed-batch feeding strategy was employed to achieve high-cell-density and improve volumetric yield of cSAV which was expressed as inclusion bodies (IBs). The effect of induction at different cell densities (OD 20, 60 and 100) on volumetric and specific yield were then studied. Highest volumetric yield of cSAV (1550 mg L-1) was obtained from induction at OD 100 without significant reductions in specific yield. To recover active cSAV from IBs, the possibility of refolding using a temperature-based refolding method was investigated. Refolded cSAV obtained from temperature-based refolding were then compared against cSAV refolded with conventional dialysis and dilution methods using quantitative and qualitative metrics. The temperature-based refolding method was found to improve the yield of cSAV by 6-18% in comparison to conventional methods without compromising quality. Intensification was achieved by reductions in process volumes and a more concentrated product stream. Using the newly developed process, the volumetric yield of cSAV IBs was improved by thirty-six fold in comparison to low-cell-density shake flask cultivation, and 33% of cSAV can be recovered from IBs at 90% purity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/analysis; Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism*; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry
  7. Mirzadeh A, Saadatnia G, Golkar M, Babaie J, Noordin R
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2017 05;133:66-74.
    PMID: 28263855 DOI: 10.1016/j.pep.2017.03.001
    SAG1-related sequence 3 (SRS3) is one of the major Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite surface antigens and has been shown to be potentially useful for the detection of toxoplasmosis. This protein is highly conformational due to the presence of six disulfide bonds. To achieve solubility and antigenicity, SRS3 depends on proper disulfide bond formation. The aim of this study was to over-express the SRS3 protein with correct folding for use in serodiagnosis of the disease. To achieve this, a truncated SRS3 fusion protein (rtSRS3) was produced, containing six histidyl residues at both terminals and purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography. The refolding process was performed through three methods, namely dialysis in the presence of chemical additives along with reduced/oxidized glutathione and drop-wise dilution methods with reduced/oxidized glutathione or reduced DTT/oxidized glutathione. Ellman's assay and ELISA showed that the protein folding obtained by the dialysis method was the most favorable, probably due to the correct folding. Subsequently, serum samples from individuals with chronic infection (n = 76), probable acute infection (n = 14), and healthy controls (n = 81) were used to determine the usefulness of the refolded rtSRS3 for Toxoplasma serodiagnosis. The results of the developed IgG-ELISA showed a diagnostic specificity of 91% and a sensitivity of 82.89% and 100% for chronic and acute serum samples, respectively. In conclusion, correctly folded rtSRS3 has the potential to be used as a soluble antigen for the detection of human toxoplasmosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis; Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/immunology; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry
  8. Habibi N, Mohd Hashim SZ, Norouzi A, Samian MR
    BMC Bioinformatics, 2014;15:134.
    PMID: 24885721 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-15-134
    Over the last 20 years in biotechnology, the production of recombinant proteins has been a crucial bioprocess in both biopharmaceutical and research arena in terms of human health, scientific impact and economic volume. Although logical strategies of genetic engineering have been established, protein overexpression is still an art. In particular, heterologous expression is often hindered by low level of production and frequent fail due to opaque reasons. The problem is accentuated because there is no generic solution available to enhance heterologous overexpression. For a given protein, the extent of its solubility can indicate the quality of its function. Over 30% of synthesized proteins are not soluble. In certain experimental circumstances, including temperature, expression host, etc., protein solubility is a feature eventually defined by its sequence. Until now, numerous methods based on machine learning are proposed to predict the solubility of protein merely from its amino acid sequence. In spite of the 20 years of research on the matter, no comprehensive review is available on the published methods.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry*
  9. Lee W, Syed Atif A, Tan SC, Leow CH
    J. Immunol. Methods, 2017 08;447:71-85.
    PMID: 28502720 DOI: 10.1016/j.jim.2017.05.001
    The advantages of chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) antibodies as immunodiagnostic and immunotherapeutic biomolecules has only been recently recognized. Even so, chicken antibodies remain less-well characterized than their mammalian counterparts. This review aims at providing a current overview of the structure, function, development and generation of chicken antibodies. Additionally, brief but comprehensive insights into current knowledge pertaining to the immunogenetic framework and diversity-generation of the chicken immunoglobulin repertoire which have contributed to the establishment of recombinant chicken mAb-generating methods are discussed. Focus is provided on the current methods used to generate antibodies from chickens with added emphasis on the generation of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats. The advantages and limitations of established protocols for the generation of chicken mAbs are highlighted. The various applications of recombinant chicken mAbs and its derivative formats in immunodiagnostics and immunotherapy are further detailed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis; Recombinant Proteins/immunology
  10. Obeng EM, Brossette T, Ongkudon CM, Budiman C, Maas R, Jose J
    Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2018 Jun;102(11):4829-4841.
    PMID: 29675801 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-8987-4
    This article comparatively reports the workability of Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) and Pseudomonas putida KT2440 cell factories for the expression of three model autodisplayed cellulases (i.e., endoglucanase, BsCel5A; exoglucanase, CelK; β-glucosidase, BglA). The differentiation of the recombinant cells was restricted to their cell growth and enzyme expression/activity attributes. Comparatively, the recombinant E. coli showed higher cell growth rates but lower enzyme activities than the recombinant P. putida. However, the endo-, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase on the surfaces of both cell factories showed activity over a broad range of pH (4-10) and temperature (30-100 °C). The pH and temperature optima were pH 6, 60 °C (BsCel5A); pH 6, 60-70 °C (CelK); and pH 6, 50 °C (BglA). Overall, the P. putida cell factory with autodisplayed enzymes demonstrated higher bioactivity and remarkable biochemical characteristics and thus was chosen for the saccharification of filter paper. A volumetric blend of the three cellulases with P. putida as the host yielded a ratio of 1:1:1.5 of endoglucanase, exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase, respectively, as the optimum blend composition for filter paper degradation. At an optical density (578 nm) of 50, the blend generated a maximum sugar yield of about 0.7 mg/ml (~ 0.08 U/g) from Whatman filter paper (Ø 6 mm, ~ 2.5 mg) within 24 h.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis; Recombinant Proteins/genetics
  11. Low KO, Muhammad Mahadi N, Md Illias R
    Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2013 May;97(9):3811-26.
    PMID: 23529680 DOI: 10.1007/s00253-013-4831-z
    Escherichia coli-the powerhouse for recombinant protein production-is rapidly gaining status as a reliable and efficient host for secretory expression. An improved understanding of protein translocation processes and its mechanisms has inspired and accelerated the development of new tools and applications in this field and, in particular, a more efficient secretion signal. Several important characteristics and requirements are summarised for the design of a more efficient signal peptide for the production of recombinant proteins in E. coli. General approaches and strategies to optimise the signal peptide, including the selection and modification of the signal peptide components, are included. Several challenges in the secretory production of recombinant proteins are discussed, and research approaches designed to meet these challenges are proposed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism*; Recombinant Proteins/secretion*
  12. Habibi N, Norouzi A, Mohd Hashim SZ, Shamsir MS, Samian R
    Comput Biol Med, 2015 Nov 1;66:330-6.
    PMID: 26476414 DOI: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2015.09.015
    Recombinant protein overexpression, an important biotechnological process, is ruled by complex biological rules which are mostly unknown, is in need of an intelligent algorithm so as to avoid resource-intensive lab-based trial and error experiments in order to determine the expression level of the recombinant protein. The purpose of this study is to propose a predictive model to estimate the level of recombinant protein overexpression for the first time in the literature using a machine learning approach based on the sequence, expression vector, and expression host. The expression host was confined to Escherichia coli which is the most popular bacterial host to overexpress recombinant proteins. To provide a handle to the problem, the overexpression level was categorized as low, medium and high. A set of features which were likely to affect the overexpression level was generated based on the known facts (e.g. gene length) and knowledge gathered from related literature. Then, a representative sub-set of features generated in the previous objective was determined using feature selection techniques. Finally a predictive model was developed using random forest classifier which was able to adequately classify the multi-class imbalanced small dataset constructed. The result showed that the predictive model provided a promising accuracy of 80% on average, in estimating the overexpression level of a recombinant protein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins
  13. Abu ML, Nooh HM, Oslan SN, Salleh AB
    BMC Biotechnol., 2017 Nov 10;17(1):78.
    PMID: 29126403 DOI: 10.1186/s12896-017-0397-7
    BACKGROUND: Pichia guilliermondii was found capable of expressing the recombinant thermostable lipase without methanol under the control of methanol dependent alcohol oxidase 1 promoter (AOXp 1). In this study, statistical approaches were employed for the screening and optimisation of physical conditions for T1 lipase production in P. guilliermondii.

    RESULT: The screening of six physical conditions by Plackett-Burman Design has identified pH, inoculum size and incubation time as exerting significant effects on lipase production. These three conditions were further optimised using, Box-Behnken Design of Response Surface Methodology, which predicted an optimum medium comprising pH 6, 24 h incubation time and 2% inoculum size. T1 lipase activity of 2.0 U/mL was produced with a biomass of OD600 23.0.

    CONCLUSION: The process of using RSM for optimisation yielded a 3-fold increase of T1 lipase over medium before optimisation. Therefore, this result has proven that T1 lipase can be produced at a higher yield in P. guilliermondii.

    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism*; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry
  14. Kwan SH, Ismail MN
    Biomed. Chromatogr., 2019 Dec;33(12):e4686.
    PMID: 31452214 DOI: 10.1002/bmc.4686
    Researchers frequently use two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) prior to mass spectrometric analysis in a proteomics approach. The i2D-PAGE method, which 'inverts' the dimension of protein separation of the conventional 2D-PAGE, is presented in this publication. Protein lysate of Channa striata, a freshwater snakehead fish, was separated based on its molecular weight in the first dimension and its isoelectric point in the second dimension. The first-dimension separation was conducted on a gel-free separation device, and the protein mixture was fractionated into 12 fractions in chronological order of increasing molecular weight. The second-dimension separation featured isoelectric focusing, which further separated the proteins within the same fraction according to their respective isoelectric point. Advantages of i2D-PAGE include better visualisation of the isolated protein, easy identification on protein isoforms, shorter running time, customisability and reproducibility. Erythropoietin standard was applied to i2D-PAGE to show its effectiveness for separating protein isoforms. Various staining methods such as Coomassie blue staining and silver staining are also applicable to i2D-PAGE. Overall, the i2D-PAGE separation method effectively separates protein lysate and is suitable for application in proteomics research.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/analysis; Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry
  15. Kamarudin NH, Rahman RN, Ali MS, Leow TC, Basri M, Salleh AB
    Protein J., 2014 Jun;33(3):296-307.
    PMID: 24777627 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-014-9560-3
    The gene encoding a cold-adapted, organic solvent stable lipase from a local soil-isolate, mesophilic Staphylococcus epidermidis AT2 was expressed in a prokaryotic system. A two-step purification of AT2 lipase was achieved using butyl sepharose and DEAE sepharose column chromatography. The final recovery and purification fold were 47.09 % and 3.45, respectively. The molecular mass of the purified lipase was estimated to be 43 kDa. AT2 lipase was found to be optimally active at pH 8 and stable at pH 6-9. Interestingly, this enzyme demonstrated remarkable stability at cold temperature (<30 °C) and exhibited optimal activity at a temperature of 25 °C. A significant enhancement of the lipolytic activity was observed in the presence of Ca(2+), Tween 60 and Tween 80. Phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, a well known serine inhibitor did not cause complete inhibition of the enzymatic activity. AT2 lipase exhibited excellent preferences towards long chain triglycerides and natural oils. The lipolytic activity was stimulated by dimethylsulfoxide and diethyl ether, while more than 50 % of its activity was retained in methanol, ethanol, acetone, toluene, and n-hexane. Taken together, AT2 lipase revealed highly attractive biochemical properties especially because of its stability at low temperature and in organic solvents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry*
  16. Hashim NH, Bharudin I, Nguong DL, Higa S, Bakar FD, Nathan S, et al.
    Extremophiles, 2013 Jan;17(1):63-73.
    PMID: 23132550 DOI: 10.1007/s00792-012-0494-4
    The psychrophilic yeast Glaciozyma antarctica demonstrated high antifreeze activity in its culture filtrate. The culture filtrate exhibited both thermal hysteresis (TH) and ice recrystallization inhibition (RI) properties. The TH of 0.1 °C was comparable to that previously reported for bacteria and fungi. A genome sequence survey of the G. antarctica genome identified a novel antifreeze protein gene. The cDNA encoded a 177 amino acid protein with 30 % similarity to a fungal antifreeze protein from Typhula ishikariensis. The expression levels of AFP1 were quantified via real time-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and the highest expression levels were detected within 6 h of growth at -12 °C. The cDNA of the antifreeze protein was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression system. Expression of recombinant Afp1 in E. coli resulted in the formation of inclusion bodies that were subsequently denatured by treatment with urea and allowed to refold in vitro. Activity assays of the recombinant Afp1 confirmed the antifreeze protein properties with a high TH value of 0.08 °C.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis; Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry
  17. Arifin N, Basuni M, Lan CA, Yahya AR, Noordin R
    Protein J., 2010 Oct;29(7):509-15.
    PMID: 20845068 DOI: 10.1007/s10930-010-9281-1
    This paper describes a refinement in the purification step that facilitated the downstream recovery of high purity BmR1 recombinant protein, which is a protein used as a test reagent in the commercialized rapid tests for detection of lymphac filariasis i.e. Brugia Rapid™ and panLF rapid™. Purification was performed by immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), followed by ion exchange chromatography (IEX). Results showed that a total of 10.27 mg of BmR1 was obtained when IMAC was performed using 20 mM of imidazole and 5 column volume of wash buffer containing 500 mM of NaCl. Purity of the target protein was enhanced when buffer at pH 5.8 was used during the IEX. Two proteins that recurrently appeared below the BmR1 recombinant protein were identified by mass-spectrometry analysis as the same protein, thus they were probably degradation products of BmR1. These strategies improve purity of the target protein to be used in applications such as production of aptamers and monoclonal antibodies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification; Recombinant Proteins/metabolism; Recombinant Proteins/chemistry
  18. Fu Z, Hamid SB, Razak CN, Basri M, Salleh AB, Rahman RN
    Protein Expr. Purif., 2003 Mar;28(1):63-8.
    PMID: 12651108
    Bacteriocin release proteins (BRPs) can be used for the release of heterologous proteins from the Escherichia coli cytoplasm into the culture medium. The gene for a highly thermostable alkaline protease was cloned from Bacillus stearothermophilus F1 by the polymerase chain reaction. The recombinant F1 protease was efficiently excreted into the culture medium using E. coli XL1-Blue harboring two vectors: pTrcHis bearing the protease gene and pJL3 containing the BRPs. Both vectors contain the E. coli lac promoter-operator system. In the presence of 40 microM IPTG, the recombinant F1 protease and the BRP were expressed and mature F1 protease was released into the culture medium. This opens the way for the large-scale production of this protease in E. coli. The recombinant enzyme was purified through a one-step heat treatment at 70 degrees C for 3h and this method purified the protease to near homogeneity. The purified enzyme showed a pH optimum of 9.0, temperature optimum of 80 degrees C, and was stable at 70 degrees C for 24h in the pH range from 8.0 to 10.0. The enzyme exhibited a high degree of thermostability with a half-life of 4 h at 85 degrees C, 25 min at 90 degrees C, and was inhibited by the serine protease inhibitor phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF).
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis; Recombinant Proteins/genetics; Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification; Recombinant Proteins/secretion
  19. Dharshanan S, Hung CS
    Methods Mol. Biol., 2014;1131:105-12.
    PMID: 24515462 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-62703-992-5_7
    Generation of high-producing clones is a perquisite for achieving recombinant protein yields suitable for biopharmaceutical production. However, in many industrially important cell lines used to produce recombinant proteins such as Chinese hamster ovary, mouse myeloma line (NS0), and hybridomas, only a minority of clones show significantly above-average productivity. Thus, in order to have a reasonable probability of finding rare high-producing clones, a large number of clones need to be screened. Limiting dilution cloning is the most commonly used method, owing to its relative simplicity and low cost. However the use of liquid media in this method makes the selection of monoclonal hybridoma and transfectoma colonies to be labor intensive and time consuming, thus significantly limiting the number of clones that can be feasibly screened. Hence, we describe the use of semisolid media to immobilize clones and a high-throughput, automated colony picker (ClonePix FL) to efficiently isolate monoclonal high-producing clones secreting monoclonal antibodies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/metabolism
  20. Fuzi SF, Razali F, Jahim JM, Rahman RA, Illias RM
    Bioprocess Biosyst Eng, 2014 Sep;37(9):1887-98.
    PMID: 24633311 DOI: 10.1007/s00449-014-1163-z
    A xylanase gene (xyn2) from Trichoderma reesei ATCC 58350 was previously cloned and expressed in Kluyveromyces lactis GG799. The production of the recombinant xylanase was conducted in a developed medium with an optimised batch and with fed-batches that were processed with glucose. The glucose served as a carbon source for cell growth and as an inducer for xylanase production. In a 1-L batch system, a glucose concentration of 20 g L(-1) and 80 % dissolved oxygen were found to provide the best conditions for the tested ranges. A xylanase activity of 75.53 U mL(-1) was obtained. However, in the batch mode, glucose depletions reduced the synthesis of recombinant xylanase by K. lactis GG799. To maximise the production of xylanase, further optimisation was performed using exponential feeding. We investigated the effects of various nitrogen sources combined with the carbon to nitrogen (C/N) molar ratio on the production of xylanase. Of the various nitrogen sources, yeast extract was found to be the most useful for recombinant xylanase production. The highest xylanase production (110.13 U mL(-1)) was measured at a C/N ratio of 50.08. These conditions led to a 45.8 % increase in xylanase activity compared with the batch cultures. Interestingly, the further addition of 500 g L(-1) glucose led to a 6.2-fold increase (465.07 U mL(-1)) in recombinant xylanase activity. These findings, together with those of the exponential feeding strategy, indicate that the composition of the C/N molar ratio has a substantial impact on recombinant protein production in K. lactis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis
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